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<title>Chapter&nbsp;12.&nbsp;Data mining of bugs with FindBugs&#8482;</title><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL Stylesheets V1.76.1"><link rel="home" href="index.html" title="FindBugs&#8482; Manual"><link rel="up" href="index.html" title="FindBugs&#8482; Manual"><link rel="prev" href="rejarForAnalysis.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;11.&nbsp;Using rejarForAnalysis"><link rel="next" href="license.html" title="Chapter&nbsp;13.&nbsp;License"></head><body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="navheader"><table width="100%" summary="Navigation header"><tr><th colspan="3" align="center">Chapter&nbsp;12.&nbsp;Data mining of bugs with <span class="application">FindBugs</span>&#8482;</th></tr><tr><td width="20%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="rejarForAnalysis.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><th width="60%" align="center">&nbsp;</th><td width="20%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="license.html">Next</a></td></tr></table><hr></div><div class="chapter" title="Chapter&nbsp;12.&nbsp;Data mining of bugs with FindBugs&#8482;"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a name="datamining"></a>Chapter&nbsp;12.&nbsp;Data mining of bugs with <span class="application">FindBugs</span>&#8482;</h2></div></div></div><div class="toc"><p><b>Table of Contents</b></p><dl><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="datamining.html#commands">1. Commands</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="datamining.html#examples">2. Examples</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="datamining.html#antexample">3. Ant example</a></span></dt></dl></div><p>
FindBugs incorporates an ability to perform sophisticated queries on bug
databases and track warnings across multiple versions of code being
studied, allowing you to do things such as seeing when a bug was first introduced, examining
just the warnings that have been introduced since the last release, or graphing the number
of infinite recursive loops in your code over time.</p><p>
These techniques all depend upon the XML format used by FindBugs for storing warnings.
These XML files usually contain just the warnings from one particular analysis run, but
they can also store the results from analyzing a sequence of software builds or versions.
</p><p>
Any FindBugs XML bug database contains a version name and timestamp.
FindBugs tries to compute a timestamp from the timestamps of the files that
are analyzed (e.g., the timestamp is intended to be the time the class files
were generated, not analyzed). Each bug database also contains a version name.
Both the version name and timestamp can be set manually using the
<span class="command"><strong>setBugDatabaseInfo</strong></span> (<a class="xref" href="datamining.html#setBugDatabaseInfo" title="1.7.&nbsp;setBugDatabaseInfo">Section&nbsp;1.7, &#8220;setBugDatabaseInfo&#8221;</a>) command.
</p><p>A multiversion bug database assigns a sequence number to each version of
the analyzed code. These sequence numbers are simply successive integers,
starting at 0 (e.g., a bug database for 4 versions of the code will contain
versions 0..3). The bug database will also record the name and timestamp for
each version. The <span class="command"><strong>filterBugs</strong></span> command allows you to refer
to a version by sequence number, name or timestamp.</p><p>
You can take a sequence (or pair) of single version bug databases and create
from them a multiversion bug database, or combine a multiversion bug database
with a sequence of later single-version bug databases.</p><p>
Some of these commands can be invoked as ant tasks. See below for specifics
on how to invoke them and what attributes and arguments they take. All of
the examples assume that the <code class="literal">findbugs.lib</code>
<code class="literal">refid</code> is set correctly. Here is one way to set it:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
&lt;!-- findbugs task definition --&gt;
&lt;property name="findbugs.home" value="/your/path/to/findbugs" /&gt;
&lt;path id="findbugs.lib"&gt;
&lt;fileset dir="${findbugs.home}/lib"&gt;
&lt;include name="findbugs-ant.jar"/&gt;
&lt;/fileset&gt;
&lt;/path&gt;
</pre><div class="sect1" title="1.&nbsp;Commands"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="commands"></a>1.&nbsp;Commands</h2></div></div></div><p>
All tools for FindBugs data mining are can be invoked from the command line,
and some of the more useful tools can also be invoked from an
ant build file.</p><p>
Briefly, the command-line tools are:</p><div class="variablelist"><dl><dt><span class="term"><span class="command"><strong><a class="link" href="datamining.html#unionBugs" title="1.1.&nbsp;unionBugs">unionBugs</a></strong></span></span></dt><dd><p>
combine the results from separate analysis of disjoint
classes
</p></dd><dt><span class="term"><span class="command"><strong><a class="link" href="datamining.html#computeBugHistory" title="1.2.&nbsp;computeBugHistory">computeBugHistory</a></strong></span></span></dt><dd><p>Merge bug warnings from multiple versions of
analyzed code into
a single multiversion bug database. This can either be used
to add more versions to an existing multiversion database,
or to create a multiversion database from a sequence of single version
bug warning databases.</p></dd><dt><span class="term"><span class="command"><strong><a class="link" href="datamining.html#setBugDatabaseInfo" title="1.7.&nbsp;setBugDatabaseInfo">setBugDatabaseInfo</a></strong></span></span></dt><dd><p>Set information such as the revision name or
timestamp in an XML bug database</p></dd><dt><span class="term"><span class="command"><strong><a class="link" href="datamining.html#listBugDatabaseInfo" title="1.8.&nbsp;listBugDatabaseInfo">listBugDatabaseInfo</a></strong></span></span></dt><dd><p>List information such as the revision name and
timestamp for a list of XML bug databases</p></dd><dt><span class="term"><span class="command"><strong><a class="link" href="datamining.html#filterBugs" title="1.3.&nbsp;filterBugs">filterBugs</a></strong></span></span></dt><dd><p>Select a subset of a bug database</p></dd><dt><span class="term"><span class="command"><strong><a class="link" href="datamining.html#mineBugHistory" title="1.4.&nbsp;mineBugHistory">mineBugHistory</a></strong></span></span></dt><dd><p>Generate a tabular listing of the number of warnings in each
version of a multiversion bug database</p></dd><dt><span class="term"><span class="command"><strong><a class="link" href="datamining.html#defectDensity" title="1.5.&nbsp;defectDensity">defectDensity</a></strong></span></span></dt><dd><p>List information about defect density
(warnings per 1000 NCSS)
for the entire project and each class and package</p></dd><dt><span class="term"><span class="command"><strong><a class="link" href="datamining.html#convertXmlToText" title="1.6.&nbsp;convertXmlToText">convertXmlToText</a></strong></span></span></dt><dd><p>Convert bug warnings in XML format to
a textual one-line-per-bug format, or to HTML</p></dd></dl></div><div class="sect2" title="1.1.&nbsp;unionBugs"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="unionBugs"></a>1.1.&nbsp;unionBugs</h3></div></div></div><p>
If you have, for example, separately analyzing each jar file used in an application,
you can use this command to combine the separately generated xml bug warning files into
a single file containing all of the warnings.</p><p>Do <span class="emphasis"><em>not</em></span> use this command to combine results from analyzing different versions of the same
file; use <span class="command"><strong>computeBugHistory</strong></span> instead.</p><p>Specify the xml files on the command line. The result is sent to standard output.</p></div><div class="sect2" title="1.2.&nbsp;computeBugHistory"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="computeBugHistory"></a>1.2.&nbsp;computeBugHistory</h3></div></div></div><p>Use this command to generate a bug database containing information from different builds or versions
of software you are analyzing.
