AddressSanitizer (ASan) is a fast memory error detector based on compiler instrumentation (LLVM). It is fully usable for Chrome on Android, Chrome OS, iOS simulator, Linux, Mac, and 64-bit Windows. Additional info on the tool itself is available at https://clang.llvm.org/docs/AddressSanitizer.html.
For the memory leak detector built into ASan, see LeakSanitizer. If you want to debug memory leaks, please refer to the instructions on that page instead.
The Chromium Memory waterfall contains buildbots running Chromium tests under ASan on Linux (Linux ASan/LSan bots for the regular Linux build, Linux Chromium OS ASan for the chromeos=1 build running on Linux), macOS, Chromium OS. Linux and Linux Chromium OS bots run with --no-sandbox, but there's an extra Linux bot that enables the sandbox (but disables LeakSanitizer).
The trybots running Chromium tests on Linux and macOS are:
You can grab fresh Chrome binaries built with ASan here. The lists of ASan binaries are very long, but you can filter down to more specific releases by specifying a prefix like linux-debug/asan-linux-debug-83. This is useful for finding a build for a specific revision, since filenames are of the form
asan-<platform>-<buildtype>-<revision> (but not every revision has an archived ASan build). The get_asan_chrome helper script is a handy way to download builds; its --help flag provides usage instructions.
Building with ASan is easy. Start by compiling
base_unittests to verify the build is working for you (see below). Then, you can compile
browser_tests, etc.. Make sure to compile release builds.
Create an asan build directory by running:
gn args out/asan
Enter the following build variables in the editor that will pop up:
is_asan = true is_debug = false # Release build.
ninja -C out/asan base_unittests
ASan builds should work seamlessly with Goma; just add
use_goma=true in your “gn args” Don't forget to use
ninja -j <jobs> to take advantage of goma.
If you want your stack traces to be precise, you will have to disable inlining by setting the GN arg:
enable_full_stack_frames_for_profiling = true
Note that this incurs a significant performance hit. Please do not do this on buildbots.
If you're working on reproducing ClusterFuzz reports, you might want to add:
v8_enable_verify_heap = true
in order to enable the
--verify-heap command line flag for v8 in Release builds.
ATTENTION (Linux only): These instructions are for running ASan in a way that is compatible with the sandbox. However, this is not compatible with LeakSanitizer. If you want to debug memory leaks, please use the instructions on the LeakSanitizer page instead.
Now, check that the tool works. Run the following:
out/asan/base_unittests \ --gtest_filter=ToolsSanityTest.DISABLED_AddressSanitizerLocalOOBCrashTest \ --gtest_also_run_disabled_tests
The test will crash with the following error report:
==26552== ERROR: AddressSanitizer stack-buffer-overflow on address \ 0x7fff338adb14 at pc 0xac20a7 bp 0x7fff338adad0 sp 0x7fff338adac8 WRITE of size 4 at 0x7fff338adb14 thread T0 #0 0xac20a7 in base::ToolsSanityTest_DISABLED_AddressSanitizerLocalOOBCrashTest_Test::TestBody() ???:0 #1 0xcddbd6 in testing::Test::Run() testing/gtest/src/gtest.cc:2161 #2 0xcdf63b in testing::TestInfo::Run() testing/gtest/src/gtest.cc:2338 ... lots more stuff Address 0x7fff338adb14 is located at offset 52 in frame \ base::ToolsSanityTest_DISABLED_AddressSanitizerLocalOOBCrashTest_Test::TestBody()> of T0's stack: This frame has 2 object(s): [32, 52) 'array' [96, 104) 'access' ==26552== ABORTING ... lots more stuff
Congrats, you have a working ASan build! 🙌
And finally, have fun with the
out/Release/chrome binary. The filter script
tools/valgrind/asan/asan_symbolize.py can be used to symbolize the output, although it shouldn't be necessary on Linux and Windows, where Chrome uses the llvm-symbolizer in its source tree by default.
ASan should perfectly work with Chrome‘s sandbox. You should only need to run with
--no-sandbox on Linux if you’re debugging ASan. Note: you have to disable the sandbox on Windows until it is supported.
You may need to run with
--disable-gpu on Linux with NVIDIA driver older than 295.20.
You will likely need to define environment variable
G_SLICE=always-malloc to avoid crashes inside gtk.
NSS_DISABLE_UNLOAD=1 are required as well.
When filing a bug found by AddressSanitizer, please add a label
ASan's behavior can be changed by exporting the
ASAN_OPTIONS env var. Some of the useful options are listed on this page, others can be obtained from running an ASanified binary with
ASAN_OPTIONS=help=1. Note that Chromium sets its own defaults for some options, so the default behavior may be different from that observed in other projects. See
build/sanitizers/sanitizer_options.cc for more details.
On Linux (and soon on macOS) you can build and run Chromium with NaCl under ASan. Untrusted code (nexe) itself is not instrumented with ASan in this mode, but everything else is.
To do this, remove
enable_nacl=false from your
args.gn, and define
NACL_DANGEROUS_SKIP_QUALIFICATION_TEST=1 in your environment at run time.
