blob: eae4236605872c0c7149045de27213ba6e1095f0 [file] [log] [blame]
// Copyright (c) 2012 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
#include "media/audio/win/audio_low_latency_output_win.h"
#include <Functiondiscoverykeys_devpkey.h>
#include <objbase.h>
#include <climits>
#include "base/command_line.h"
#include "base/logging.h"
#include "base/macros.h"
#include "base/metrics/histogram.h"
#include "base/strings/utf_string_conversions.h"
#include "base/time/time.h"
#include "base/trace_event/trace_event.h"
#include "base/win/scoped_propvariant.h"
#include "media/audio/audio_device_description.h"
#include "media/audio/win/audio_manager_win.h"
#include "media/audio/win/avrt_wrapper_win.h"
#include "media/audio/win/core_audio_util_win.h"
#include "media/base/audio_sample_types.h"
#include "media/base/limits.h"
#include "media/base/media_switches.h"
using base::win::ScopedCOMInitializer;
using base::win::ScopedCoMem;
namespace media {
// static
AUDCLNT_SHAREMODE WASAPIAudioOutputStream::GetShareMode() {
const base::CommandLine* cmd_line = base::CommandLine::ForCurrentProcess();
if (cmd_line->HasSwitch(switches::kEnableExclusiveAudio))
WASAPIAudioOutputStream::WASAPIAudioOutputStream(AudioManagerWin* manager,
const std::string& device_id,
const AudioParameters& params,
ERole device_role)
: creating_thread_id_(base::PlatformThread::CurrentId()),
source_(NULL) {
// The empty string is used to indicate a default device and the
// |device_role_| member controls whether that's the default or default
// communications device.
DCHECK_NE(device_id_, AudioDeviceDescription::kDefaultDeviceId);
DCHECK_NE(device_id_, AudioDeviceDescription::kCommunicationsDeviceId);
DVLOG(1) << "WASAPIAudioOutputStream::WASAPIAudioOutputStream()";
<< "Core Audio (WASAPI) EXCLUSIVE MODE is enabled.";
// Load the Avrt DLL if not already loaded. Required to support MMCSS.
bool avrt_init = avrt::Initialize();
DCHECK(avrt_init) << "Failed to load the avrt.dll";
audio_bus_ = AudioBus::Create(params);
// Set up the desired render format specified by the client. We use the
// WAVE_FORMAT_EXTENSIBLE structure to ensure that multiple channel ordering
// and high precision data can be supported.
// Begin with the WAVEFORMATEX structure that specifies the basic format.
WAVEFORMATEX* format = &format_.Format;
format->wFormatTag = WAVE_FORMAT_EXTENSIBLE;
format->nChannels = params.channels();
format->nSamplesPerSec = params.sample_rate();
format->wBitsPerSample = sizeof(float) * 8;
format->nBlockAlign = (format->wBitsPerSample / 8) * format->nChannels;
format->nAvgBytesPerSec = format->nSamplesPerSec * format->nBlockAlign;
format->cbSize = sizeof(WAVEFORMATEXTENSIBLE) - sizeof(WAVEFORMATEX);
// Add the parts which are unique to WAVE_FORMAT_EXTENSIBLE.
format_.Samples.wValidBitsPerSample = format->wBitsPerSample;
format_.dwChannelMask = CoreAudioUtil::GetChannelConfig(device_id, eRender);
// Store size (in different units) of audio packets which we expect to
// get from the audio endpoint device in each render event.
packet_size_frames_ = params.frames_per_buffer();
packet_size_bytes_ = params.GetBytesPerBuffer(kSampleFormatF32);
DVLOG(1) << "Number of bytes per audio frame : " << format->nBlockAlign;
DVLOG(1) << "Number of audio frames per packet: " << packet_size_frames_;
DVLOG(1) << "Number of bytes per packet : " << packet_size_bytes_;
DVLOG(1) << "Number of milliseconds per packet: "
<< params.GetBufferDuration().InMillisecondsF();
// All events are auto-reset events and non-signaled initially.
