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// Copyright 2013 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
#ifndef URL_GURL_H_
#define URL_GURL_H_
#include <stddef.h>
#include <iosfwd>
#include <memory>
#include <string>
#include "base/strings/string16.h"
#include "base/strings/string_piece.h"
#include "url/third_party/mozilla/url_parse.h"
#include "url/url_canon.h"
#include "url/url_canon_stdstring.h"
#include "url/url_constants.h"
#include "url/url_export.h"
// Represents a URL.
// A parsed canonicalized URL will be guaranteed UTF-8. Only the ref (if
// specified) can be non-ASCII, the host, path, etc. will be guaranteed ASCII
// and any non-ASCII characters will be encoded and % escaped.
// The string representation of a URL is called the spec(). Getting the
// spec will assert if the URL is invalid to help protect against malicious
// URLs. If you want the "best effort" canonicalization of an invalid URL, you
// can use possibly_invalid_spec(). Test validity with is_valid(). Data and
// javascript URLs use GetContent() to extract the data.
// This class has existence checkers and getters for the various components of
// a URL. Existence is different than being nonempty. ""
// has a query that just happens to be empty, and has_query() will return true
// while the query getters will return the empty string.
// Prefer not to modify a URL using string operations (though sometimes this is
// unavoidable). Instead, use ReplaceComponents which can replace or delete
// multiple parts of a URL in one step, doesn't re-canonicalize unchanged
// sections, and avoids some screw-ups. An example is creating a URL with a
// path that contains a literal '#'. Using string concatenation will generate a
// URL with a truncated path and a reference fragment, while ReplaceComponents
// will know to escape this and produce the desired result.
typedef url::StringPieceReplacements<std::string> Replacements;
typedef url::StringPieceReplacements<base::string16> ReplacementsW;
// Creates an empty, invalid URL.
// Copy construction is relatively inexpensive, with most of the time going
// to reallocating the string. It does not re-parse.
GURL(const GURL& other);
// The strings to this contructor should be UTF-8 / UTF-16.
explicit GURL(base::StringPiece url_string);
explicit GURL(base::StringPiece16 url_string);
// Constructor for URLs that have already been parsed and canonicalized. This
// is used for conversions from KURL, for example. The caller must supply all
// information associated with the URL, which must be correct and consistent.
GURL(const char* canonical_spec,
size_t canonical_spec_len,
const url::Parsed& parsed,
bool is_valid);
// Notice that we take the canonical_spec by value so that we can convert
// from WebURL without copying the string. When we call this constructor
// we pass in a temporary std::string, which lets the compiler skip the
// copy and just move the std::string into the function argument. In the
// implementation, we use std::move to move the data into the GURL itself,
// which means we end up with zero copies.
GURL(std::string canonical_spec, const url::Parsed& parsed, bool is_valid);
GURL& operator=(GURL other);
// Returns true when this object represents a valid parsed URL. When not
// valid, other functions will still succeed, but you will not get canonical
// data out in the format you may be expecting. Instead, we keep something
// "reasonable looking" so that the user can see how it's busted if
// displayed to them.
bool is_valid() const {
return is_valid_;
// Returns true if the URL is zero-length. Note that empty URLs are also
// invalid, and is_valid() will return false for them. This is provided
// because some users may want to treat the empty case differently.
bool is_empty() const {
return spec_.empty();
// Returns the raw spec, i.e., the full text of the URL, in canonical UTF-8,
// if the URL is valid. If the URL is not valid, this will assert and return
// the empty string (for safety in release builds, to keep them from being
// misused which might be a security problem).
// The URL will be ASCII except the reference fragment, which may be UTF-8.
// It is guaranteed to be valid UTF-8.
// The exception is for empty() URLs (which are !is_valid()) but this will
// return the empty string without asserting.
