blob: 44d5499859a7e9dd1b9199eba9e997c46a880fe1 [file] [log] [blame]
// Copyright (c) 2010 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
#include "chrome/browser/net/predictor_api.h"
#include <map>
#include <string>
#include "base/metrics/field_trial.h"
#include "base/lazy_instance.h"
#include "base/stl_util-inl.h"
#include "base/string_number_conversions.h"
#include "base/threading/thread.h"
#include "base/values.h"
#include "base/synchronization/waitable_event.h"
#include "chrome/browser/browser_process.h"
#include "chrome/browser/browser_thread.h"
#include "chrome/browser/io_thread.h"
#include "chrome/browser/net/preconnect.h"
#include "chrome/browser/net/referrer.h"
#include "chrome/browser/net/url_info.h"
#include "chrome/browser/prefs/pref_service.h"
#include "chrome/browser/prefs/session_startup_pref.h"
#include "chrome/browser/profiles/profile.h"
#include "chrome/browser/ui/browser.h"
#include "chrome/common/notification_registrar.h"
#include "chrome/common/notification_service.h"
#include "chrome/common/pref_names.h"
#include "net/base/host_resolver.h"
#include "net/base/host_resolver_impl.h"
using base::Time;
using base::TimeDelta;
namespace chrome_browser_net {
static void DnsPrefetchMotivatedList(const UrlList& urls,
UrlInfo::ResolutionMotivation motivation);
static UrlList GetPredictedUrlListAtStartup(PrefService* user_prefs,
PrefService* local_state);
// Given that the underlying Chromium resolver defaults to a total maximum of
// 8 paralell resolutions, we will avoid any chance of starving navigational
// resolutions by limiting the number of paralell speculative resolutions.
// TODO(jar): Move this limitation into the resolver.
// static
const size_t PredictorInit::kMaxSpeculativeParallelResolves = 3;
// To control our congestion avoidance system, which discards a queue when
// resolutions are "taking too long," we need an expected resolution time.
// Common average is in the range of 300-500ms.
static const int kExpectedResolutionTimeMs = 500;
// To control the congestion avoidance system, we need an estimate of how many
// speculative requests may arrive at once. Since we currently only keep 8
// subresource names for each frame, we'll use that as our basis. Note that
// when scanning search results lists, we might actually get 10 at a time, and
// wikipedia can often supply (during a page scan) upwards of 50. In those odd
// cases, we may discard some of the later speculative requests mistakenly
// assuming that the resolutions took too long.
static const int kTypicalSpeculativeGroupSize = 8;
// The next constant specifies an amount of queueing delay that is "too large,"
// and indicative of problems with resolutions (perhaps due to an overloaded
// router, or such). When we exceed this delay, congestion avoidance will kick
// in and all speculations in the queue will be discarded.
// static
const int PredictorInit::kMaxSpeculativeResolveQueueDelayMs =
(kExpectedResolutionTimeMs * kTypicalSpeculativeGroupSize) /
kMaxSpeculativeParallelResolves;
// A version number for prefs that are saved. This should be incremented when
// we change the format so that we discard old data.
static const int kPredictorStartupFormatVersion = 1;
// There will only be one instance ever created of the following Observer class.
// The InitialObserver lives on the IO thread, and monitors navigations made by
// the network stack. This is only used to identify startup time resolutions
// (for re-resolution during our next process startup).
// TODO(jar): Consider preconnecting at startup, which may be faster than
// waiting for render process to start and request a connection.
class InitialObserver {
public:
// Recording of when we observed each navigation.
typedef std::map<GURL, base::TimeTicks> FirstNavigations;
// Potentially add a new URL to our startup list.
void Append(const GURL& url);
// Get an HTML version of our current planned first_navigations_.
void GetFirstResolutionsHtml(std::string* output);
// Persist the current first_navigations_ for storage in a list.
void GetInitialDnsResolutionList(ListValue* startup_list);
private:
// List of the first N URL resolutions observed in this run.
