sqlite: Backport a few bug fixes.

This CL removes an unnecessary change in
0006-Fix-dbfuzz2-for-Clusterfuzz.patch and backports fixes for a few
recently discovered issues. The added patches will go away in the
next SQLite upgrade.

Bug: 911253, 911255, 914407, 915348, 915479, 916478, 917285, 917380, 917834, 918035
Change-Id: I595de36637cdb256153d92f21958b05e2ea6ac92
Reviewed-on: https://chromium-review.googlesource.com/c/1406928
Reviewed-by: Chris Mumford <cmumford@google.com>
Commit-Queue: Victor Costan <pwnall@chromium.org>
Cr-Commit-Position: refs/heads/master@{#622207}
27 files changed