tree: 179666cd57bfed0e707eb6ec05bbf118f930a988 [path history] [tgz]
  1. test/
  8. rust_gtest_interop.h

Rust integration into C++ Gtest targets.

This directory contains the tools for writing gtest-based tests in Rust and integrating them into Chromium's C++ gtest binaries. The tools are all accessible through the rust_gtest_interop target which is automatically included in test targets that depend on //testing/gtest.

To add rust unittests to a C++ Gtest target

A typical Gtest target is defined in a file, with something like this:

test("some_unittests") {
  sources = [
  deps = [

To add a Rust file to the test suite, simply add it to the rs_sources. Unlike other Rust crates, the crate_root is not specified, since it is generated from the sources list.

test("some_unittests") {
  sources = [
  rs_sources = [
  deps = [

To write a Gtest unit test in Rust

To write a unit test, you simply write a function an decorate it with the #[gtest] macro. The macro takes 2 arguments, which are the test suite name and the test name, just like the C++ TEST() macro.

The #[gtest] macro is provided by the rust_gtest_interop_rs crate, and is exported in the prelude module. Typically a unit test file would start with use rust_gtest_interop_rs::prelude::*; which includes all of the available gtest macros. This is similar to writing #include "testing/gtest/include/gtest/gtest.h" in C++.

A Rust test:

use rust_gtest_interop_rs::prelude::*;  // Provides all the gtest macros.

#[gtest(MyTestSuite, MyTestOfThing)]
fn test() {

A C++ test:

#include "testing/gtest/include/gtest/gtest.h"  // Provides all the gtest macros.

TEST(MyTestSuite, MyTestOfThing) {


We have access to many of the same EXPECT macros in Rust that are familiar to C++ Gtest users, though they are used with Rust's macro syntax.

The macros currently available are:


expect_eq!(2, 1 + 1);  // A == B
expect_ne!(3, 1 + 2);  // A != B

expect_lt!(1 * 1, 1 * 2);  // A < B
expect_gt!(4 * 1, 1 * 2);  // A > B
expect_le!(2 * 1, 1 * 2);  // A <= B
expect_ge!(3 * 1, 2 * 3);  // A >= B

Returning a Result

A C++ test always returns void and Rust tests usually do as well. But if your test calls a function that returns Result, it is convenient to make use of the ? operator instead of checking the Result value explicitly. Thus a test can either return:

  1. () aka void.
  2. std::result::Result<(), E> for any E that can be converted to a std::error::Error. (Or in Rust parlance, for any E for which there is Into<std::error::Error>). Common error types are std::io::Error or String.

If the test with a std::result::Result return type returns Result::Err, the test will fail and display the error.

In this example, the test will fail if it can not read from file.txt, or if it does not contain "hello world":

#[gtest(TestingIO, ReadFile)]
fn test() -> std::io::Result {
  let s = std::fs::read_to_string("file.txt")?;
  expect_eq!(s, "hello world");

Shared helper utilities

Sometimes tests across different test files want to share helper utilities. Such helpers should be placed in a separate GN target, typically named with a _test_support suffix, such as starship_test_support for the starship_unittests. And would also usually be found in a test/ subdirectory.


The starship_unittests test() target would include any unit test files, such as And the starship_test_support static_library() target would include the files in the test/ subdirectory, such as and


Specifying a C++ TestSuite class

In C++, a specific TestSuite, which subclasses testing::Test, can be specified with the TEST_F() macro. For example TEST_F(SomeSubclassOfTestingTest, Gadgets). The same can be done in Rust, by specifying a Rust wrapper around a C++ class with the #[gtest_suite] macro. This macro is specified on the test function, and comes after the #[gtest] macro. The macro takes an argument which is the path to a Rust type that stands in for the C++ subclass of ::testing::Test.

To connect the C++ and Rust sides together:

  1. On the C++ side, the class must subclass testing::Test, just as it would for the TEST_F() macro.
  2. Also on the C++ side, the implementation of the class (with name ClassName) must include the use of the macro RUST_GTEST_TEST_SUITE_FACTORY(ClassName), which generates the factory function for Gtest.
  3. On the Rust side, the C++-wrapper type must implement the unsafe rust_gtest_interop::TestSuite trait. It should be implemented by using the #[extern_test_suite()] macro, with the macro receiving as input the full path of the C++ class which the Rust type is wrapping. For example #[extern_test_suite("some::ClassName")].

A full example:

// C++ header file for a TestSuite class.
namespace custom {

class CustomTestSuite: public testing::Test {};
// C++ implementation file for a TestSuite class.
namespace custom {

CustomTestSuite::CustomTestSuite() = default;


// Rust wrapper around the TestSuite class.
use rust_gtest_interop::prelude::*;

// Defines the Rust ffi::CustomTestSuite type that maps to the C++ class.
mod ffi {
  unsafe extern "C++" {
    type CustomTestSuite;
// Mark the CustomTestSuite type as being a Gtest TestSuite, which means it
// must subclass `testing::Test`.
unsafe impl rust_gtest_interop::TestSuite for ffi::CustomTestSuite {}
// Rust unittests.
use rust_gtest_interop::prelude::*;

#[gtest(CustomTest, Gadgets)]
fn test(ts: Pin<&mut ffi::CustomTestSuite>) {
  // This test uses CustomTestSuite as its TestSuite, and can access any exposed
  // methods through its `ts` argument.

Then the CustomTest.Gadgets test will run with CustomTestSuite as its TestSuite class. Since the cxx generator is used here, the rust file containing the #[cxx::bridge] must also be added to the GN cxx_bindings variable (in addition to rs_sources).