FirstNavigations first_navigations_;
// The number of URLs we'll save for pre-resolving at next startup.
static const size_t kStartupResolutionCount = 10;
};
// TODO(willchan): Look at killing this global.
static InitialObserver* g_initial_observer = NULL;
//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// This section contains all the globally accessable API entry points for the
// DNS Prefetching feature.
//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Status of speculative DNS resolution and speculative TCP/IP connection
// feature.
static bool predictor_enabled = true;
// Cached inverted copy of the off_the_record pref.
static bool on_the_record_switch = true;
// Enable/disable Dns prefetch activity (either via command line, or via pref).
void EnablePredictor(bool enable) {
// NOTE: this is invoked on the UI thread.
predictor_enabled = enable;
}
void OnTheRecord(bool enable) {
DCHECK(BrowserThread::CurrentlyOn(BrowserThread::UI));
if (on_the_record_switch == enable)
return;
on_the_record_switch = enable;
if (on_the_record_switch)
g_browser_process->io_thread()->ChangedToOnTheRecord();
}
void RegisterUserPrefs(PrefService* user_prefs) {
user_prefs->RegisterListPref(prefs::kDnsPrefetchingStartupList);
user_prefs->RegisterListPref(prefs::kDnsPrefetchingHostReferralList);
user_prefs->RegisterBooleanPref(prefs::kDnsPrefetchingEnabled, true);
}
// When enabled, we use the following instance to service all requests in the
// browser process.
// TODO(willchan): Look at killing this.
static Predictor* g_predictor = NULL;
// This API is only used in the browser process.
// It is called from an IPC message originating in the renderer. It currently
// includes both Page-Scan, and Link-Hover prefetching.
// TODO(jar): Separate out link-hover prefetching, and page-scan results.
void DnsPrefetchList(const NameList& hostnames) {
// TODO(jar): Push GURL transport further back into renderer, but this will
// require a Webkit change in the observer :-/.
UrlList urls;
for (NameList::const_iterator it = hostnames.begin();
it < hostnames.end();
++it) {
urls.push_back(GURL("http://" + *it + ":80"));
}
DCHECK(BrowserThread::CurrentlyOn(BrowserThread::IO));
DnsPrefetchMotivatedList(urls, UrlInfo::PAGE_SCAN_MOTIVATED);
}
static void DnsPrefetchMotivatedList(
const UrlList& urls,
UrlInfo::ResolutionMotivation motivation) {
DCHECK(BrowserThread::CurrentlyOn(BrowserThread::UI) ||
BrowserThread::CurrentlyOn(BrowserThread::IO));
if (!predictor_enabled || NULL == g_predictor)
return;
if (BrowserThread::CurrentlyOn(BrowserThread::IO)) {
g_predictor->ResolveList(urls, motivation);
} else {
BrowserThread::PostTask(
BrowserThread::IO,
FROM_HERE,
NewRunnableMethod(g_predictor,
&Predictor::ResolveList, urls, motivation));
}
}
// This API is used by the autocomplete popup box (where URLs are typed).
void AnticipateOmniboxUrl(const GURL& url, bool preconnectable) {
DCHECK(BrowserThread::CurrentlyOn(BrowserThread::UI));
if (!predictor_enabled || NULL == g_predictor)
return;
if (!url.is_valid() || !url.has_host())
return;
g_predictor->AnticipateOmniboxUrl(url, preconnectable);
}
void PreconnectUrlAndSubresources(const GURL& url) {
if (!predictor_enabled || NULL == g_predictor)
return;
if (!url.is_valid() || !url.has_host())
return;
g_predictor->PreconnectUrlAndSubresources(url);
}
//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// This section intermingles prefetch results with actual browser HTTP
// network activity. It supports calculating of the benefit of a prefetch, as
// well as recording what prefetched hostname resolutions might be potentially
// helpful during the next chrome-startup.
