blob: de93d18ce0ab36525ecb1ae3af6e417ef5cf00d6 [file] [log] [blame]
#!/usr/bin/env python
# Copyright (c) 2011 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.
# Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
# found in the LICENSE file.
"""Parse a command line, retrieving a command and its arguments.
Supports the concept of command line commands, each with its own set
of arguments. Supports dependent arguments and mutually exclusive arguments.
Basically, a better optparse. I took heed of epg's WHINE() in gvn.cmdline
and dumped optparse in favor of something better.
import os.path
import re
import string
import sys
import textwrap
import types
def IsString(var):
"""Little helper function to see if a variable is a string."""
return type(var) in types.StringTypes
class ParseError(Exception):
"""Encapsulates errors from parsing, string arg is description."""
class Command(object):
"""Implements a single command."""
def __init__(self, names, helptext, validator=None, impl=None):
"""Initializes Command from names and helptext, plus optional callables.
names: command name, or list of synonyms
helptext: brief string description of the command
validator: callable for custom argument validation
Should raise ParseError if it wants
impl: callable to be invoked when command is called
self.names = names
self.validator = validator
self.helptext = helptext
self.impl = impl
self.args = []
self.required_groups = []
self.arg_dict = {}
self.positional_args = []
self.cmdline = None
class Argument(object):
"""Encapsulates an argument to a command."""
VALID_TYPES = ['string', 'readfile', 'int', 'flag', 'coords']
TYPES_WITH_VALUES = ['string', 'readfile', 'int', 'coords']
def __init__(self, names, helptext, type, metaname,
required, default, positional):
"""Command-line argument to a command.
names: argument name, or list of synonyms
helptext: brief description of the argument
type: type of the argument. Valid values include:
string - a string
readfile - a file which must exist and be available
for reading
int - an integer
flag - an optional flag (bool)
coords - (x,y) where x and y are ints
metaname: Name to display for value in help, inferred if not
required: True if argument must be specified
default: Default value if not specified
positional: Argument specified by location, not name
ValueError: the argument name is invalid for some reason
if type not in Command.Argument.VALID_TYPES:
raise ValueError("Invalid type: %r" % type)
if required and default is not None:
raise ValueError("required and default are mutually exclusive")
if required and type == 'flag':
raise ValueError("A required flag? Give me a break.")
if metaname and type not in Command.Argument.TYPES_WITH_VALUES:
raise ValueError("Type %r can't have a metaname" % type)
# If no metaname is provided, infer it: use the alphabetical characters
# of the last provided name
if not metaname and type in Command.Argument.TYPES_WITH_VALUES:
metaname = (
names[-1].lstrip(string.punctuation + string.whitespace).upper())
self.names = names
self.helptext = helptext
self.type = type
self.required = required
self.default = default
self.positional = positional
self.metaname = metaname
self.mutex = [] # arguments that are mutually exclusive with
# this one
self.depends = [] # arguments that must be present for this
# one to be valid
self.present = False # has this argument been specified?
def AddDependency(self, arg):
"""Makes this argument dependent on another argument.
arg: name of the argument this one depends on
if arg not in self.depends:
def AddMutualExclusion(self, arg):
"""Makes this argument invalid if another is specified.
arg: name of the mutually exclusive argument.
if arg not in self.mutex:
def GetUsageString(self):
"""Returns a brief string describing the argument's usage."""
if not self.positional:
string = self.names[0]
if self.type in Command.Argument.TYPES_WITH_VALUES:
string += "="+self.metaname
string = self.metaname
if not self.required:
string = "["+string+"]"
return string
def GetNames(self):
"""Returns a string containing a list of the arg's names."""
if self.positional:
return self.metaname
return ", ".join(self.names)
def GetHelpString(self, width=80, indent=5, names_width=20, gutter=2):
"""Returns a help string including help for all the arguments."""
names = [" "*indent + line +" "*(names_width-len(line)) for line in
textwrap.wrap(self.GetNames(), names_width)]
helpstring = textwrap.wrap(self.helptext, width-indent-names_width-gutter)
if len(names) < len(helpstring):
names += [" "*(indent+names_width)]*(len(helpstring)-len(names))
if len(helpstring) < len(names):
helpstring += [""]*(len(names)-len(helpstring))
return "\n".join([name_line + " "*gutter + help_line for
name_line, help_line in zip(names, helpstring)])
def __repr__(self):
if self.present:
string = '= %r' % self.value
string = "(absent)"
return "Argument %s '%s'%s" % (self.type, self.names[0], string)
# end of nested class Argument
def AddArgument(self, names, helptext, type="string", metaname=None,
required=False, default=None, positional=False):
"""Command-line argument to a command.
