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# Copyright 2018 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.
# Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
# found in the LICENSE file.
"""Utilities to extract string literals from object files.
Runs readelf to extract and return .rodata section spec of an ELF file.
Reads raw data from a file, given a list of ranges in the file.
Reads the ELF file to find the string contents of a list of string literals.
BulkForkAndCall() target: Given {path: [string addresses]} and
[raw_string_data for each string_section]:
- Reads {path: [src_strings]}.
- For each path, searches for src_strings in at most 1 raw_string_data over
each string_section. If found, translates to string_range and annotates it
to the string_section.
- Returns [{path: [string_ranges]} for each string_section].
BulkForkAndCall() target: Given {path: [strings]} and
[raw_string_data for each string_section]:
- For each path, searches for src_strings in at most 1 raw_string_data over
each string_section. If found, translates to string_range and annotates it
to the string_section.
- Returns [{path: [string_ranges]} for each string_section].
import ast
import collections
import itertools
import logging
import os
import subprocess
import ar
import models
import parallel
import path_util
def LookupElfRodataInfo(elf_path):
"""Returns (address, offset, size) for the .rodata section."""
args = [path_util.GetReadElfPath(), '-S', '--wide', elf_path]
output = subprocess.check_output(args).decode('ascii')
lines = output.splitlines()
for line in lines:
# [Nr] Name Type Addr Off Size ES Flg Lk Inf Al
# [07] .rodata PROGBITS 025e7000 237c000 5ec4f6 00 A 0 0 256
if '.rodata ' in line:
fields = line[line.index(models.SECTION_RODATA):].split()
return int(fields[2], 16), int(fields[3], 16), int(fields[4], 16)
raise AssertionError('No .rodata for command: ' + repr(args))
def ReadFileChunks(path, section_ranges):
"""Returns a list of raw data from |path|, specified by |section_ranges|.
section_ranges: List of (offset, size).
ret = []
if not section_ranges:
return ret
with open(path, 'rb') as f:
for offset, size in section_ranges:
return ret
def _ExtractArchivePath(path):
# E.g. foo/bar.a(baz.o)
if path.endswith(')'):
start_idx = path.index('(')
return path[:start_idx]
return None
def _LookupStringSectionPositions(target, output_directory):
"""Returns a dict of object_path -> [(offset, size)...] of .rodata sections.
target: An archive path string (e.g., "foo.a") or a list of object paths.
is_archive = isinstance(target, str)
args = [path_util.GetReadElfPath(), '-S', '--wide']
if is_archive:
# Assign path for when len(target) == 1, (no File: line exists).
path = target[0]
output = subprocess.check_output(args, cwd=output_directory).decode('ascii')
lines = output.splitlines()
section_positions_by_path = {}
cur_offsets = []
for line in lines:
# File: base/third_party/libevent/libevent.a(buffer.o)
# [Nr] Name Type Addr Off Size ES Flg Lk Inf Al
# [11] .rodata.str1.1 PROGBITS 00000000 0000b4 000004 01 AMS 0 0 1
# [11] .rodata.str4.4 PROGBITS 00000000 0000b4 000004 01 AMS 0 0 4
# [11] .rodata.str8.8 PROGBITS 00000000 0000b4 000004 01 AMS 0 0 8
# [80] .rodata..L.str PROGBITS 00000000 000530 000002 00 A 0 0 1
# The various string sections differ by alignment.
# The presence of a wchar_t literal (L"asdf") seems to make a str4 section.
# When multiple sections exist, nm gives us no indication as to which
# section each string corresponds to.
if line.startswith('File: '):
if cur_offsets:
section_positions_by_path[path] = cur_offsets
cur_offsets = []
path = line[6:]
elif '.rodata.' in line:
progbits_idx = line.find('PROGBITS ')
if progbits_idx != -1:
fields = line[progbits_idx:].split()
position = (int(fields[2], 16), int(fields[3], 16))
# The heuristics in _IterStringLiterals rely on str1 coming first.
if fields[-1] == '1':
cur_offsets.insert(0, position)
if cur_offsets:
section_positions_by_path[path] = cur_offsets
return section_positions_by_path
def _ReadStringSections(target, output_directory, positions_by_path):
"""Returns a dict of object_path -> [string...] of .rodata chunks.
target: An archive path string (e.g., "foo.a") or a list of object paths.
positions_by_path: A dict of object_path -> [(offset, size)...]
is_archive = isinstance(target, str)
string_sections_by_path = {}
if is_archive:
for subpath, chunk in ar.IterArchiveChunks(
os.path.join(output_directory, target)):
path = '{}({})'.format(target, subpath)
positions = positions_by_path.get(path)
# No positions if file has no string literals.
if positions:
string_sections_by_path[path] = (
[chunk[offset:offset + size] for offset, size in positions])
for path in target:
positions = positions_by_path.get(path)
# We already log a warning about this in _IterStringLiterals().
if positions:
string_sections_by_path[path] = ReadFileChunks(
os.path.join(output_directory, path), positions)
return string_sections_by_path
def _IterStringLiterals(path, addresses, obj_sections):
"""Yields all string literals (including \0) for the given object path.