History is taken from the first file provided as input; any following
files should be single version bug databases (if they contain history, the history in those
files will be ignored).</p><p>By default, output is written to the standard output.
</p><p>This functionality may also can be accessed from ant.
First create a taskdef for <span class="command"><strong>computeBugHistory</strong></span> in your
build file:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
&lt;taskdef name="computeBugHistory" classname="edu.umd.cs.findbugs.anttask.ComputeBugHistoryTask"&gt;
&lt;classpath refid="findbugs.lib" /&gt;
&lt;/taskdef&gt;
</pre><p>Attributes for this ant task are listed in the following table.
To specify input files, nest them inside with a
<code class="literal">&lt;datafile&gt;</code> element. For example:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
&lt;computeBugHistory home="${findbugs.home}" ...&gt;
&lt;datafile name="analyze1.xml"/&gt;
&lt;datafile name="analyze2.xml"/&gt;
&lt;/computeBugHistory&gt;
</pre><div class="table"><a name="computeBugHistoryTable"></a><p class="title"><b>Table&nbsp;12.1.&nbsp;Options for computeBugHistory command</b></p><div class="table-contents"><table summary="Options for computeBugHistory command" border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th align="left">Command-line option</th><th align="left">Ant attribute</th><th align="left">Meaning</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td align="left">-output &lt;file&gt;</td><td align="left">output="&lt;file&gt;"</td><td align="left">save output in the named file (may also be an input file)</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-overrideRevisionNames[:truth]</td><td align="left">overrideRevisionNames="[true|false]"</td><td align="left">override revision names for each version with names computed from the filenames</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-noPackageMoves[:truth]</td><td align="left">noPackageMoves="[true|false]"</td><td align="left">if a class has moved to another package, treat warnings in that class as seperate</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-preciseMatch[:truth]</td><td align="left">preciseMatch="[true|false]"</td><td align="left">require bug patterns to match precisely</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-precisePriorityMatch[:truth]</td><td align="left">precisePriorityMatch="[true|false]"</td><td align="left">consider two warnings as the same only if priorities match exactly</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-quiet[:truth]</td><td align="left">quiet="[true|false]"</td><td align="left">don't generate any output to standard out unless there is an error</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-withMessages[:truth]</td><td align="left">withMessages="[true|false]"</td><td align="left">include human-readable messages describing the warnings in XML output</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><br class="table-break"></div><div class="sect2" title="1.3.&nbsp;filterBugs"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="filterBugs"></a>1.3.&nbsp;filterBugs</h3></div></div></div><p>This command is used to select a subset of warnings from a FindBugs XML warning file
and write the selected subset to a new FindBugs warning file.</p><p>
This command takes a sequence of options, and either zero, one or two
filenames of findbugs xml bug files on the command line.</p><p>If no file names are provided, the command reads from standard input
and writes to standard output. If one file name is provided,
it reads from the file and writes to standard output.
If two file names are provided, it reads from the first and writes the output
to the second file name.</p><p>This functionality may also can be accessed from ant.
First create a taskdef for <span class="command"><strong>filterBugs</strong></span> in your
build file:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
&lt;taskdef name="filterBugs" classname="edu.umd.cs.findbugs.anttask.FilterBugsTask"&gt;
&lt;classpath refid="findbugs.lib" /&gt;
&lt;/taskdef&gt;
</pre><p>Attributes for this ant task are listed in the following table.