names: argument name, or list of synonyms
helptext: brief description of the argument
type: type of the argument
metaname: Name to display for value in help, inferred if not
required: True if argument must be specified
default: Default value if not specified
positional: Argument specified by location, not name
ValueError: the argument already exists or is invalid
The newly-created argument
if IsString(names): names = [names]
names = [name.lower() for name in names]
for name in names:
if name in self.arg_dict:
raise ValueError("%s is already an argument"%name)
if (positional and required and
[arg for arg in self.args if arg.positional] and
not [arg for arg in self.args if arg.positional][-1].required):
raise ValueError(
"A required positional argument may not follow an optional one.")
arg = Command.Argument(names, helptext, type, metaname,
required, default, positional)
for name in names:
self.arg_dict[name] = arg
return arg
def GetArgument(self, name):
"""Return an argument from a name."""
return self.arg_dict[name.lower()]
def AddMutualExclusion(self, args):
"""Specifies that a list of arguments are mutually exclusive."""
if len(args) < 2:
raise ValueError("At least two arguments must be specified.")
args = [arg.lower() for arg in args]
for index in xrange(len(args)-1):
for index2 in xrange(index+1, len(args)):
def AddDependency(self, dependent, depends_on):
"""Specifies that one argument may only be present if another is.
dependent: the name of the dependent argument
depends_on: the name of the argument on which it depends
def AddMutualDependency(self, args):
"""Specifies that a list of arguments are all mutually dependent."""
if len(args) < 2:
raise ValueError("At least two arguments must be specified.")
args = [arg.lower() for arg in args]
for (arg1, arg2) in [(arg1, arg2) for arg1 in args for arg2 in args]:
if arg1 == arg2: continue
def AddRequiredGroup(self, args):
"""Specifies that at least one of the named arguments must be present."""
if len(args) < 2:
raise ValueError("At least two arguments must be in a required group.")
args = [self.arg_dict[arg.lower()] for arg in args]
def ParseArguments(self):
"""Given a command line, parse and validate the arguments."""
# reset all the arguments before we parse
for arg in self.args:
arg.present = False
arg.value = None
self.parse_errors = []
# look for arguments remaining on the command line
while len(self.cmdline.rargs):
except ParseError, e:
# after all the arguments are parsed, check for problems
for arg in self.args:
if not arg.present and arg.required:
self.parse_errors.append("'%s': required parameter was missing"
% arg.names[0])
if not arg.present and arg.default:
arg.present = True
arg.value = arg.default
if arg.present:
for mutex in arg.mutex:
if mutex.present:
"'%s', '%s': arguments are mutually exclusive" %
(arg.argstr, mutex.argstr))
for depend in arg.depends:
if not depend.present:
self.parse_errors.append("'%s': '%s' must be specified as well" %
(arg.argstr, depend.names[0]))
# check for required groups
for group in self.required_groups:
if not [arg for arg in group if arg.present]:
self.parse_errors.append("%s: at least one must be present" %
(", ".join(["'%s'" % arg.names[-1] for arg in group])))
# if we have any validators, invoke them
if not self.parse_errors and self.validator:
except ParseError, e:
# Helper methods so you can treat the command like a dict
def __getitem__(self, key):
arg = self.arg_dict[key.lower()]
if arg.type == 'flag':
return arg.present
return arg.value
def __iter__(self):
return [arg for arg in self.args if arg.present].__iter__()
def ArgumentPresent(self, key):
"""Tests if an argument exists and has been specified."""
return key.lower() in self.arg_dict and self.arg_dict[key.lower()].present
def __contains__(self, key):
return self.ArgumentPresent(key)
def ParseNextArgument(self):
"""Find the next argument in the command line and parse it."""