// Create the event which the audio engine will signal each time
// a buffer becomes ready to be processed by the client.
audio_samples_render_event_.Set(CreateEvent(NULL, FALSE, FALSE, NULL));
// Create the event which will be set in Stop() when capturing shall stop.
stop_render_event_.Set(CreateEvent(NULL, FALSE, FALSE, NULL));
WASAPIAudioOutputStream::~WASAPIAudioOutputStream() {
DCHECK_EQ(GetCurrentThreadId(), creating_thread_id_);
bool WASAPIAudioOutputStream::Open() {
DVLOG(1) << "WASAPIAudioOutputStream::Open()";
DCHECK_EQ(GetCurrentThreadId(), creating_thread_id_);
if (opened_)
return true;
const bool communications_device =
device_id_.empty() ? (device_role_ == eCommunications) : false;
Microsoft::WRL::ComPtr<IAudioClient> audio_client(
CoreAudioUtil::CreateClient(device_id_, eRender, device_role_));
if (!audio_client.Get())
return false;
// Extra sanity to ensure that the provided device format is still valid.
if (!CoreAudioUtil::IsFormatSupported(audio_client.Get(), share_mode_,
&format_)) {
LOG(ERROR) << "Audio parameters are not supported.";
return false;
if (share_mode_ == AUDCLNT_SHAREMODE_SHARED) {
// Initialize the audio stream between the client and the device in shared
// mode and using event-driven buffer handling.
hr = CoreAudioUtil::SharedModeInitialize(
audio_client.Get(), &format_, audio_samples_render_event_.Get(),
communications_device ? &kCommunicationsSessionId : NULL);
if (FAILED(hr))
return false;
REFERENCE_TIME device_period = 0;
if (FAILED(CoreAudioUtil::GetDevicePeriod(
audio_client.Get(), AUDCLNT_SHAREMODE_SHARED, &device_period))) {
return false;
const int preferred_frames_per_buffer = static_cast<int>(
format_.Format.nSamplesPerSec *
.InSecondsF() +
// Packet size should always be an even divisor of the device period for
// best performance; things will still work otherwise, but may glitch for a
// couple of reasons.
// The first reason is if/when repeated RenderAudioFromSource() hit the
// shared memory boundary between the renderer and the browser. The next
// audio buffer is always requested after the current request is consumed.
// With back-to-back calls the round-trip may not be fast enough and thus
// audio will glitch as we fail to deliver audio in a timely manner.
// The second reason is event wakeup efficiency. We may have too few or too
// many frames to fill the output buffer requested by WASAPI. If too few,
// we'll refuse the render event and wait until more output space is
// available. If we have too many frames, we'll only partially fill and
// wait for the next render event. In either case certain remainders may
// leave us unable to fulfill the request in a timely manner, thus glitches.
// Log a warning in these cases so we can help users in the field.
// Examples: 48kHz => 960 % 480, 44.1kHz => 896 % 448 or 882 % 441.
if (preferred_frames_per_buffer % packet_size_frames_) {
<< "Using WASAPI output with a non-optimal buffer size, glitches from"
<< " back to back shared memory reads and partial fills of WASAPI"
<< " output buffers may occur. Buffer size of "
<< packet_size_frames_ << " is not an even divisor of "
<< preferred_frames_per_buffer;
} else {
// TODO(henrika): break out to CoreAudioUtil::ExclusiveModeInitialize()
// when removing the enable-exclusive-audio flag.
hr = ExclusiveModeInitialization(audio_client.Get(),
if (FAILED(hr))
return false;
// The buffer scheme for exclusive mode streams is not designed for max
// flexibility. We only allow a "perfect match" between the packet size set
// by the user and the actual endpoint buffer size.
if (endpoint_buffer_size_frames_ != packet_size_frames_) {
LOG(ERROR) << "Bailing out due to non-perfect timing.";
return false;
// Create an IAudioRenderClient client for an initialized IAudioClient.
// The IAudioRenderClient interface enables us to write output data to
// a rendering endpoint buffer.
Microsoft::WRL::ComPtr<IAudioRenderClient> audio_render_client =
if (!audio_render_client.Get())
return false;
// Store valid COM interfaces.
audio_client_ = audio_client;
audio_render_client_ = audio_render_client;
hr = audio_client_->GetService(IID_PPV_ARGS(&audio_clock_));
if (FAILED(hr)) {
LOG(ERROR) << "Failed to get IAudioClock service.";
return false;
opened_ = true;
return true;
void WASAPIAudioOutputStream::Start(AudioSourceCallback* callback) {
DVLOG(1) << "WASAPIAudioOutputStream::Start()";
DCHECK_EQ(GetCurrentThreadId(), creating_thread_id_);
if (render_thread_) {
CHECK_EQ(callback, source_);
// Ensure that the endpoint buffer is prepared with silence. Also serves as
// a sanity check for the IAudioClient and IAudioRenderClient which may have
// been invalidated by Windows since the last Stop() call.