To specify an input file either use the input attribute or nest it inside
the ant call with a <code class="literal">&lt;datafile&gt;</code> element. For example:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
&lt;filterBugs home="${findbugs.home}" ...&gt;
&lt;datafile name="analyze.xml"/&gt;
&lt;/filterBugs&gt;
</pre><div class="table"><a name="filterOptionsTable"></a><p class="title"><b>Table&nbsp;12.2.&nbsp;Options for filterBugs command</b></p><div class="table-contents"><table summary="Options for filterBugs command" border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th align="left">Command-line option</th><th align="left">Ant attribute</th><th align="left">Meaning</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td align="left">&nbsp;</td><td align="left">input="&lt;file&gt;"</td><td align="left">use file as input</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&nbsp;</td><td align="left">output="&lt;file&gt;"</td><td align="left">output results to file</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-not</td><td align="left">not="[true|false]"</td><td align="left">reverse (all) switches for the filter</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-withSource[:truth]</td><td align="left">withSource="[true|false]"</td><td align="left">only warnings for switch source is available</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-exclude &lt;filter file&gt;</td><td align="left">exclude="&lt;filter file&gt;"</td><td align="left">exclude bugs matching given filter</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-include &lt;filter file&gt;</td><td align="left">include="&lt;filter file&gt;"</td><td align="left">include only bugs matching given filter</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-annotation &lt;text&gt;</td><td align="left">annotation="&lt;text&gt;"</td><td align="left">allow only warnings containing this text in a manual annotation</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-after &lt;when&gt;</td><td align="left">after="&lt;when&gt;"</td><td align="left">allow only warnings that first occurred after this version</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-before &lt;when&gt;</td><td align="left">before="&lt;when&gt;"</td><td align="left">allow only warnings that first occurred before this version</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-first &lt;when&gt;</td><td align="left">first="&lt;when&gt;"</td><td align="left">allow only warnings that first occurred in this version</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-last &lt;when&gt;</td><td align="left">last="&lt;when&gt;"</td><td align="left">allow only warnings that last occurred in this version</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-fixed &lt;when&gt;</td><td align="left">fixed="&lt;when&gt;"</td><td align="left">allow only warnings that last occurred in the previous version (clobbers <code class="option">-last</code>)</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-present &lt;when&gt;</td><td align="left">present="&lt;when&gt;"</td><td align="left">allow only warnings present in this version</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-absent &lt;when&gt;</td><td align="left">absent="&lt;when&gt;"</td><td align="left">allow only warnings absent in this version</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-active[:truth]</td><td align="left">active="[true|false]"</td><td align="left">allow only warnings alive in the last sequence number</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-introducedByChange[:truth]</td><td align="left">introducedByChange="[true|false]"</td><td align="left">allow only warnings introduced by a change of an existing class</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-removedByChange[:truth]</td><td align="left">removedByChange="[true|false]"</td><td align="left">allow only warnings removed by a change of a persisting class</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-newCode[:truth]</td><td align="left">newCode="[true|false]"</td><td align="left">allow only warnings introduced by the addition of a new class</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-removedCode[:truth]</td><td align="left">removedCode="[true|false]"</td><td align="left">allow only warnings removed by removal of a class</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-priority &lt;level&gt;</td><td align="left">priority="&lt;level&gt;"</td><td align="left">allow only warnings with this priority or higher</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-maxRank &lt;rank&gt;</td><td align="left">rank="[1..20]"</td><td align="left">allow only warnings with this rank or lower</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-class &lt;pattern&gt;</td><td align="left">class="&lt;class&gt;"</td><td align="left">allow only bugs whose primary class name matches this pattern</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-bugPattern &lt;pattern&gt;</td><td align="left">bugPattern="&lt;pattern&gt;"</td><td align="left">allow only bugs whose type matches this pattern</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-category &lt;category&gt;</td><td align="left">category="&lt;category&gt;"</td><td align="left">allow only warnings with a category that starts with this string</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-designation &lt;designation&gt;</td><td align="left">designation="&lt;designation&gt;"</td><td align="left">allow only warnings with this designation (e.g., -designation SHOULD_FIX)</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-withMessages[:truth] </td><td align="left">withMessages="[true|false]"</td><td align="left">the generated XML should contain textual messages</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><br class="table-break"></div><div class="sect2" title="1.4.&nbsp;mineBugHistory"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="mineBugHistory"></a>1.4.&nbsp;mineBugHistory</h3></div></div></div><p>This command generates a table containing counts of the numbers of warnings
in each version of a multiversion bug database.</p><p>This functionality may also can be accessed from ant.
First create a taskdef for <span class="command"><strong>mineBugHistory</strong></span> in your
build file:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
&lt;taskdef name="mineBugHistory" classname="edu.umd.cs.findbugs.anttask.MineBugHistoryTask"&gt;
&lt;classpath refid="findbugs.lib" /&gt;
&lt;/taskdef&gt;
</pre><p>Attributes for this ant task are listed in the following table.
To specify an input file either use the <code class="literal">input</code>
attribute or nest it inside the ant call with a
<code class="literal">&lt;datafile&gt;</code> element. For example:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
&lt;mineBugHistory home="${findbugs.home}" ...&gt;
&lt;datafile name="analyze.xml"/&gt;
&lt;/mineBugHistory&gt;
</pre><div class="table"><a name="mineBugHistoryOptionsTable"></a><p class="title"><b>Table&nbsp;12.3.&nbsp;Options for mineBugHistory command</b></p><div class="table-contents"><table summary="Options for mineBugHistory command" border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th align="left">Command-line option</th><th align="left">Ant attribute</th><th align="left">Meaning</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td align="left">&nbsp;</td><td align="left">input="&lt;file&gt;"</td><td align="left">use file as input</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&nbsp;</td><td align="left">output="&lt;file&gt;"</td><td align="left">write output to file</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-formatDates</td><td align="left">formatDates="[true|false]"</td><td align="left">render dates in textual form</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-noTabs</td><td align="left">noTabs="[true|false]"</td><td align="left">delimit columns with groups of spaces instead of tabs (see below)</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-summary</td><td align="left">summary="[true|false]"</td><td align="left">output terse summary of changes over the last ten entries</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><br class="table-break"><p>
The <code class="option">-noTabs</code> output can be easier to read from a shell
with a fixed-width font.
Because numeric columns are right-justified, spaces may precede the
first column value. This option also causes <code class="option">-formatDates</code>
to render dates in terser format without embedded whitespace.