arg = None
value = None
argstr = self.cmdline.rargs.pop(0)
# First check: is this a literal argument?
if argstr.lower() in self.arg_dict:
arg = self.arg_dict[argstr.lower()]
if arg.type in Command.Argument.TYPES_WITH_VALUES:
if len(self.cmdline.rargs):
value = self.cmdline.rargs.pop(0)
# Second check: is this of the form "arg=val" or "arg:val"?
if arg is None:
delimiter_pos = -1
for delimiter in [':', '=']:
pos = argstr.find(delimiter)
if pos >= 0:
if delimiter_pos < 0 or pos < delimiter_pos:
delimiter_pos = pos
if delimiter_pos >= 0:
testarg = argstr[:delimiter_pos]
testval = argstr[delimiter_pos+1:]
if testarg.lower() in self.arg_dict:
arg = self.arg_dict[testarg.lower()]
argstr = testarg
value = testval
# Third check: does this begin an argument?
if arg is None:
for key in self.arg_dict.iterkeys():
if (len(key) < len(argstr) and
self.arg_dict[key].type in Command.Argument.TYPES_WITH_VALUES and
argstr[:len(key)].lower() == key):
value = argstr[len(key):]
argstr = argstr[:len(key)]
arg = self.arg_dict[argstr]
# Fourth check: do we have any positional arguments available?
if arg is None:
for positional_arg in [
testarg for testarg in self.args if testarg.positional]:
if not positional_arg.present:
arg = positional_arg
value = argstr
argstr = positional_arg.names[0]
# Push the retrieved argument/value onto the largs stack
if argstr: self.cmdline.largs.append(argstr)
if value: self.cmdline.largs.append(value)
# If we've made it this far and haven't found an arg, give up
if arg is None:
raise ParseError("Unknown argument: '%s'" % argstr)
# Convert the value, if necessary
if arg.type in Command.Argument.TYPES_WITH_VALUES and value is None:
raise ParseError("Argument '%s' requires a value" % argstr)
if value is not None:
value = self.StringToValue(value, arg.type, argstr)
arg.argstr = argstr
arg.value = value
arg.present = True
# end method ParseNextArgument
def StringToValue(self, value, type, argstr):
"""Convert a string from the command line to a value type."""
if type == 'string':
pass # leave it be
elif type == 'int':
value = int(value)
except ValueError:
raise ParseError
elif type == 'readfile':
if not os.path.isfile(value):
raise ParseError("'%s': '%s' does not exist" % (argstr, value))
elif type == 'coords':
value = [int(val) for val in
re.match("\(\s*(\d+)\s*\,\s*(\d+)\s*\)\s*\Z", value).
except AttributeError:
raise ParseError
raise ValueError("Unknown type: '%s'" % type)
except ParseError, e:
# The bare exception is raised in the generic case; more specific errors
# will arrive with arguments and should just be reraised
if not e.args:
e = ParseError("'%s': unable to convert '%s' to type '%s'" %
(argstr, value, type))
raise e
return value
def SortArgs(self):
"""Returns a method that can be passed to sort() to sort arguments."""
def ArgSorter(arg1, arg2):
"""Helper for sorting arguments in the usage string.
Positional arguments come first, then required arguments,
then optional arguments. Pylint demands this trivial function
have both Args: and Returns: sections, sigh.
arg1: the first argument to compare
arg2: the second argument to compare
-1 if arg1 should be sorted first, +1 if it should be sorted second,
and 0 if arg1 and arg2 have the same sort level.
return ((arg2.positional-arg1.positional)*2 +
return ArgSorter
def GetUsageString(self, width=80, name=None):
"""Gets a string describing how the command is used."""
if name is None: name = self.names[0]
initial_indent = "Usage: %s %s " % (self.cmdline.prog, name)
subsequent_indent = " " * len(initial_indent)
sorted_args = self.args[:]
return textwrap.fill(
" ".join([arg.GetUsageString() for arg in sorted_args]), width,
def GetHelpString(self, width=80):
"""Returns a list of help strings for all this command's arguments."""
sorted_args = self.args[:]
return "\n".join([arg.GetHelpString(width) for arg in sorted_args])
# end class Command
class CommandLine(object):
"""Parse a command line, extracting a command and its arguments."""