//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
void PredictFrameSubresources(const GURL& url) {
DCHECK(BrowserThread::CurrentlyOn(BrowserThread::IO));
if (!predictor_enabled || NULL == g_predictor)
return;
g_predictor->PredictFrameSubresources(url);
}
void LearnAboutInitialNavigation(const GURL& url) {
DCHECK(BrowserThread::CurrentlyOn(BrowserThread::IO));
if (!predictor_enabled || NULL == g_initial_observer )
return;
g_initial_observer->Append(url);
}
void LearnFromNavigation(const GURL& referring_url, const GURL& target_url) {
DCHECK(BrowserThread::CurrentlyOn(BrowserThread::IO));
if (!predictor_enabled || NULL == g_predictor)
return;
g_predictor->LearnFromNavigation(referring_url, target_url);
}
// The observer class needs to connect starts and finishes of HTTP network
// resolutions. We use the following type for that map.
typedef std::map<int, UrlInfo> ObservedResolutionMap;
//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Member definitions for InitialObserver class.
void InitialObserver::Append(const GURL& url) {
DCHECK(BrowserThread::CurrentlyOn(BrowserThread::IO));
if (!on_the_record_switch || NULL == g_predictor)
return;
if (kStartupResolutionCount <= first_navigations_.size())
return;
if (url.SchemeIs("http") || url.SchemeIs("https")) {
const GURL url_without_path(Predictor::CanonicalizeUrl(url));
if (first_navigations_.find(url_without_path) == first_navigations_.end())
first_navigations_[url_without_path] = base::TimeTicks::Now();
}
}
void InitialObserver::GetInitialDnsResolutionList(ListValue* startup_list) {
DCHECK(BrowserThread::CurrentlyOn(BrowserThread::IO));
DCHECK(startup_list);
startup_list->Clear();
DCHECK_EQ(0u, startup_list->GetSize());
startup_list->Append(new FundamentalValue(kPredictorStartupFormatVersion));
for (FirstNavigations::iterator it = first_navigations_.begin();
it != first_navigations_.end();
++it) {
DCHECK(it->first == Predictor::CanonicalizeUrl(it->first));
startup_list->Append(new StringValue(it->first.spec()));
}
}
void InitialObserver::GetFirstResolutionsHtml(std::string* output) {
DCHECK(BrowserThread::CurrentlyOn(BrowserThread::IO));
UrlInfo::UrlInfoTable resolution_list;
{
for (FirstNavigations::iterator it(first_navigations_.begin());
it != first_navigations_.end();
it++) {
UrlInfo info;
info.SetUrl(it->first);
info.set_time(it->second);
resolution_list.push_back(info);
}
}
UrlInfo::GetHtmlTable(resolution_list,
"Future startups will prefetch DNS records for ", false, output);
}
//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Support observer to detect opening and closing of OffTheRecord windows.
// This object lives on the UI thread.
class OffTheRecordObserver : public NotificationObserver {
public:
void Register() {
// TODO(pkasting): This test should not be necessary. See crbug.com/12475.
if (registrar_.IsEmpty()) {
registrar_.Add(this, NotificationType::BROWSER_CLOSED,
NotificationService::AllSources());
registrar_.Add(this, NotificationType::BROWSER_OPENED,
NotificationService::AllSources());
}
}
void Observe(NotificationType type, const NotificationSource& source,
const NotificationDetails& details) {
switch (type.value) {
case NotificationType::BROWSER_OPENED:
if (!Source<Browser>(source)->profile()->IsOffTheRecord())
break;
++count_off_the_record_windows_;
OnTheRecord(false);
break;
case NotificationType::BROWSER_CLOSED:
if (!Source<Browser>(source)->profile()->IsOffTheRecord())
break; // Ignore ordinary windows.
DCHECK_LT(0, count_off_the_record_windows_);
if (0 >= count_off_the_record_windows_) // Defensive coding.
break;
if (--count_off_the_record_windows_)
break; // Still some windows are incognito.