Pipe chromium output (stderr) through
tools/valgrind/asan/asan_symbolize.py `pwd`/ to get function names and line numbers in ASan reports. If you're seeing crashes within
nacl_helper_bootstrap, try deleting
It‘s possible to build and run Chrome tests for iOS simulator (which are x86 binaries essentially) under ASan. Note that you’ll need a Chrome iOS checkout for that. It isn't currently possible to build iOS binaries targeting ARM.
Configure your build with
is_asan = true as described above. Replace your build directory as needed:
ninja -C out/Release-iphonesimulator base_unittests out/Release-iphonesimulator/iossim -d "iPhone" -s 7.0 \ out/Release-iphonesimulator/base_unittests.app/ \ --gtest_filter=ToolsSanityTest.DISABLED_AddressSanitizerLocalOOBCrashTest \ --gtest_also_run_disabled_tests 2>&1 | tools/valgrind/asan/asan_symbolize.py
You'll see the same report as shown above (see the “Verify the ASan tool works” section), with a number of iOS-specific frames.
Follow AndroidBuildInstructions with minor changes:
target_os="android" is_asan=true is_debug=false
Running ASan applications on Android requires additional device setup. Chromium testing scripts take care of this, so testing works as expected:
build/android/test_runner.py instrumentation --test-apk ContentShellTest \ --test_data content:content/test/data/android/device_files -v -v -v \ --tool=asan --release
If the above step fails or to run stuff without Chromium testing script (ex. ContentShell.apk, or any third party apk or binary), device setup is needed:
tools/android/asan/third_party/asan_device_setup.sh \ --lib third_party/android_ndk/toolchains/llvm/prebuilt/linux-x86_64/lib64/clang/*/lib/linux # wait a few seconds for the device to reload
It only needs to be run once per device. It is safe to run it multiple times. Examine the output to ensure that setup was successful (you may need to run
adb disable-verity and restart the device first). When this is done, the device will run ASan apks as well as normal apks without any further setup.
To run command-line tools (i.e. binaries), prefix them with
adb shell /system/bin/asanwrapper /path/to/binary
build/android/asan_symbolize.py to symbolize stack from
adb logcat. It needs the
--output-directory argument and takes care of translating the device path to the unstripped binary in the output directory.
This is needed to detect addressability bugs in the ARM code emitted by V8 and running on an instrumented ARM emulator in a 32-bit x86 Linux Chromium. You probably don't want this, and these instructions have bitrotted because they still reference GYP. If you do this successfully, please update! See https://crbug.com/324207 for some context.
First, you need to install the 32-bit chroot environment using the
build/install-chroot.sh script (as described in https://code.google.com/p/chromium/wiki/LinuxBuild32On64). Second, install the build deps:
precise32 build/install-build-deps.sh \ # assuming your schroot wrapper is called 'precise32'
You'll need to make two symlinks to avoid linking errors:
sudo ln -s $CHROOT/usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/libc_nonshared.a \ /usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/libc_nonshared.a sudo ln -s $CHROOT/usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/libpthread_nonshared.a \ /usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/libpthread_nonshared.a
Now configure and build your Chrome:
GYP_GENERATOR_FLAGS="output_dir=out_asan_chroot" GYP_DEFINES="asan=1 \ disable_nacl=1 v8_target_arch=arm sysroot=/var/lib/chroot/precise32bit/ \ chroot_cmd=precise32 host_arch=x86_64 target_arch=ia32" gclient runhooks ninja -C out_asan_chroot/Release chrome
disable_nacl=1 is needed for now.
For the linux-chromeos “emulator” build, run Asan following the instructions above, just like you would for Linux.
For Chromebook hardware, add
is_asan = true to your args.gn and build.
--nostrip. ASan logs can be found in
To catch crashes in gdb:
When you trigger the crash, you'll get a SIGABRT in gdb.
bt will show the stack.
See Chrome OS stack traces for more details.
AsanCoverage is a minimalistic code coverage implementation built into ASan. For general information see https://code.google.com/p/address-sanitizer/wiki/AsanCoverage To use AsanCoverage in Chromium, add
use_sanitizer_coverage = true to your GN args. See also the
sanitizer_coverage_flags variable for configuring it.
Chrome must be terminated gracefully in order for coverage to work. Either close the browser, or SIGTERM the browser process. Do not do
killall chrome or send SIGKILL.
kill <browser_process_pid> ls ... chrome.22575.sancov gpu.6916123572022919124.sancov.packed zygote.13651804083035800069.sancov.packed ...
gpu.*.sancov.packed file contains coverage data for the GPU process, whereas the
zygote.*.sancov.packed file contains coverage data for the renderers (but not the zygote process). Unpack them to regular
.sancov files like so:
$ $LLVM/projects/compiler-rt/lib/sanitizer_common/scripts/sancov.py unpack \ *.sancov.packed sancov.py: unpacking gpu.6916123572022919124.sancov.packed sancov.py: extracting chrome.22610.sancov sancov.py: unpacking zygote.13651804083035800069.sancov.packed sancov.py: extracting libpdf.so.12.sancov sancov.py: extracting chrome.12.sancov sancov.py: extracting libpdf.so.10.sancov sancov.py: extracting chrome.10.sancov
Now, e.g., to list the offsets of covered functions in the libpdf.so binary in renderer with pid 10:
$ $LLVM/projects/compiler-rt/lib/sanitizer_common/scripts/sancov.py print \ libpdf.so.10.sancov