def __init__(self):
self.commands = []
self.cmd_dict = {}
# Add the help command to the parser
help_cmd = self.AddCommand(["help", "--help", "-?", "-h"],
"Displays help text for a command",
"command", "Command to retrieve help for", positional=True)
"--width", "Width of the output", type='int', default=80)
self.Exit = sys.exit # override this if you don't want the script to halt
# on error or on display of help
self.out = sys.stdout # override these if you want to redirect
self.err = sys.stderr # output or error messages
def AddCommand(self, names, helptext, validator=None, impl=None):
"""Add a new command to the parser.
names: command name, or list of synonyms
helptext: brief string description of the command
validator: method to validate a command's arguments
impl: callable to be invoked when command is called
ValueError: raised if command already added
The new command
if IsString(names): names = [names]
for name in names:
if name in self.cmd_dict:
raise ValueError("%s is already a command"%name)
cmd = Command(names, helptext, validator, impl)
cmd.cmdline = self
for name in names:
self.cmd_dict[name.lower()] = cmd
return cmd
def GetUsageString(self):
"""Returns simple usage instructions."""
return "Type '%s help' for usage." % self.prog
def ParseCommandLine(self, argv=None, prog=None, execute=True):
"""Does the work of parsing a command line.
argv: list of arguments, defaults to sys.args[1:]
prog: name of the command, defaults to the base name of the script
execute: if false, just parse, don't invoke the 'impl' member
The command that was executed
if argv is None: argv = sys.argv[1:]
if prog is None: prog = os.path.basename(sys.argv[0]).split('.')[0]
# Store off our parameters, we may need them someday
self.argv = argv
self.prog = prog
# We shouldn't be invoked without arguments, that's just lame
if not len(argv):
return None # in case the client overrides Exit
# Is it a valid command?
self.command_string = argv[0].lower()
if not self.command_string in self.cmd_dict:
self.err.write("Unknown command: '%s'\n\n" % self.command_string)
return None # in case the client overrides Exit
self.command = self.cmd_dict[self.command_string]
# "rargs" = remaining (unparsed) arguments
# "largs" = already parsed, "left" of the read head
self.rargs = argv[1:]
self.largs = []
# let the command object do the parsing
if self.command.parse_errors:
# there were errors, output the usage string and exit
elif execute and self.command.impl:
return self.command
def __getitem__(self, key):
return self.cmd_dict[key]
def __iter__(self):
return self.cmd_dict.__iter__()
def ValidateHelpCommand(command):
"""Checks to make sure an argument to 'help' is a valid command."""
if 'command' in command and command['command'] not in command.cmdline:
raise ParseError("'%s': unknown command" % command['command'])
def DoHelpCommand(command):
"""Executed when the command is 'help'."""
out = command.cmdline.out
width = command['--width']
if 'command' not in command:
indent = 5
gutter = 2
command_width = (
max([len(cmd.names[0]) for cmd in command.cmdline.commands]) + gutter)
for cmd in command.cmdline.commands:
cmd_name = cmd.names[0]
initial_indent = (" "*indent + cmd_name + " "*
subsequent_indent = " "*(indent+command_width+gutter)
out.write(textwrap.fill(cmd.helptext, width,
help_cmd = command.cmdline[command['command']]
out.write(textwrap.fill(help_cmd.helptext, width))
def main():
# If we're invoked rather than imported, run some tests
cmdline = CommandLine()
# Since we're testing, override Exit()
def TestExit():
cmdline.Exit = TestExit
# Actually, while we're at it, let's override error output too
cmdline.err = open(os.path.devnull, "w")
test = cmdline.AddCommand(["test", "testa", "testb"], "test command")
test.AddArgument(["-i", "--int", "--integer", "--optint", "--optionalint"],
"optional integer parameter", type='int')
test.AddArgument("--reqint", "required integer parameter", type='int',
test.AddArgument("pos1", "required positional argument", positional=True,
test.AddArgument("pos2", "optional positional argument", positional=True)
test.AddArgument("pos3", "another optional positional arg",