</p><p>The table is a tab-separated (barring <code class="option">-noTabs</code>)
table with the following columns:</p><div class="table"><a name="mineBugHistoryColumns"></a><p class="title"><b>Table&nbsp;12.4.&nbsp;Columns in mineBugHistory output</b></p><div class="table-contents"><table summary="Columns in mineBugHistory output" border="1"><colgroup><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th align="left">Title</th><th align="left">Meaning</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td align="left">seq</td><td align="left">Sequence number (successive integers, starting at 0)</td></tr><tr><td align="left">version</td><td align="left">Version name</td></tr><tr><td align="left">time</td><td align="left">Release timestamp</td></tr><tr><td align="left">classes</td><td align="left">Number of classes analyzed</td></tr><tr><td align="left">NCSS</td><td align="left">Non Commenting Source Statements</td></tr><tr><td align="left">added</td><td align="left">Count of new warnings for a class that existed in the previous version</td></tr><tr><td align="left">newCode</td><td align="left">Count of new warnings for a class that did not exist in the previous version</td></tr><tr><td align="left">fixed</td><td align="left">Count of warnings removed from a class that remains in the current version</td></tr><tr><td align="left">removed</td><td align="left">Count of warnings in the previous version for a class that is not present in the current version</td></tr><tr><td align="left">retained</td><td align="left">Count of warnings that were in both the previous and current version</td></tr><tr><td align="left">dead</td><td align="left">Warnings that were present in earlier versions but in neither the current version or the immediately preceeding version</td></tr><tr><td align="left">active</td><td align="left">Total warnings present in the current version</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><br class="table-break"></div><div class="sect2" title="1.5.&nbsp;defectDensity"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="defectDensity"></a>1.5.&nbsp;defectDensity</h3></div></div></div><p>
This command lists information about defect density (warnings per 1000 NCSS) for the entire project and each class and package.
It can either be invoked with no files specified on the command line (in which case it reads from standard input)
or with one file specified on the command line.</p><p>It generates a table with the following columns, and with one
row for the entire project, and one row for each package or class that contains at least
4 warnings.</p><div class="table"><a name="defectDensityColumns"></a><p class="title"><b>Table&nbsp;12.5.&nbsp;Columns in defectDensity output</b></p><div class="table-contents"><table summary="Columns in defectDensity output" border="1"><colgroup><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th align="left">Title</th><th align="left">Meaning</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td align="left">kind</td><td align="left">project, package or class</td></tr><tr><td align="left">name</td><td align="left">The name of the project, package or class</td></tr><tr><td align="left">density</td><td align="left">Number of warnings generated per 1000 lines of NCSS.</td></tr><tr><td align="left">bugs</td><td align="left">Number of warnings</td></tr><tr><td align="left">NCSS</td><td align="left">Calculated number of NCSS</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><br class="table-break"></div><div class="sect2" title="1.6.&nbsp;convertXmlToText"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="convertXmlToText"></a>1.6.&nbsp;convertXmlToText</h3></div></div></div><p>
This command converts a warning collection in XML format to a text
format with one line per warning, or to HTML.
</p><p>This functionality may also can be accessed from ant.
First create a taskdef for <span class="command"><strong>convertXmlToText</strong></span> in your
build file:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
&lt;taskdef name="convertXmlToText" classname="edu.umd.cs.findbugs.anttask.ConvertXmlToTextTask"&gt;
&lt;classpath refid="findbugs.lib" /&gt;
&lt;/taskdef&gt;
</pre><p>Attributes for this ant task are listed in the following table.</p><div class="table"><a name="convertXmlToTextTable"></a><p class="title"><b>Table&nbsp;12.6.&nbsp;Options for convertXmlToText command</b></p><div class="table-contents"><table summary="Options for convertXmlToText command" border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th align="left">Command-line option</th><th align="left">Ant attribute</th><th align="left">Meaning</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td align="left">&nbsp;</td><td align="left">input="&lt;filename&gt;"</td><td align="left">use file as input</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&nbsp;</td><td align="left">output="&lt;filename&gt;"</td><td align="left">output results to file</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-longBugCodes</td><td align="left">longBugCodes="[true|false]"</td><td align="left">use the full bug pattern code instead of two-letter abbreviation</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&nbsp;</td><td align="left">format="text"</td><td align="left">generate plain text output with one bug per line (command-line default)</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-html[:stylesheet]</td><td align="left">format="html:&lt;stylesheet&gt;"</td><td align="left">generate output with specified stylesheet (see below), or default.xsl if unspecified</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><br class="table-break"><p>
You may specify plain.xsl, default.xsl, fancy.xsl, fancy-hist.xsl,
or your own XSL stylesheet for the -html/format option.
Despite the name of this option, you may specify
a stylesheet that emits something other than html.
When applying a stylesheet other than those included
with FindBugs (listed above), the -html/format option should be used
with a path or URL to the stylesheet.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="1.7.&nbsp;setBugDatabaseInfo"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="setBugDatabaseInfo"></a>1.7.&nbsp;setBugDatabaseInfo</h3></div></div></div><p>
This command sets meta-information in a specified warning collection.
It takes the following options:
</p><p>This functionality may also can be accessed from ant.
First create a taskdef for <span class="command"><strong>setBugDatabaseInfo</strong></span> in your
build file:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
&lt;taskdef name="setBugDatabaseInfo" classname="edu.umd.cs.findbugs.anttask.SetBugDatabaseInfoTask"&gt;
&lt;classpath refid="findbugs.lib" /&gt;
&lt;/taskdef&gt;
</pre><p>Attributes for this ant task are listed in the following table.