path: Object file path.
addresses: List of string offsets encoded as hex strings.
obj_sections: List of contents of .rodata.str sections read from the given
object file.
next_offsets = sorted(int(a, 16) for a in addresses)
if not obj_sections:
# Happens when there is an address for a symbol which is not actually a
# string literal, or when string_sections_by_path is missing an entry.
logging.warning('Object has %d strings but no string sections: %s',
len(addresses), path)
for section_data in obj_sections:
cur_offsets = next_offsets
# Always assume first element is 0. I'm not entirely sure why this is
# necessary, but strings get missed without it.
next_offsets = [0]
prev_offset = 0
# TODO(agrieve): Switch to using nm --print-size in order to capture the
# address+size of each string rather than just the address.
for offset in cur_offsets[1:]:
if offset >= len(section_data):
# Remaining offsets are for next section.
# Figure out which offsets apply to this section via heuristic of them
# all ending with a null character.
if offset == prev_offset or section_data[offset - 1] != 0:
yield section_data[prev_offset:offset]
prev_offset = offset
if prev_offset < len(section_data):
yield section_data[prev_offset:]
def _AnnotateStringData(string_data, path_value_gen):
"""Annotates each |string_data| section data with paths and ranges.
string_data: [raw_string_data for each string_section] from an ELF file.
path_value_gen: A generator of (path, value) pairs, where |path|
is the path to an object file and |value| is a string to annotate.
[{path: [string_ranges]} for each string_section].
ret = [collections.defaultdict(list) for _ in string_data]
# Brute-force search ** merge strings sections in |string_data| for string
# values from |path_value_gen|. This is by far the slowest part of
# AnalyzeStringLiterals().
# TODO(agrieve): Pre-process |string_data| into a dict of literal->address (at
# least for ASCII strings).
for path, value in path_value_gen:
first_match = -1
first_match_dict = None
for target_dict, data in zip(ret, string_data):
# Set offset so that it will be 0 when len(value) is added to it below.
offset = -len(value)
while True:
offset = data.find(value, offset + len(value))
if offset == -1:
# Preferring exact matches (those following \0) over substring matches
# significantly increases accuracy (although shows that linker isn't
# being optimal).
if offset == 0 or data[offset - 1] == 0:
if first_match == -1:
first_match = offset
first_match_dict = target_dict
if offset != -1:
if offset == -1:
# Exact match not found, so take suffix match if it exists.
offset = first_match
target_dict = first_match_dict
# Missing strings happen when optimization make them unused.
if offset != -1:
# Encode tuple as a string for easier mashalling.
target_dict[path].append(str(offset) + ':' + str(len(value)))
return ret
# This is a target for BulkForkAndCall().
def ResolveStringPiecesIndirect(encoded_string_addresses_by_path, string_data,
string_addresses_by_path = parallel.DecodeDictOfLists(
# Assign |target| as archive path, or a list of object paths.
any_path = next(iter(string_addresses_by_path.keys()))
target = _ExtractArchivePath(any_path)
if not target:
target = list(string_addresses_by_path.keys())
# Run readelf to find location of .rodata within the .o files.
section_positions_by_path = _LookupStringSectionPositions(
target, output_directory)
# Load the .rodata sections (from object files) as strings.
string_sections_by_path = _ReadStringSections(
target, output_directory, section_positions_by_path)
def GeneratePathAndValues():
for path, object_addresses in string_addresses_by_path.items():
for value in _IterStringLiterals(
path, object_addresses, string_sections_by_path.get(path)):
yield path, value
ret = _AnnotateStringData(string_data, GeneratePathAndValues())
return [parallel.EncodeDictOfLists(x) for x in ret]
# This is a target for BulkForkAndCall().
def ResolveStringPieces(encoded_strings_by_path, string_data):
# ast.literal_eval() undoes repr() applied to strings.
strings_by_path = parallel.DecodeDictOfLists(
encoded_strings_by_path, value_transform=ast.literal_eval)
def GeneratePathAndValues():
for path, strings in strings_by_path.items():
for value in strings:
yield path, value
ret = _AnnotateStringData(string_data, GeneratePathAndValues())
return [parallel.EncodeDictOfLists(x) for x in ret]
def ReadStringLiterals(symbols, elf_path, all_rodata=False):
"""Returns an iterable of (symbol, string) for all string literal symbols.
symbols: An iterable of Symbols
elf_path: Path to the executable containing the symbols.
all_rodata: Assume every symbol within .rodata that ends with a \0 is a
string literal.
address, offset, _ = LookupElfRodataInfo(elf_path)
adjust = offset - address
with open(elf_path, 'rb') as f:
for symbol in symbols:
if symbol.section != 'r':
continue + adjust)
data =
# As of Oct 2017, there are ~90 symbols name .L.str(.##). These appear
# in the linker map file explicitly, and there doesn't seem to be a
# pattern as to which variables lose their kConstant name (the more
# common case), or which string literals don't get moved to
# ** merge strings (less common).
if symbol.IsStringLiteral() or (all_rodata and data and data[-1] == 0):
yield ((symbol, data))