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1. FTS3 Tokenizers
When creating a new full-text table, FTS3 allows the user to select
the text tokenizer implementation to be used when indexing text
by specifying a "tokenize" clause as part of the CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE
<columns ...> [, tokenize <tokenizer-name> [<tokenizer-args>]]
The built-in tokenizers (valid values to pass as <tokenizer name>) are
"simple" and "porter".
<tokenizer-args> should consist of zero or more white-space separated
arguments to pass to the selected tokenizer implementation. The
interpretation of the arguments, if any, depends on the individual
2. Custom Tokenizers
FTS3 allows users to provide custom tokenizer implementations. The
interface used to create a new tokenizer is defined and described in
the fts3_tokenizer.h source file.
Registering a new FTS3 tokenizer is similar to registering a new
virtual table module with SQLite. The user passes a pointer to a
structure containing pointers to various callback functions that
make up the implementation of the new tokenizer type. For tokenizers,
the structure (defined in fts3_tokenizer.h) is called
FTS3 does not expose a C-function that users call to register new
tokenizer types with a database handle. Instead, the pointer must
be encoded as an SQL blob value and passed to FTS3 through the SQL
engine by evaluating a special scalar function, "fts3_tokenizer()".
The fts3_tokenizer() function may be called with one or two arguments,
as follows:
SELECT fts3_tokenizer(<tokenizer-name>);
SELECT fts3_tokenizer(<tokenizer-name>, <sqlite3_tokenizer_module ptr>);
Where <tokenizer-name> is a string identifying the tokenizer and
<sqlite3_tokenizer_module ptr> is a pointer to an sqlite3_tokenizer_module
structure encoded as an SQL blob. If the second argument is present,
it is registered as tokenizer <tokenizer-name> and a copy of it
returned. If only one argument is passed, a pointer to the tokenizer
implementation currently registered as <tokenizer-name> is returned,
encoded as a blob. Or, if no such tokenizer exists, an SQL exception
(error) is raised.
SECURITY: If the fts3 extension is used in an environment where potentially
malicious users may execute arbitrary SQL (i.e. gears), they should be
prevented from invoking the fts3_tokenizer() function, possibly using the
authorisation callback.
See "Sample code" below for an example of calling the fts3_tokenizer()
function from C code.
3. ICU Library Tokenizers
If this extension is compiled with the SQLITE_ENABLE_ICU pre-processor
symbol defined, then there exists a built-in tokenizer named "icu"
implemented using the ICU library. The first argument passed to the
xCreate() method (see fts3_tokenizer.h) of this tokenizer may be
an ICU locale identifier. For example "tr_TR" for Turkish as used
in Turkey, or "en_AU" for English as used in Australia. For example:
"CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE thai_text USING fts3(text, tokenizer icu th_TH)"
The ICU tokenizer implementation is very simple. It splits the input
text according to the ICU rules for finding word boundaries and discards
any tokens that consist entirely of white-space. This may be suitable
for some applications in some locales, but not all. If more complex
processing is required, for example to implement stemming or
discard punctuation, this can be done by creating a tokenizer
implementation that uses the ICU tokenizer as part of its implementation.
When using the ICU tokenizer this way, it is safe to overwrite the
contents of the strings returned by the xNext() method (see
4. Sample code.
The following two code samples illustrate the way C code should invoke
the fts3_tokenizer() scalar function:
int registerTokenizer(
sqlite3 *db,
char *zName,
const sqlite3_tokenizer_module *p
int rc;
sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;
const char zSql[] = "SELECT fts3_tokenizer(?, ?)";
rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
return rc;
sqlite3_bind_text(pStmt, 1, zName, -1, SQLITE_STATIC);
sqlite3_bind_blob(pStmt, 2, &p, sizeof(p), SQLITE_STATIC);
return sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
int queryTokenizer(
sqlite3 *db,
char *zName,
const sqlite3_tokenizer_module **pp
int rc;
sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;
const char zSql[] = "SELECT fts3_tokenizer(?)";
*pp = 0;
rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
return rc;
sqlite3_bind_text(pStmt, 1, zName, -1, SQLITE_STATIC);
if( SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pStmt) ){
if( sqlite3_column_type(pStmt, 0)==SQLITE_BLOB ){
memcpy(pp, sqlite3_column_blob(pStmt, 0), sizeof(*pp));
return sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);