To specify an input file either use the <code class="literal">input</code>
attribute or nest it inside the ant call with a
<code class="literal">&lt;datafile&gt;</code> element. For example:
</p><pre class="programlisting">
&lt;setBugDatabaseInfo home="${findbugs.home}" ...&gt;
&lt;datafile name="analyze.xml"/&gt;
&lt;/setBugDatabaseInfo&gt;
</pre><div class="table"><a name="setBugDatabaseInfoOptions"></a><p class="title"><b>Table&nbsp;12.7.&nbsp;setBugDatabaseInfo Options</b></p><div class="table-contents"><table summary="setBugDatabaseInfo Options" border="1"><colgroup><col><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th align="left">Command-line option</th><th align="left">Ant attribute</th><th align="left">Meaning</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td align="left">&nbsp;</td><td align="left">input="&lt;file&gt;"</td><td align="left">use file as input</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&nbsp;</td><td align="left">output="&lt;file&gt;"</td><td align="left">write output to file</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-name &lt;name&gt;</td><td align="left">name="&lt;name&gt;"</td><td align="left">set name for (last) revision</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-timestamp &lt;when&gt;</td><td align="left">timestamp="&lt;when&gt;"</td><td align="left">set timestamp for (last) revision</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-source &lt;directory&gt;</td><td align="left">source="&lt;directory&gt;"</td><td align="left">add specified directory to the source search path</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-findSource &lt;directory&gt;</td><td align="left">findSource="&lt;directory&gt;"</td><td align="left">find and add all relevant source directions contained within specified directory</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-suppress &lt;filter file&gt;</td><td align="left">suppress="&lt;filter file&gt;"</td><td align="left">suppress warnings matched by this file (replaces previous suppressions)</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-withMessages</td><td align="left">withMessages="[true|false]"</td><td align="left">add textual messages to XML</td></tr><tr><td align="left">-resetSource</td><td align="left">resetSource="[true|false]"</td><td align="left">remove all source search paths</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><br class="table-break"></div><div class="sect2" title="1.8.&nbsp;listBugDatabaseInfo"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="listBugDatabaseInfo"></a>1.8.&nbsp;listBugDatabaseInfo</h3></div></div></div><p>This command takes a list of zero or more xml bug database filenames on the command line.
If zero file names are provided, it reads from standard input and does not generate
a table header.</p><p>There is only one option: <code class="option">-formatDates</code> renders dates
in textual form.
</p><p>The output is a table one row per bug database and the following columns:</p><div class="table"><a name="listBugDatabaseInfoColumns"></a><p class="title"><b>Table&nbsp;12.8.&nbsp;listBugDatabaseInfo Columns</b></p><div class="table-contents"><table summary="listBugDatabaseInfo Columns" border="1"><colgroup><col><col></colgroup><thead><tr><th align="left">Column</th><th align="left">Meaning</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td align="left">version</td><td align="left">version name</td></tr><tr><td align="left">time</td><td align="left">Release timestamp</td></tr><tr><td align="left">classes</td><td align="left">Number of classes analyzed</td></tr><tr><td align="left">NCSS</td><td align="left">Non Commenting Source Statements analyzed</td></tr><tr><td align="left">total</td><td align="left">Total number of warnings of all kinds</td></tr><tr><td align="left">high</td><td align="left">Total number of high priority warnings of all kinds</td></tr><tr><td align="left">medium</td><td align="left">Total number of medium/normal priority warnings of all kinds</td></tr><tr><td align="left">low</td><td align="left">Total number of low priority warnings of all kinds</td></tr><tr><td align="left">filename</td><td align="left">filename of database</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><br class="table-break"></div></div><div class="sect1" title="2.&nbsp;Examples"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="examples"></a>2.&nbsp;Examples</h2></div></div></div><div class="sect2" title="2.1.&nbsp;Mining history using proveded shell scrips"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="unixscriptsexamples"></a>2.1.&nbsp;Mining history using proveded shell scrips</h3></div></div></div><p>In all of the following, the commands are given in a directory that contains