OnTheRecord(true);
break;
default:
break;
}
}
private:
friend struct base::DefaultLazyInstanceTraits<OffTheRecordObserver>;
OffTheRecordObserver() : count_off_the_record_windows_(0) {}
~OffTheRecordObserver() {}
NotificationRegistrar registrar_;
int count_off_the_record_windows_;
DISALLOW_COPY_AND_ASSIGN(OffTheRecordObserver);
};
static base::LazyInstance<OffTheRecordObserver> g_off_the_record_observer(
base::LINKER_INITIALIZED);
//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// This section supports the about:dns page.
//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Provide global support for the about:dns page.
void PredictorGetHtmlInfo(std::string* output) {
DCHECK(BrowserThread::CurrentlyOn(BrowserThread::IO));
output->append("<html><head><title>About DNS</title>"
// We'd like the following no-cache... but it doesn't work.
// "<META HTTP-EQUIV=\"Pragma\" CONTENT=\"no-cache\">"
"</head><body>");
if (!predictor_enabled || NULL == g_predictor) {
output->append("DNS pre-resolution and TCP pre-connection is disabled.");
} else {
if (!on_the_record_switch) {
output->append("Incognito mode is active in a window.");
} else {
// List items fetched at startup.
if (g_initial_observer)
g_initial_observer->GetFirstResolutionsHtml(output);
// Show list of subresource predictions and stats.
g_predictor->GetHtmlReferrerLists(output);
// Show list of prediction results.
g_predictor->GetHtmlInfo(output);
}
}
output->append("</body></html>");
}
//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// This section intializes global DNS prefetch services.
//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
static void InitNetworkPredictor(TimeDelta max_dns_queue_delay,
size_t max_parallel_resolves,
PrefService* user_prefs,
PrefService* local_state,
bool preconnect_enabled) {
DCHECK(BrowserThread::CurrentlyOn(BrowserThread::UI));
bool prefetching_enabled =
user_prefs->GetBoolean(prefs::kDnsPrefetchingEnabled);
// Gather the list of hostnames to prefetch on startup.
UrlList urls =
GetPredictedUrlListAtStartup(user_prefs, local_state);
ListValue* referral_list =
static_cast<ListValue*>(user_prefs->GetMutableList(
prefs::kDnsPrefetchingHostReferralList)->DeepCopy());
// Remove obsolete preferences from local state if necessary.
int dns_prefs_version =
user_prefs->GetInteger(prefs::kMultipleProfilePrefMigration);
if (dns_prefs_version < 1) {
// These prefs only need to be registered if they need to be cleared from
// local state.
local_state->RegisterListPref(prefs::kDnsStartupPrefetchList);
local_state->RegisterListPref(prefs::kDnsHostReferralList);
local_state->ClearPref(prefs::kDnsStartupPrefetchList);
local_state->ClearPref(prefs::kDnsHostReferralList);
user_prefs->SetInteger(prefs::kMultipleProfilePrefMigration, 1);
}
g_browser_process->io_thread()->InitNetworkPredictor(
prefetching_enabled, max_dns_queue_delay, max_parallel_resolves, urls,
referral_list, preconnect_enabled);
}
void FinalizePredictorInitialization(
Predictor* global_predictor,
const UrlList& startup_urls,
ListValue* referral_list) {
DCHECK(BrowserThread::CurrentlyOn(BrowserThread::IO));
g_predictor = global_predictor;
g_initial_observer = new InitialObserver();
// Prefetch these hostnames on startup.