// While technically we only need to retry when WASAPI tells us the device has
// been invalidated (AUDCLNT_E_DEVICE_INVALIDATED), we retry for all errors
// for simplicity and due to large sites like YouTube reporting high success
// rates with a simple retry upon detection of an audio output error.
if (share_mode_ == AUDCLNT_SHAREMODE_SHARED) {
if (!CoreAudioUtil::FillRenderEndpointBufferWithSilence(
audio_client_.Get(), audio_render_client_.Get())) {
DLOG(WARNING) << "Failed to prepare endpoint buffers with silence. "
"Attempting recovery with a new IAudioClient and "
opened_ = false;
if (!Open() || !CoreAudioUtil::FillRenderEndpointBufferWithSilence(
audio_client_.Get(), audio_render_client_.Get())) {
DLOG(ERROR) << "Failed recovery of audio clients; Start() failed.";
source_ = callback;
num_written_frames_ = endpoint_buffer_size_frames_;
// Create and start the thread that will drive the rendering by waiting for
// render events.
render_thread_.reset(new base::DelegateSimpleThread(
this, "wasapi_render_thread",
if (!render_thread_->HasBeenStarted()) {
LOG(ERROR) << "Failed to start WASAPI render thread.";
// Start streaming data between the endpoint buffer and the audio engine.
HRESULT hr = audio_client_->Start();
if (FAILED(hr)) {
PLOG(ERROR) << "Failed to start output streaming: " << std::hex << hr;
void WASAPIAudioOutputStream::Stop() {
DVLOG(1) << "WASAPIAudioOutputStream::Stop()";
DCHECK_EQ(GetCurrentThreadId(), creating_thread_id_);
if (!render_thread_)
// Stop output audio streaming.
HRESULT hr = audio_client_->Stop();
if (FAILED(hr)) {
PLOG(ERROR) << "Failed to stop output streaming: " << std::hex << hr;
// Make a local copy of |source_| since StopThread() will clear it.
AudioSourceCallback* callback = source_;
// Flush all pending data and reset the audio clock stream position to 0.
hr = audio_client_->Reset();
if (FAILED(hr)) {
PLOG(ERROR) << "Failed to reset streaming: " << std::hex << hr;
// Extra safety check to ensure that the buffers are cleared.
// If the buffers are not cleared correctly, the next call to Start()
// would fail with AUDCLNT_E_BUFFER_ERROR at IAudioRenderClient::GetBuffer().
// This check is is only needed for shared-mode streams.
if (share_mode_ == AUDCLNT_SHAREMODE_SHARED) {
UINT32 num_queued_frames = 0;
DCHECK_EQ(0u, num_queued_frames);
void WASAPIAudioOutputStream::Close() {
DVLOG(1) << "WASAPIAudioOutputStream::Close()";
DCHECK_EQ(GetCurrentThreadId(), creating_thread_id_);
// It is valid to call Close() before calling open or Start().
// It is also valid to call Close() after Start() has been called.
// Inform the audio manager that we have been closed. This will cause our
// destruction.
void WASAPIAudioOutputStream::SetVolume(double volume) {
DVLOG(1) << "SetVolume(volume=" << volume << ")";
float volume_float = static_cast<float>(volume);
if (volume_float < 0.0f || volume_float > 1.0f) {
volume_ = volume_float;
void WASAPIAudioOutputStream::GetVolume(double* volume) {
DVLOG(1) << "GetVolume()";
*volume = static_cast<double>(volume_);
void WASAPIAudioOutputStream::Run() {
ScopedCOMInitializer com_init(ScopedCOMInitializer::kMTA);
// Enable MMCSS to ensure that this thread receives prioritized access to
// CPU resources.
DWORD task_index = 0;
HANDLE mm_task = avrt::AvSetMmThreadCharacteristics(L"Pro Audio",
bool mmcss_is_ok =
(mm_task && avrt::AvSetMmThreadPriority(mm_task, AVRT_PRIORITY_CRITICAL));
if (!mmcss_is_ok) {
// Failed to enable MMCSS on this thread. It is not fatal but can lead
// to reduced QoS at high load.