directories jdk1.6.0-b12, jdk1.6.0-b13, ..., jdk1.6.0-b60.</p><p>You can use the command:</p><pre class="screen">
computeBugHistory jdk1.6.0-b* | filterBugs -bugPattern IL_ | mineBugHistory -formatDates
</pre><p>to generate the following output:</p><pre class="screen">
seq version time classes NCSS added newCode fixed removed retained dead active
0 jdk1.6.0-b12 "Thu Nov 11 09:07:20 EST 2004" 13128 811569 0 4 0 0 0 0 4
1 jdk1.6.0-b13 "Thu Nov 18 06:02:06 EST 2004" 13128 811570 0 0 0 0 4 0 4
2 jdk1.6.0-b14 "Thu Dec 02 06:12:26 EST 2004" 13145 811786 0 0 2 0 2 0 2
3 jdk1.6.0-b15 "Thu Dec 09 06:07:04 EST 2004" 13174 811693 0 0 1 0 1 2 1
4 jdk1.6.0-b16 "Thu Dec 16 06:21:28 EST 2004" 13175 811715 0 0 0 0 1 3 1
5 jdk1.6.0-b17 "Thu Dec 23 06:27:22 EST 2004" 13176 811974 0 0 0 0 1 3 1
6 jdk1.6.0-b19 "Thu Jan 13 06:41:16 EST 2005" 13176 812011 0 0 0 0 1 3 1
7 jdk1.6.0-b21 "Thu Jan 27 05:57:52 EST 2005" 13177 812173 0 0 0 0 1 3 1
8 jdk1.6.0-b23 "Thu Feb 10 05:44:36 EST 2005" 13179 812188 0 0 0 0 1 3 1
9 jdk1.6.0-b26 "Thu Mar 03 06:04:02 EST 2005" 13199 811770 0 0 0 0 1 3 1
10 jdk1.6.0-b27 "Thu Mar 10 04:48:38 EST 2005" 13189 812440 0 0 0 0 1 3 1
11 jdk1.6.0-b28 "Thu Mar 17 02:54:22 EST 2005" 13185 812056 0 0 0 0 1 3 1
12 jdk1.6.0-b29 "Thu Mar 24 03:09:20 EST 2005" 13117 809468 0 0 0 0 1 3 1
13 jdk1.6.0-b30 "Thu Mar 31 02:53:32 EST 2005" 13118 809501 0 0 0 0 1 3 1
14 jdk1.6.0-b31 "Thu Apr 07 03:00:14 EDT 2005" 13117 809572 0 0 0 0 1 3 1
15 jdk1.6.0-b32 "Thu Apr 14 02:56:56 EDT 2005" 13169 811096 0 0 0 0 1 3 1
16 jdk1.6.0-b33 "Thu Apr 21 02:46:22 EDT 2005" 13187 811942 0 0 0 0 1 3 1
17 jdk1.6.0-b34 "Thu Apr 28 02:49:00 EDT 2005" 13195 813488 0 1 0 0 1 3 2
18 jdk1.6.0-b35 "Thu May 05 02:49:04 EDT 2005" 13457 829837 0 0 0 0 2 3 2
19 jdk1.6.0-b36 "Thu May 12 02:59:46 EDT 2005" 13462 831278 0 0 0 0 2 3 2
20 jdk1.6.0-b37 "Thu May 19 02:55:08 EDT 2005" 13464 831971 0 0 0 0 2 3 2
21 jdk1.6.0-b38 "Thu May 26 03:08:16 EDT 2005" 13564 836565 0 0 0 0 2 3 2
22 jdk1.6.0-b39 "Fri Jun 03 03:10:48 EDT 2005" 13856 849992 0 1 0 0 2 3 3
23 jdk1.6.0-b40 "Thu Jun 09 03:30:28 EDT 2005" 15972 959619 0 2 0 0 3 3 5
24 jdk1.6.0-b41 "Thu Jun 16 03:19:22 EDT 2005" 15972 959619 0 0 0 0 5 3 5
25 jdk1.6.0-b42 "Fri Jun 24 03:38:54 EDT 2005" 15966 958581 0 0 0 0 5 3 5
26 jdk1.6.0-b43 "Thu Jul 14 03:09:34 EDT 2005" 16041 960544 0 0 0 0 5 3 5
27 jdk1.6.0-b44 "Thu Jul 21 03:05:54 EDT 2005" 16041 960547 0 0 0 0 5 3 5
28 jdk1.6.0-b45 "Thu Jul 28 03:26:10 EDT 2005" 16037 960606 0 0 1 0 4 3 4
29 jdk1.6.0-b46 "Thu Aug 04 03:02:48 EDT 2005" 15936 951355 0 0 0 0 4 4 4
30 jdk1.6.0-b47 "Thu Aug 11 03:18:56 EDT 2005" 15964 952387 0 0 1 0 3 4 3
31 jdk1.6.0-b48 "Thu Aug 18 08:10:40 EDT 2005" 15970 953421 0 0 0 0 3 5 3
32 jdk1.6.0-b49 "Thu Aug 25 03:24:38 EDT 2005" 16048 958940 0 0 0 0 3 5 3
33 jdk1.6.0-b50 "Thu Sep 01 01:52:40 EDT 2005" 16287 974937 1 0 0 0 3 5 4
34 jdk1.6.0-b51 "Thu Sep 08 01:55:36 EDT 2005" 16362 979377 0 0 0 0 4 5 4
35 jdk1.6.0-b52 "Thu Sep 15 02:04:08 EDT 2005" 16477 979399 0 0 0 0 4 5 4
36 jdk1.6.0-b53 "Thu Sep 22 02:00:28 EDT 2005" 16019 957900 0 0 1 0 3 5 3
37 jdk1.6.0-b54 "Thu Sep 29 01:54:34 EDT 2005" 16019 957900 0 0 0 0 3 6 3
38 jdk1.6.0-b55 "Thu Oct 06 01:54:14 EDT 2005" 16051 959014 0 0 0 0 3 6 3
39 jdk1.6.0-b56 "Thu Oct 13 01:54:12 EDT 2005" 16211 970835 0 0 0 0 3 6 3
40 jdk1.6.0-b57 "Thu Oct 20 01:55:26 EDT 2005" 16279 971627 0 0 0 0 3 6 3
41 jdk1.6.0-b58 "Thu Oct 27 01:56:30 EDT 2005" 16283 971945 0 0 0 0 3 6 3
42 jdk1.6.0-b59 "Thu Nov 03 01:56:58 EST 2005" 16232 972193 0 0 0 0 3 6 3
43 jdk1.6.0-b60 "Thu Nov 10 01:54:18 EST 2005" 16235 972346 0 0 0 0 3 6 3
</pre><p>
We could also generate that information directly, without creating an intermediate db.xml file, using the command
</p><pre class="screen">
computeBugHistory jdk1.6.0-b*/jre/lib/rt.xml | filterBugs -bugPattern IL_ db.xml | mineBugHistory -formatDates
</pre><p>We can then use that information to display a graph showing the number of infinite recursive loops
found by FindBugs in each build of Sun's JDK1.6.0. The blue area indicates the number of infinite
recursive loops in that build, the red area above it indicates the number of infinite recursive loops that existed
in some previous version but not in the current version (thus, the combined height of the red and blue areas
is guaranteed to never decrease, and goes up whenever a new infinite recursive loop bug is introduced). The height
of the red area is computed as the sum of the fixed, removed and dead values for each version.
The reductions in builds 13 and 14 came after Sun was notified about the bugs found by FindBugs in the JDK.