// Used invalid_spec() below to get the unusable spec of an invalid URL. This
// separation is designed to prevent errors that may cause security problems
// that could result from the mistaken use of an invalid URL.
const std::string& spec() const;
// Returns the potentially invalid spec for a the URL. This spec MUST NOT be
// modified or sent over the network. It is designed to be displayed in error
// messages to the user, as the appearance of the spec may explain the error.
// If the spec is valid, the valid spec will be returned.
// The returned string is guaranteed to be valid UTF-8.
const std::string& possibly_invalid_spec() const {
return spec_;
// Getter for the raw parsed structure. This allows callers to locate parts
// of the URL within the spec themselves. Most callers should consider using
// the individual component getters below.
// The returned parsed structure will reference into the raw spec, which may
// or may not be valid. If you are using this to index into the spec, BE
// SURE YOU ARE USING possibly_invalid_spec() to get the spec, and that you
// don't do anything "important" with invalid specs.
const url::Parsed& parsed_for_possibly_invalid_spec() const {
return parsed_;
// Allows GURL to used as a key in STL (for example, a std::set or std::map).
bool operator<(const GURL& other) const;
bool operator>(const GURL& other) const;
// Resolves a URL that's possibly relative to this object's URL, and returns
// it. Absolute URLs are also handled according to the rules of URLs on web
// pages.
// It may be impossible to resolve the URLs properly. If the input is not
// "standard" (IsStandard() == false) and the input looks relative, we can't
// resolve it. In these cases, the result will be an empty, invalid GURL.
// The result may also be a nonempty, invalid URL if the input has some kind
// of encoding error. In these cases, we will try to construct a "good" URL
// that may have meaning to the user, but it will be marked invalid.
// It is an error to resolve a URL relative to an invalid URL. The result
// will be the empty URL.
GURL Resolve(const std::string& relative) const;
GURL Resolve(const base::string16& relative) const;
// Creates a new GURL by replacing the current URL's components with the
// supplied versions. See the Replacements class in url_canon.h for more.
// These are not particularly quick, so avoid doing mutations when possible.
// Prefer the 8-bit version when possible.
// It is an error to replace components of an invalid URL. The result will
// be the empty URL.
// Note that we use the more general url::Replacements type to give
// callers extra flexibility rather than our override.
GURL ReplaceComponents(const url::Replacements<char>& replacements) const;
GURL ReplaceComponents(
const url::Replacements<base::char16>& replacements) const;
// A helper function that is equivalent to replacing the path with a slash
// and clearing out everything after that. We sometimes need to know just the
// scheme and the authority. If this URL is not a standard URL (it doesn't
// have the regular authority and path sections), then the result will be
// an empty, invalid GURL. Note that this *does* work for file: URLs, which
// some callers may want to filter out before calling this.
// It is an error to get an empty path on an invalid URL. The result
// will be the empty URL.
GURL GetWithEmptyPath() const;
// A helper function to return a GURL containing just the scheme, host,
// and port from a URL. Equivalent to clearing any username and password,
// replacing the path with a slash, and clearing everything after that. If
// this URL is not a standard URL, then the result will be an empty,
// invalid GURL. If the URL has neither username nor password, this
// degenerates to GetWithEmptyPath().
// It is an error to get the origin of an invalid URL. The result
// will be the empty URL.
GURL GetOrigin() const;
// A helper function to return a GURL stripped from the elements that are not
// supposed to be sent as HTTP referrer: username, password and ref fragment.
// For invalid URLs or URLs that no valid referrers, an empty URL will be
// returned.
GURL GetAsReferrer() const;
// Returns true if the scheme for the current URL is a known "standard-format"
// scheme. A standard-format scheme adheres to what RFC 3986 calls "generic
// URI syntax" ( This includes
// file: and filesystem:, which some callers may want to filter out explicitly
// by calling SchemeIsFile[System].
bool IsStandard() const;
// Returns true if the given parameter (should be lower-case ASCII to match
// the canonicalized scheme) is the scheme for this URL. Do not include a
// colon.
bool SchemeIs(base::StringPiece lower_ascii_scheme) const;
// Returns true if the scheme is "http" or "https".