DnsPrefetchMotivatedList(startup_urls,
UrlInfo::STARTUP_LIST_MOTIVATED);
g_predictor->DeserializeReferrersThenDelete(referral_list);
}
void FreePredictorResources() {
DCHECK(BrowserThread::CurrentlyOn(BrowserThread::IO));
g_predictor = NULL; // Owned and released by io_thread.cc.
delete g_initial_observer;
g_initial_observer = NULL;
}
//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Functions to handle saving of hostnames from one session to the next, to
// expedite startup times.
static void SaveDnsPrefetchStateForNextStartupAndTrimOnIOThread(
ListValue* startup_list,
ListValue* referral_list,
base::WaitableEvent* completion) {
DCHECK(BrowserThread::CurrentlyOn(BrowserThread::IO));
if (NULL == g_predictor) {
completion->Signal();
return;
}
if (g_initial_observer)
g_initial_observer->GetInitialDnsResolutionList(startup_list);
// TODO(jar): Trimming should be done more regularly, such as every 48 hours
// of physical time, or perhaps after 48 hours of running (excluding time
// between sessions possibly).
// For now, we'll just trim at shutdown.
g_predictor->TrimReferrers();
g_predictor->SerializeReferrers(referral_list);
completion->Signal();
}
void SavePredictorStateForNextStartupAndTrim(PrefService* prefs) {
DCHECK(BrowserThread::CurrentlyOn(BrowserThread::UI));
if (!predictor_enabled || g_predictor == NULL)
return;
base::WaitableEvent completion(true, false);
bool posted = BrowserThread::PostTask(
BrowserThread::IO,
FROM_HERE,
NewRunnableFunction(SaveDnsPrefetchStateForNextStartupAndTrimOnIOThread,
prefs->GetMutableList(prefs::kDnsPrefetchingStartupList),
prefs->GetMutableList(prefs::kDnsPrefetchingHostReferralList),
&completion));
DCHECK(posted);
if (posted)
completion.Wait();
}
static UrlList GetPredictedUrlListAtStartup(PrefService* user_prefs,
PrefService* local_state) {
DCHECK(BrowserThread::CurrentlyOn(BrowserThread::UI));
UrlList urls;
// Recall list of URLs we learned about during last session.
// This may catch secondary hostnames, pulled in by the homepages. It will
// also catch more of the "primary" home pages, since that was (presumably)
// rendered first (and will be rendered first this time too).
ListValue* startup_list =
user_prefs->GetMutableList(prefs::kDnsPrefetchingStartupList);
if (startup_list) {
ListValue::iterator it = startup_list->begin();
int format_version = -1;
if (it != startup_list->end() &&
(*it)->GetAsInteger(&format_version) &&
format_version == kPredictorStartupFormatVersion) {
++it;
for (; it != startup_list->end(); ++it) {
std::string url_spec;
if (!(*it)->GetAsString(&url_spec)) {
LOG(DFATAL);
break; // Format incompatibility.
}
GURL url(url_spec);
if (!url.has_host() || !url.has_scheme()) {
LOG(DFATAL);
break; // Format incompatibility.
}
urls.push_back(url);
}
}
}
// Prepare for any static home page(s) the user has in prefs. The user may
// have a LOT of tab's specified, so we may as well try to warm them all.
SessionStartupPref tab_start_pref =
SessionStartupPref::GetStartupPref(user_prefs);
if (SessionStartupPref::URLS == tab_start_pref.type) {
for (size_t i = 0; i < tab_start_pref.urls.size(); i++) {
GURL gurl = tab_start_pref.urls[i];
if (!gurl.is_valid() || gurl.SchemeIsFile() || gurl.host().empty())
continue;
if (gurl.SchemeIs("http") || gurl.SchemeIs("https"))
urls.push_back(gurl.GetWithEmptyPath());
}
}
if (urls.empty())
urls.push_back(GURL("http://www.google.com:80"));
return urls;
}
//------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Methods for the helper class that is used to startup and teardown the whole
// g_predictor system (both DNS pre-resolution and TCP/IP connection
// prewarming).