</p><div class="mediaobject"><img src="infiniteRecursiveLoops.png"></div><p>
Given the db.xml file that contains the results for all the jdk1.6.0 builds, the following command will show the history of high and medium priority correctness warnings:
</p><pre class="screen">
filterBugs -priority M -category C db.xml | mineBugHistory -formatDates
</pre><p>
generating the table:
</p><pre class="screen">
seq version time classes NCSS added newCode fixed removed retained dead active
0 jdk1.6.0-b12 "Thu Nov 11 09:07:20 EST 2004" 13128 811569 0 1075 0 0 0 0 1075
1 jdk1.6.0-b13 "Thu Nov 18 06:02:06 EST 2004" 13128 811570 0 0 0 0 1075 0 1075
2 jdk1.6.0-b14 "Thu Dec 02 06:12:26 EST 2004" 13145 811786 3 0 6 0 1069 0 1072
3 jdk1.6.0-b15 "Thu Dec 09 06:07:04 EST 2004" 13174 811693 2 1 3 0 1069 6 1072
4 jdk1.6.0-b16 "Thu Dec 16 06:21:28 EST 2004" 13175 811715 0 0 1 0 1071 9 1071
5 jdk1.6.0-b17 "Thu Dec 23 06:27:22 EST 2004" 13176 811974 0 0 1 0 1070 10 1070
6 jdk1.6.0-b19 "Thu Jan 13 06:41:16 EST 2005" 13176 812011 0 0 0 0 1070 11 1070
7 jdk1.6.0-b21 "Thu Jan 27 05:57:52 EST 2005" 13177 812173 0 0 1 0 1069 11 1069
8 jdk1.6.0-b23 "Thu Feb 10 05:44:36 EST 2005" 13179 812188 0 0 0 0 1069 12 1069
9 jdk1.6.0-b26 "Thu Mar 03 06:04:02 EST 2005" 13199 811770 0 0 2 1 1066 12 1066
10 jdk1.6.0-b27 "Thu Mar 10 04:48:38 EST 2005" 13189 812440 1 0 1 1 1064 15 1065
11 jdk1.6.0-b28 "Thu Mar 17 02:54:22 EST 2005" 13185 812056 0 0 0 0 1065 17 1065
12 jdk1.6.0-b29 "Thu Mar 24 03:09:20 EST 2005" 13117 809468 3 0 8 26 1031 17 1034
13 jdk1.6.0-b30 "Thu Mar 31 02:53:32 EST 2005" 13118 809501 0 0 0 0 1034 51 1034
14 jdk1.6.0-b31 "Thu Apr 07 03:00:14 EDT 2005" 13117 809572 0 0 0 0 1034 51 1034
15 jdk1.6.0-b32 "Thu Apr 14 02:56:56 EDT 2005" 13169 811096 1 1 0 1 1033 51 1035
16 jdk1.6.0-b33 "Thu Apr 21 02:46:22 EDT 2005" 13187 811942 3 0 2 1 1032 52 1035
17 jdk1.6.0-b34 "Thu Apr 28 02:49:00 EDT 2005" 13195 813488 0 1 0 0 1035 55 1036
18 jdk1.6.0-b35 "Thu May 05 02:49:04 EDT 2005" 13457 829837 0 36 2 0 1034 55 1070
19 jdk1.6.0-b36 "Thu May 12 02:59:46 EDT 2005" 13462 831278 0 0 0 0 1070 57 1070
20 jdk1.6.0-b37 "Thu May 19 02:55:08 EDT 2005" 13464 831971 0 1 1 0 1069 57 1070
21 jdk1.6.0-b38 "Thu May 26 03:08:16 EDT 2005" 13564 836565 1 7 2 6 1062 58 1070
22 jdk1.6.0-b39 "Fri Jun 03 03:10:48 EDT 2005" 13856 849992 6 39 5 0 1065 66 1110
23 jdk1.6.0-b40 "Thu Jun 09 03:30:28 EDT 2005" 15972 959619 7 147 11 0 1099 71 1253
24 jdk1.6.0-b41 "Thu Jun 16 03:19:22 EDT 2005" 15972 959619 0 0 0 0 1253 82 1253
25 jdk1.6.0-b42 "Fri Jun 24 03:38:54 EDT 2005" 15966 958581 3 0 1 2 1250 82 1253
26 jdk1.6.0-b43 "Thu Jul 14 03:09:34 EDT 2005" 16041 960544 5 11 15 8 1230 85 1246
27 jdk1.6.0-b44 "Thu Jul 21 03:05:54 EDT 2005" 16041 960547 0 0 0 0 1246 108 1246
28 jdk1.6.0-b45 "Thu Jul 28 03:26:10 EDT 2005" 16037 960606 19 0 2 0 1244 108 1263
29 jdk1.6.0-b46 "Thu Aug 04 03:02:48 EDT 2005" 15936 951355 13 1 1 32 1230 110 1244
30 jdk1.6.0-b47 "Thu Aug 11 03:18:56 EDT 2005" 15964 952387 163 8 7 20 1217 143 1388
31 jdk1.6.0-b48 "Thu Aug 18 08:10:40 EDT 2005" 15970 953421 0 0 0 0 1388 170 1388
32 jdk1.6.0-b49 "Thu Aug 25 03:24:38 EDT 2005" 16048 958940 1 11 1 0 1387 170 1399
33 jdk1.6.0-b50 "Thu Sep 01 01:52:40 EDT 2005" 16287 974937 19 27 16 7 1376 171 1422
34 jdk1.6.0-b51 "Thu Sep 08 01:55:36 EDT 2005" 16362 979377 1 15 3 0 1419 194 1435
35 jdk1.6.0-b52 "Thu Sep 15 02:04:08 EDT 2005" 16477 979399 0 0 1 1 1433 197 1433
36 jdk1.6.0-b53 "Thu Sep 22 02:00:28 EDT 2005" 16019 957900 13 12 16 20 1397 199 1422
37 jdk1.6.0-b54 "Thu Sep 29 01:54:34 EDT 2005" 16019 957900 0 0 0 0 1422 235 1422
38 jdk1.6.0-b55 "Thu Oct 06 01:54:14 EDT 2005" 16051 959014 1 4 7 0 1415 235 1420
39 jdk1.6.0-b56 "Thu Oct 13 01:54:12 EDT 2005" 16211 970835 6 8 37 0 1383 242 1397
40 jdk1.6.0-b57 "Thu Oct 20 01:55:26 EDT 2005" 16279 971627 0 0 0 0 1397 279 1397
41 jdk1.6.0-b58 "Thu Oct 27 01:56:30 EDT 2005" 16283 971945 0 1 1 0 1396 279 1397
42 jdk1.6.0-b59 "Thu Nov 03 01:56:58 EST 2005" 16232 972193 6 0 5 0 1392 280 1398
43 jdk1.6.0-b60 "Thu Nov 10 01:54:18 EST 2005" 16235 972346 0 0 0 0 1398 285 1398
44 jdk1.6.0-b61 "Thu Nov 17 01:58:42 EST 2005" 16202 971134 2 0 4 0 1394 285 1396
</pre></div><div class="sect2" title="2.2.&nbsp;Incremental history maintenance"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="incrementalhistory"></a>2.2.&nbsp;Incremental history maintenance</h3></div></div></div><p>
If db.xml contains the results of running findbugs over builds b12 - b60, we can update db.xml to include the results of analyzing b61 with the commands:
</p><pre class="screen">