DWORD err = GetLastError();
LOG(WARNING) << "Failed to enable MMCSS (error code=" << err << ").";
bool playing = true;
bool error = false;
HANDLE wait_array[] = { stop_render_event_.Get(),
audio_samples_render_event_.Get() };
UINT64 device_frequency = 0;
// The device frequency is the frequency generated by the hardware clock in
// the audio device. The GetFrequency() method reports a constant frequency.
hr = audio_clock_->GetFrequency(&device_frequency);
error = FAILED(hr);
PLOG_IF(ERROR, error) << "Failed to acquire IAudioClock interface: "
<< std::hex << hr;
// Keep rendering audio until the stop event or the stream-switch event
// is signaled. An error event can also break the main thread loop.
while (playing && !error) {
// Wait for a close-down event, stream-switch event or a new render event.
DWORD wait_result = WaitForMultipleObjects(arraysize(wait_array),
switch (wait_result) {
case WAIT_OBJECT_0 + 0:
// |stop_render_event_| has been set.
playing = false;
case WAIT_OBJECT_0 + 1:
// |audio_samples_render_event_| has been set.
error = !RenderAudioFromSource(device_frequency);
error = true;
if (playing && error) {
LOG(ERROR) << "WASAPI rendering failed.";
// Stop audio rendering since something has gone wrong in our main thread
// loop. Note that, we are still in a "started" state, hence a Stop() call
// is required to join the thread properly.
// Notify clients that something has gone wrong and that this stream should
// be destroyed instead of reused in the future.
// Disable MMCSS.
if (mm_task && !avrt::AvRevertMmThreadCharacteristics(mm_task)) {
PLOG(WARNING) << "Failed to disable MMCSS";
bool WASAPIAudioOutputStream::RenderAudioFromSource(UINT64 device_frequency) {
TRACE_EVENT0("audio", "RenderAudioFromSource");
UINT32 num_queued_frames = 0;
uint8_t* audio_data = NULL;
// Contains how much new data we can write to the buffer without
// the risk of overwriting previously written data that the audio
// engine has not yet read from the buffer.
size_t num_available_frames = 0;
if (share_mode_ == AUDCLNT_SHAREMODE_SHARED) {
// Get the padding value which represents the amount of rendering
// data that is queued up to play in the endpoint buffer.
hr = audio_client_->GetCurrentPadding(&num_queued_frames);
num_available_frames =
endpoint_buffer_size_frames_ - num_queued_frames;
if (FAILED(hr)) {
DLOG(ERROR) << "Failed to retrieve amount of available space: "
<< std::hex << hr;
return false;
} else {
// While the stream is running, the system alternately sends one
// buffer or the other to the client. This form of double buffering
// is referred to as "ping-ponging". Each time the client receives
// a buffer from the system (triggers this event) the client must
// process the entire buffer. Calls to the GetCurrentPadding method
// are unnecessary because the packet size must always equal the
// buffer size. In contrast to the shared mode buffering scheme,
// the latency for an event-driven, exclusive-mode stream depends
// directly on the buffer size.
num_available_frames = endpoint_buffer_size_frames_;
// Check if there is enough available space to fit the packet size
// specified by the client. If not, wait until a future callback.
if (num_available_frames < packet_size_frames_)
return true;
// Derive the number of packets we need to get from the client to fill up the
// available area in the endpoint buffer. Well-behaved (> Vista) clients and
// exclusive mode streams should generally have a |num_packets| value of 1.
// Vista clients are not able to maintain reliable callbacks, so the endpoint
// buffer may exhaust itself such that back-to-back callbacks are occasionally
// necessary to avoid glitches. In such cases we have no choice but to issue
// back-to-back reads and pray that the browser side has enough data cached or
// that the render can fulfill the read before we glitch anyways.
// API documentation does not guarantee that even on Win7+ clients we won't
// need to fill more than a period size worth of buffers; but in practice this
// appears to be infrequent.
// See
const size_t num_packets = num_available_frames / packet_size_frames_;
for (size_t n = 0; n < num_packets; ++n) {
// Grab all available space in the rendering endpoint buffer
// into which the client can write a data packet.
hr = audio_render_client_->GetBuffer(packet_size_frames_,
if (FAILED(hr)) {
DLOG(ERROR) << "Failed to use rendering audio buffer: "
<< std::hex << hr;
return false;
// Derive the audio delay which corresponds to the delay between
// a render event and the time when the first audio sample in a
// packet is played out through the speaker. This delay value
// can typically be utilized by an acoustic echo-control (AEC)
// unit at the render side.