bool SchemeIsHTTPOrHTTPS() const;
// Returns true if the scheme is valid for use as a referrer.
bool SchemeIsValidForReferrer() const;
// Returns true is the scheme is "ws" or "wss".
bool SchemeIsWSOrWSS() const;
// We often need to know if this is a file URL. File URLs are "standard", but
// are often treated separately by some programs.
bool SchemeIsFile() const {
return SchemeIs(url::kFileScheme);
// FileSystem URLs need to be treated differently in some cases.
bool SchemeIsFileSystem() const {
return SchemeIs(url::kFileSystemScheme);
// Returns true if the scheme indicates a network connection that uses TLS or
// some other cryptographic protocol (e.g. QUIC) for security.
// This function is a not a complete test of whether or not an origin's code
// is minimally trustworthy. For that, see Chromium's |IsOriginSecure| for a
// higher-level and more complete semantics. See that function's documentation
// for more detail.
bool SchemeIsCryptographic() const {
return SchemeIs(url::kHttpsScheme) || SchemeIs(url::kWssScheme) ||
// Returns true if the scheme is "blob".
bool SchemeIsBlob() const {
return SchemeIs(url::kBlobScheme);
// Returns true if the scheme indicates a serialized suborigin.
bool SchemeIsSuborigin() const {
return SchemeIs(url::kHttpSuboriginScheme) ||
// The "content" of the URL is everything after the scheme (skipping the
// scheme delimiting colon). It is an error to get the content of an invalid
// URL: the result will be an empty string.
std::string GetContent() const;
// Returns true if the hostname is an IP address. Note: this function isn't
// as cheap as a simple getter because it re-parses the hostname to verify.
bool HostIsIPAddress() const;
// Not including the colon. If you are comparing schemes, prefer SchemeIs.
bool has_scheme() const {
return parsed_.scheme.len >= 0;
std::string scheme() const {
return ComponentString(parsed_.scheme);
base::StringPiece scheme_piece() const {
return ComponentStringPiece(parsed_.scheme);
bool has_username() const {
return parsed_.username.len >= 0;
std::string username() const {
return ComponentString(parsed_.username);
base::StringPiece username_piece() const {
return ComponentStringPiece(parsed_.username);
bool has_password() const {
return parsed_.password.len >= 0;
std::string password() const {
return ComponentString(parsed_.password);
base::StringPiece password_piece() const {
return ComponentStringPiece(parsed_.password);
// The host may be a hostname, an IPv4 address, or an IPv6 literal surrounded
// by square brackets, like "[2001:db8::1]". To exclude these brackets, use
// HostNoBrackets() below.
bool has_host() const {
// Note that hosts are special, absence of host means length 0.
return > 0;
std::string host() const {
return ComponentString(;
base::StringPiece host_piece() const {
return ComponentStringPiece(;
// The port if one is explicitly specified. Most callers will want IntPort()
// or EffectiveIntPort() instead of these. The getters will not include the
// ':'.
bool has_port() const {
return parsed_.port.len >= 0;
std::string port() const {
return ComponentString(parsed_.port);
base::StringPiece port_piece() const {
return ComponentStringPiece(parsed_.port);
// Including first slash following host, up to the query. The URL
// "" has a path of "/".
bool has_path() const {
return parsed_.path.len >= 0;
std::string path() const {
return ComponentString(parsed_.path);
base::StringPiece path_piece() const {
return ComponentStringPiece(parsed_.path);
// Stuff following '?' up to the ref. The getters will not include the '?'.
bool has_query() const {
return parsed_.query.len >= 0;
std::string query() const {
return ComponentString(parsed_.query);
base::StringPiece query_piece() const {
return ComponentStringPiece(parsed_.query);
// Stuff following '#' to the end of the string. This will be UTF-8 encoded
// (not necessarily ASCII). The getters will not include the '#'.
bool has_ref() const {
return parsed_.ref.len >= 0;
std::string ref() const {
return ComponentString(parsed_.ref);
base::StringPiece ref_piece() const {
return ComponentStringPiece(parsed_.ref);
// Returns a parsed version of the port. Can also be any of the special
// values defined in Parsed for ExtractPort.
int IntPort() const;
// Returns the port number of the URL, or the default port number.