computeBugHistory -output db.xml db.xml jdk1.6.0-b61/jre/lib/rt.xml
</pre></div></div><div class="sect1" title="3.&nbsp;Ant example"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="antexample"></a>3.&nbsp;Ant example</h2></div></div></div><p>
Here is a complete ant script example for both running findbugs and running a chain of data-mining tools afterward:
</p><pre class="screen">
&lt;project name="analyze_asm_util" default="findbugs"&gt;
&lt;!-- findbugs task definition --&gt;
&lt;property name="findbugs.home" value="/Users/ben/Documents/workspace/findbugs/findbugs" /&gt;
&lt;property name="jvmargs" value="-server -Xss1m -Xmx800m -Duser.language=en -Duser.region=EN -Dfindbugs.home=${findbugs.home}" /&gt;
&lt;path id="findbugs.lib"&gt;
&lt;fileset dir="${findbugs.home}/lib"&gt;
&lt;include name="findbugs-ant.jar"/&gt;
&lt;/fileset&gt;
&lt;/path&gt;
&lt;taskdef name="findbugs" classname="edu.umd.cs.findbugs.anttask.FindBugsTask"&gt;
&lt;classpath refid="findbugs.lib" /&gt;
&lt;/taskdef&gt;
&lt;taskdef name="computeBugHistory" classname="edu.umd.cs.findbugs.anttask.ComputeBugHistoryTask"&gt;
&lt;classpath refid="findbugs.lib" /&gt;
&lt;/taskdef&gt;
&lt;taskdef name="setBugDatabaseInfo" classname="edu.umd.cs.findbugs.anttask.SetBugDatabaseInfoTask"&gt;
&lt;classpath refid="findbugs.lib" /&gt;
&lt;/taskdef&gt;
&lt;taskdef name="mineBugHistory" classname="edu.umd.cs.findbugs.anttask.MineBugHistoryTask"&gt;
&lt;classpath refid="findbugs.lib" /&gt;
&lt;/taskdef&gt;
&lt;!-- findbugs task definition --&gt;
&lt;target name="findbugs"&gt;
&lt;antcall target="analyze" /&gt;
&lt;antcall target="mine" /&gt;
&lt;/target&gt;
&lt;!-- analyze task --&gt;
&lt;target name="analyze"&gt;
&lt;!-- run findbugs against asm-util --&gt;
&lt;findbugs home="${findbugs.home}"
output="xml:withMessages"
timeout="90000000"
reportLevel="experimental"
workHard="true"
effort="max"
adjustExperimental="true"
jvmargs="${jvmargs}"
failOnError="true"
outputFile="out.xml"
projectName="Findbugs"
debug="false"&gt;
&lt;class location="asm-util-3.0.jar" /&gt;
&lt;/findbugs&gt;
&lt;/target&gt;
&lt;target name="mine"&gt;
&lt;!-- Set info to the latest analysis --&gt;
&lt;setBugDatabaseInfo home="${findbugs.home}"
withMessages="true"
name="asm-util-3.0.jar"
input="out.xml"
output="out-rel.xml"/&gt;
&lt;!-- Checking if history file already exists (out-hist.xml) --&gt;
&lt;condition property="mining.historyfile.available"&gt;
&lt;available file="out-hist.xml"/&gt;
&lt;/condition&gt;
&lt;condition property="mining.historyfile.notavailable"&gt;
&lt;not&gt;
&lt;available file="out-hist.xml"/&gt;
&lt;/not&gt;
&lt;/condition&gt;
&lt;!-- this target is executed if the history file do not exist (first run) --&gt;
&lt;antcall target="history-init"&gt;
&lt;param name="data.file" value="out-rel.xml" /&gt;
&lt;param name="hist.file" value="out-hist.xml" /&gt;
&lt;/antcall&gt;
&lt;!-- else this one is executed --&gt;
&lt;antcall target="history"&gt;
&lt;param name="data.file" value="out-rel.xml" /&gt;
&lt;param name="hist.file" value="out-hist.xml" /&gt;
&lt;param name="hist.summary.file" value="out-hist.txt" /&gt;
&lt;/antcall&gt;
&lt;/target&gt;
&lt;!-- Initializing history file --&gt;
&lt;target name="history-init" if="mining.historyfile.notavailable"&gt;
&lt;copy file="${data.file}" tofile="${hist.file}" /&gt;
&lt;/target&gt;
&lt;!-- Computing bug history --&gt;
&lt;target name="history" if="mining.historyfile.available"&gt;
&lt;!-- Merging ${data.file} into ${hist.file} --&gt;
&lt;computeBugHistory home="${findbugs.home}"
withMessages="true"
output="${hist.file}"&gt;
&lt;dataFile name="${hist.file}"/&gt;
&lt;dataFile name="${data.file}"/&gt;
&lt;/computeBugHistory&gt;
&lt;!-- Compute history into ${hist.summary.file} --&gt;
&lt;mineBugHistory home="${findbugs.home}"
formatDates="true"
noTabs="true"
input="${hist.file}"
output="${hist.summary.file}"/&gt;
&lt;/target&gt;
&lt;/project&gt;
</pre></div></div><div class="navfooter"><hr><table width="100%" summary="Navigation footer"><tr><td width="40%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="rejarForAnalysis.html">Prev</a>&nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center">&nbsp;</td><td width="40%" align="right">&nbsp;<a accesskey="n" href="license.html">Next</a></td></tr><tr><td width="40%" align="left" valign="top">Chapter&nbsp;11.&nbsp;Using rejarForAnalysis&nbsp;</td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="h" href="index.html">Home</a></td><td width="40%" align="right" valign="top">&nbsp;Chapter&nbsp;13.&nbsp;License</td></tr></table></div></body></html>