UINT64 position = 0;
UINT64 qpc_position = 0;
base::TimeDelta delay;
base::TimeTicks delay_timestamp;
hr = audio_clock_->GetPosition(&position, &qpc_position);
if (SUCCEEDED(hr)) {
// Number of frames already played out through the speaker.
const uint64_t played_out_frames =
format_.Format.nSamplesPerSec * position / device_frequency;
// Number of frames that have been written to the buffer but not yet
// played out.
const uint64_t delay_frames = num_written_frames_ - played_out_frames;
// Convert the delay from frames to time.
delay = base::TimeDelta::FromMicroseconds(
delay_frames * base::Time::kMicrosecondsPerSecond /
// Note: the obtained |qpc_position| value is in 100ns intervals and from
// the same time origin as QPC. We can simply convert it into us dividing
// by 10.0 since 10x100ns = 1us.
delay_timestamp += base::TimeDelta::FromMicroseconds(qpc_position * 0.1);
} else {
// Use a delay of zero.
delay_timestamp = base::TimeTicks::Now();
// Read a data packet from the registered client source and
// deliver a delay estimate in the same callback to the client.
int frames_filled =
source_->OnMoreData(delay, delay_timestamp, 0, audio_bus_.get());
uint32_t num_filled_bytes = frames_filled * format_.Format.nBlockAlign;
DCHECK_LE(num_filled_bytes, packet_size_bytes_);
frames_filled, reinterpret_cast<float*>(audio_data));
// Release the buffer space acquired in the GetBuffer() call.
// Render silence if we were not able to fill up the buffer totally.
DWORD flags = (num_filled_bytes < packet_size_bytes_) ?
audio_render_client_->ReleaseBuffer(packet_size_frames_, flags);
num_written_frames_ += packet_size_frames_;
return true;
HRESULT WASAPIAudioOutputStream::ExclusiveModeInitialization(
IAudioClient* client,
HANDLE event_handle,
uint32_t* endpoint_buffer_size) {
float f = (1000.0 * packet_size_frames_) / format_.Format.nSamplesPerSec;
REFERENCE_TIME requested_buffer_duration =
static_cast<REFERENCE_TIME>(f * 10000.0 + 0.5);
bool use_event = (event_handle != NULL &&
event_handle != INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE);
if (use_event)
DVLOG(2) << "stream_flags: 0x" << std::hex << stream_flags;
// Initialize the audio stream between the client and the device.
// For an exclusive-mode stream that uses event-driven buffering, the
// caller must specify nonzero values for hnsPeriodicity and
// hnsBufferDuration, and the values of these two parameters must be equal.
// The Initialize method allocates two buffers for the stream. Each buffer
// is equal in duration to the value of the hnsBufferDuration parameter.
// Following the Initialize call for a rendering stream, the caller should
// fill the first of the two buffers before starting the stream.
hr = client->Initialize(AUDCLNT_SHAREMODE_EXCLUSIVE,
if (FAILED(hr)) {
UINT32 aligned_buffer_size = 0;
DVLOG(1) << "Use aligned buffer size instead: " << aligned_buffer_size;
// Calculate new aligned periodicity. Each unit of reference time
// is 100 nanoseconds.
REFERENCE_TIME aligned_buffer_duration = static_cast<REFERENCE_TIME>(
(10000000.0 * aligned_buffer_size / format_.Format.nSamplesPerSec)
+ 0.5);
// It is possible to re-activate and re-initialize the audio client
// at this stage but we bail out with an error code instead and
// combine it with a log message which informs about the suggested
// aligned buffer size which should be used instead.
DVLOG(1) << "aligned_buffer_duration: "
<< static_cast<double>(aligned_buffer_duration / 10000.0)
<< " [ms]";
// We will get this error if we try to use a smaller buffer size than
// the minimum supported size (usually ~3ms on Windows 7).
return hr;
if (use_event) {
hr = client->SetEventHandle(event_handle);
if (FAILED(hr)) {
DVLOG(1) << "IAudioClient::SetEventHandle: " << std::hex << hr;
return hr;
UINT32 buffer_size_in_frames = 0;
hr = client->GetBufferSize(&buffer_size_in_frames);
if (FAILED(hr)) {
DVLOG(1) << "IAudioClient::GetBufferSize: " << std::hex << hr;
return hr;
*endpoint_buffer_size = buffer_size_in_frames;
DVLOG(2) << "endpoint buffer size: " << buffer_size_in_frames;
return hr;
void WASAPIAudioOutputStream::StopThread() {
if (render_thread_) {
if (render_thread_->HasBeenStarted()) {
// Wait until the thread completes and perform cleanup.
// Ensure that we don't quit the main thread loop immediately next
// time Start() is called.
source_ = NULL;
} // namespace media