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Installation and Getting Started
===================================
**Pythons**: Python 2.7, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, Jython, PyPy-2.3
**Platforms**: Unix/Posix and Windows
**PyPI package name**: `pytest <https://pypi.org/project/pytest/>`_
**Dependencies**: `py <https://pypi.org/project/py/>`_,
`colorama (Windows) <https://pypi.org/project/colorama/>`_,
**Documentation as PDF**: `download latest <https://media.readthedocs.org/pdf/pytest/latest/pytest.pdf>`_
``pytest`` is a framework that makes building simple and scalable tests easy. Tests are expressive and readableno boilerplate code required. Get started in minutes with a small unit test or complex functional test for your application or library.
.. _`getstarted`:
.. _`installation`:
Install ``pytest``
----------------------------------------
1. Run the following command in your command line::
pip install -U pytest
2. Check that you installed the correct version::
$ pytest --version
This is pytest version 3.x.y, imported from $PYTHON_PREFIX/lib/python3.5/site-packages/pytest.py
.. _`simpletest`:
Create your first test
----------------------------------------------------------
Create a simple test function with just four lines of code::
# content of test_sample.py
def func(x):
return x + 1
def test_answer():
assert func(3) == 5
Thats it. You can now execute the test function::
$ pytest
=========================== test session starts ============================
platform linux -- Python 3.x.y, pytest-3.x.y, py-1.x.y, pluggy-0.x.y
rootdir: $REGENDOC_TMPDIR, inifile:
collected 1 item
test_sample.py F [100%]
================================= FAILURES =================================
_______________________________ test_answer ________________________________
def test_answer():
> assert func(3) == 5
E assert 4 == 5
E + where 4 = func(3)
test_sample.py:5: AssertionError
========================= 1 failed in 0.12 seconds =========================
This test returns a failure report because ``func(3)`` does not return ``5``.
.. note::
You can use the ``assert`` statement to verify test expectations. pytests `Advanced assertion introspection <http://docs.python.org/reference/simple_stmts.html#the-assert-statement>`_ will intelligently report intermediate values of the assert expression so you can avoid the many names `of JUnit legacy methods <http://docs.python.org/library/unittest.html#test-cases>`_.
Run multiple tests
----------------------------------------------------------
``pytest`` will run all files of the form test_*.py or \*_test.py in the current directory and its subdirectories. More generally, it follows :ref:`standard test discovery rules <test discovery>`.
Assert that a certain exception is raised
--------------------------------------------------------------
Use the ``raises`` helper to assert that some code raises an exception::
# content of test_sysexit.py
import pytest
def f():
raise SystemExit(1)
def test_mytest():
with pytest.raises(SystemExit):
f()
Execute the test function with quiet reporting mode::
$ pytest -q test_sysexit.py
. [100%]
1 passed in 0.12 seconds
Group multiple tests in a class
--------------------------------------------------------------
Once you develop multiple tests, you may want to group them into a class. pytest makes it easy to create a class containing more than one test::
# content of test_class.py
class TestClass(object):
def test_one(self):
x = "this"
assert 'h' in x
def test_two(self):
x = "hello"
assert hasattr(x, 'check')
``pytest`` discovers all tests following its :ref:`Conventions for Python test discovery <test discovery>`, so it finds both ``test_`` prefixed functions. There is no need to subclass anything. We can simply run the module by passing its filename::
$ pytest -q test_class.py
.F [100%]
================================= FAILURES =================================
____________________________ TestClass.test_two ____________________________
self = <test_class.TestClass object at 0xdeadbeef>
def test_two(self):
x = "hello"
> assert hasattr(x, 'check')
E AssertionError: assert False
E + where False = hasattr('hello', 'check')
test_class.py:8: AssertionError
1 failed, 1 passed in 0.12 seconds
The first test passed and the second failed. You can easily see the intermediate values in the assertion to help you understand the reason for the failure.
Request a unique temporary directory for functional tests
--------------------------------------------------------------
``pytest`` provides `Builtin fixtures/function arguments <https://docs.pytest.org/en/latest/builtin.html#builtinfixtures>`_ to request arbitrary resources, like a unique temporary directory::
# content of test_tmpdir.py
def test_needsfiles(tmpdir):
print (tmpdir)
assert 0
List the name ``tmpdir`` in the test function signature and ``pytest`` will lookup and call a fixture factory to create the resource before performing the test function call. Before the test runs, ``pytest`` creates a unique-per-test-invocation temporary directory::
$ pytest -q test_tmpdir.py
F [100%]
================================= FAILURES =================================
_____________________________ test_needsfiles ______________________________
tmpdir = local('PYTEST_TMPDIR/test_needsfiles0')
def test_needsfiles(tmpdir):
print (tmpdir)
> assert 0
E assert 0
test_tmpdir.py:3: AssertionError
--------------------------- Captured stdout call ---------------------------
PYTEST_TMPDIR/test_needsfiles0
1 failed in 0.12 seconds
More info on tmpdir handling is available at :ref:`Temporary directories and files <tmpdir handling>`.
Find out what kind of builtin :ref:`pytest fixtures <fixtures>` exist with the command::
pytest --fixtures # shows builtin and custom fixtures
Note that this command omits fixtures with leading ``_`` unless the ``-v`` option is added.
Continue reading
-------------------------------------
Check out additional pytest resources to help you customize tests for your unique workflow:
* ":ref:`cmdline`" for command line invocation examples
* ":ref:`existingtestsuite`" for working with pre-existing tests
* ":ref:`mark`" for information on the ``pytest.mark`` mechanism
* ":ref:`fixtures`" for providing a functional baseline to your tests
* ":ref:`plugins`" for managing and writing plugins
* ":ref:`goodpractices`" for virtualenv and test layouts
.. include:: links.inc