# mutually dependent arguments
test.AddArgument("--mutdep1", "mutually dependent parameter 1")
test.AddArgument("--mutdep2", "mutually dependent parameter 2")
test.AddArgument("--mutdep3", "mutually dependent parameter 3")
test.AddMutualDependency(["--mutdep1", "--mutdep2", "--mutdep3"])
# mutually exclusive arguments
test.AddArgument("--mutex1", "mutually exclusive parameter 1")
test.AddArgument("--mutex2", "mutually exclusive parameter 2")
test.AddArgument("--mutex3", "mutually exclusive parameter 3")
test.AddMutualExclusion(["--mutex1", "--mutex2", "--mutex3"])
# dependent argument
test.AddArgument("--dependent", "dependent argument")
test.AddDependency("--dependent", "--int")
# other argument types
test.AddArgument("--file", "filename argument", type='readfile')
test.AddArgument("--coords", "coordinate argument", type='coords')
test.AddArgument("--flag", "flag argument", type='flag')
test.AddArgument("--req1", "part of a required group", type='flag')
test.AddArgument("--req2", "part 2 of a required group", type='flag')
test.AddRequiredGroup(["--req1", "--req2"])
# a few failure cases
exception_cases = """
test.AddArgument("failpos", "can't have req'd pos arg after opt",
positional=True, required=True)
test.AddArgument("--int", "this argument already exists")
test.AddDependency("--int", "--doesntexist")
test.AddMutualDependency(["--doesntexist", "--mutdep2"])
test.AddMutualExclusion(["--doesntexist", "--mutex2"])
test.AddArgument("--reqflag", "required flag", required=True, type='flag')
test.AddRequiredGroup(["--req1", "--doesntexist"])
for exception_case in exception_cases.split("+++"):
exception_case = exception_case.strip()
exec exception_case # yes, I'm using exec, it's just for a test.
except ValueError:
# this is expected
except KeyError:
# ...and so is this
print ("FAILURE: expected an exception for '%s'"
" and didn't get it" % exception_case)
# Let's do some parsing! first, the minimal success line:
MIN = "test --reqint 123 param1 --req1 "
# tuples of (command line, expected error count)
test_lines = [
("test --int 3 foo --req1", 1), # missing required named parameter
("test --reqint 3 --req1", 1), # missing required positional parameter
(MIN, 0), # success!
("test param1 --reqint 123 --req1", 0), # success, order shouldn't matter
("test param1 --reqint 123 --req2", 0), # success, any of required group ok
(MIN+"param2", 0), # another positional parameter is okay
(MIN+"param2 param3", 0), # and so are three
(MIN+"param2 param3 param4", 1), # but four are just too many
(MIN+"--int", 1), # where's the value?
(MIN+"--int 456", 0), # this is fine
(MIN+"--int456", 0), # as is this
(MIN+"--int:456", 0), # and this
(MIN+"--int=456", 0), # and this
(MIN+"--file c:\\windows\\system32\\kernel32.dll", 0), # yup
(MIN+"--file c:\\thisdoesntexist", 1), # nope
(MIN+"--mutdep1 a", 2), # no!
(MIN+"--mutdep2 b", 2), # also no!
(MIN+"--mutdep3 c", 2), # dream on!
(MIN+"--mutdep1 a --mutdep2 b", 2), # almost!
(MIN+"--mutdep1 a --mutdep2 b --mutdep3 c", 0), # yes
(MIN+"--mutex1 a", 0), # yes
(MIN+"--mutex2 b", 0), # yes
(MIN+"--mutex3 c", 0), # fine
(MIN+"--mutex1 a --mutex2 b", 1), # not fine
(MIN+"--mutex1 a --mutex2 b --mutex3 c", 3), # even worse
(MIN+"--dependent 1", 1), # no
(MIN+"--dependent 1 --int 2", 0), # ok
(MIN+"--int abc", 1), # bad type
(MIN+"--coords abc", 1), # also bad
(MIN+"--coords (abc)", 1), # getting warmer
(MIN+"--coords (abc,def)", 1), # missing something
(MIN+"--coords (123)", 1), # ooh, so close
(MIN+"--coords (123,def)", 1), # just a little farther
(MIN+"--coords (123,456)", 0), # finally!
("test --int 123 --reqint=456 foo bar --coords(42,88) baz --req1", 0)
badtests = 0
for (test, expected_failures) in test_lines:
cmdline.ParseCommandLine([x.strip() for x in test.strip().split(" ")])
if not len(cmdline.command.parse_errors) == expected_failures:
print "FAILED:\n issued: '%s'\n expected: %d\n received: %d\n\n" % (
test, expected_failures, len(cmdline.command.parse_errors))
badtests += 1
print "%d failed out of %d tests" % (badtests, len(test_lines))
cmdline.ParseCommandLine(["help", "test"])
if __name__ == "__main__":