PredictorInit::PredictorInit(PrefService* user_prefs,
PrefService* local_state,
bool preconnect_enabled) {
DCHECK(BrowserThread::CurrentlyOn(BrowserThread::UI));
// Set up a field trial to see what disabling DNS pre-resolution does to
// latency of page loads.
base::FieldTrial::Probability kDivisor = 1000;
// For each option (i.e., non-default), we have a fixed probability.
base::FieldTrial::Probability kProbabilityPerGroup = 100; // 10% probability.
trial_ = new base::FieldTrial("DnsImpact", kDivisor);
// First option is to disable prefetching completely.
int disabled_prefetch = trial_->AppendGroup("disabled_prefetch",
kProbabilityPerGroup);
// We're running two experiments at the same time. The first set of trials
// modulates the delay-time until we declare a congestion event (and purge
// our queue). The second modulates the number of concurrent resolutions
// we do at any time. Users are in exactly one trial (or the default) during
// any one run, and hence only one experiment at a time.
// Experiment 1:
// Set congestion detection at 250, 500, or 750ms, rather than the 1 second
// default.
int max_250ms_prefetch = trial_->AppendGroup("max_250ms_queue_prefetch",
kProbabilityPerGroup);
int max_500ms_prefetch = trial_->AppendGroup("max_500ms_queue_prefetch",
kProbabilityPerGroup);
int max_750ms_prefetch = trial_->AppendGroup("max_750ms_queue_prefetch",
kProbabilityPerGroup);
// Set congestion detection at 2 seconds instead of the 1 second default.
int max_2s_prefetch = trial_->AppendGroup("max_2s_queue_prefetch",
kProbabilityPerGroup);
// Experiment 2:
// Set max simultaneous resoultions to 2, 4, or 6, and scale the congestion
// limit proportionally (so we don't impact average probability of asserting
// congesion very much).
int max_2_concurrent_prefetch = trial_->AppendGroup(
"max_2 concurrent_prefetch", kProbabilityPerGroup);
int max_4_concurrent_prefetch = trial_->AppendGroup(
"max_4 concurrent_prefetch", kProbabilityPerGroup);
int max_6_concurrent_prefetch = trial_->AppendGroup(
"max_6 concurrent_prefetch", kProbabilityPerGroup);
trial_->AppendGroup("default_enabled_prefetch",
base::FieldTrial::kAllRemainingProbability);
// We will register the incognito observer regardless of whether prefetching
// is enabled, as it is also used to clear the host cache.
g_off_the_record_observer.Get().Register();
if (trial_->group() != disabled_prefetch) {
// Initialize the DNS prefetch system.
size_t max_parallel_resolves = kMaxSpeculativeParallelResolves;
int max_queueing_delay_ms = kMaxSpeculativeResolveQueueDelayMs;
if (trial_->group() == max_2_concurrent_prefetch)
max_parallel_resolves = 2;
else if (trial_->group() == max_4_concurrent_prefetch)
max_parallel_resolves = 4;
else if (trial_->group() == max_6_concurrent_prefetch)
max_parallel_resolves = 6;
if (trial_->group() == max_250ms_prefetch) {
max_queueing_delay_ms =
(250 * kTypicalSpeculativeGroupSize) / max_parallel_resolves;
} else if (trial_->group() == max_500ms_prefetch) {
max_queueing_delay_ms =
(500 * kTypicalSpeculativeGroupSize) / max_parallel_resolves;
} else if (trial_->group() == max_750ms_prefetch) {
max_queueing_delay_ms =
(750 * kTypicalSpeculativeGroupSize) / max_parallel_resolves;
} else if (trial_->group() == max_2s_prefetch) {
max_queueing_delay_ms =
(2000 * kTypicalSpeculativeGroupSize) / max_parallel_resolves;
}
TimeDelta max_queueing_delay(
TimeDelta::FromMilliseconds(max_queueing_delay_ms));
DCHECK(!g_predictor);
InitNetworkPredictor(max_queueing_delay, max_parallel_resolves, user_prefs,
local_state, preconnect_enabled);
}
}
PredictorInit::~PredictorInit() {
}
} // namespace chrome_browser_net