// If the scheme has no concept of port (or unknown default) returns
int EffectiveIntPort() const;
// Extracts the filename portion of the path and returns it. The filename
// is everything after the last slash in the path. This may be empty.
std::string ExtractFileName() const;
// Returns the path that should be sent to the server. This is the path,
// parameter, and query portions of the URL. It is guaranteed to be ASCII.
std::string PathForRequest() const;
// Returns the host, excluding the square brackets surrounding IPv6 address
// literals. This can be useful for passing to getaddrinfo().
std::string HostNoBrackets() const;
// Returns true if this URL's host matches or is in the same domain as
// the given input string. For example, if the hostname of the URL is
// "", this will return true for "com", "", and
// "".
// The input domain should be lower-case ASCII to match the canonicalized
// scheme. This call is more efficient than getting the host and check
// whether host has the specific domain or not because no copies or
// object constructions are done.
bool DomainIs(base::StringPiece lower_ascii_domain) const;
// Swaps the contents of this GURL object with |other|, without doing
// any memory allocations.
void Swap(GURL* other);
// Returns a reference to a singleton empty GURL. This object is for callers
// who return references but don't have anything to return in some cases.
// If you just want an empty URL for normal use, prefer GURL(). This function
// may be called from any thread.
static const GURL& EmptyGURL();
// Returns the inner URL of a nested URL (currently only non-null for
// filesystem URLs).
// TODO(mmenke): inner_url().spec() currently returns the same value as
// caling spec() on the GURL itself. This should be fixed.
// See
const GURL* inner_url() const {
return inner_url_.get();
// Variant of the string parsing constructor that allows the caller to elect
// retain trailing whitespace, if any, on the passed URL spec, but only if
// the scheme is one that allows trailing whitespace. The primary use-case is
// for data: URLs. In most cases, you want to use the single parameter
// constructor above.
enum RetainWhiteSpaceSelector { RETAIN_TRAILING_PATH_WHITEPACE };
GURL(const std::string& url_string, RetainWhiteSpaceSelector);
template<typename STR>
void InitCanonical(base::BasicStringPiece<STR> input_spec,
bool trim_path_end);
void InitializeFromCanonicalSpec();
// Returns the substring of the input identified by the given component.
std::string ComponentString(const url::Component& comp) const {
if (comp.len <= 0)
return std::string();
return std::string(spec_, comp.begin, comp.len);
base::StringPiece ComponentStringPiece(const url::Component& comp) const {
if (comp.len <= 0)
return base::StringPiece();
return base::StringPiece(&spec_[comp.begin], comp.len);
// The actual text of the URL, in canonical ASCII form.
std::string spec_;
// Set when the given URL is valid. Otherwise, we may still have a spec and
// components, but they may not identify valid resources (for example, an
// invalid port number, invalid characters in the scheme, etc.).
bool is_valid_;
// Identified components of the canonical spec.
url::Parsed parsed_;
// Used for nested schemes [currently only filesystem:].
std::unique_ptr<GURL> inner_url_;
// Stream operator so GURL can be used in assertion statements.
URL_EXPORT std::ostream& operator<<(std::ostream& out, const GURL& url);
URL_EXPORT bool operator==(const GURL& x, const GURL& y);
URL_EXPORT bool operator!=(const GURL& x, const GURL& y);
// Equality operator for comparing raw spec_. This should be used in place of
// url == GURL(spec) where |spec| is known (i.e. constants). This is to prevent
// needlessly re-parsing |spec| into a temporary GURL.
URL_EXPORT bool operator==(const GURL& x, const base::StringPiece& spec);
URL_EXPORT bool operator!=(const GURL& x, const base::StringPiece& spec);
#endif // URL_GURL_H_