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// Copyright (c) 2012 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
#include "ppapi/cpp/resource.h"
/// @file
/// This file defines the PPB_MessageLoop API.
namespace pp {
class CompletionCallback;
class InstanceHandle;
/// A message loop allows PPAPI calls to be issued on a thread. You may not
/// issue any API calls on a thread without creating a message loop. It also
/// allows you to post work to the message loop for a thread.
/// To process work posted to the message loop, as well as completion callbacks
/// for asynchronous operations, you must run the message loop via Run().
/// Note the system manages the lifetime of the instance (and all associated
/// resources). If the instance is deleted from the page, background threads may
/// suddenly see their PP_Resource handles become invalid. In this case, calls
/// will fail with PP_ERROR_BADRESOURCE. If you need to access data associated
/// with your instance, you will probably want to create some kind of threadsafe
/// proxy object that can handle asynchronous destruction of the instance
/// object.
/// Typical usage:
/// On the main thread:
/// - Create the thread yourself (using pthreads).
/// - Create the message loop resource.
/// - Pass the message loop resource to your thread's main function.
/// - Call PostWork() on the message loop to run functions on the thread.
/// From the background thread's main function:
/// - Call AttachToCurrentThread() with the message loop resource.
/// - Call Run() with the message loop resource.
/// Your callbacks should look like this:
/// @code
/// void DoMyWork(void* user_data, int32_t status) {
/// if (status != PP_OK) {
/// Cleanup(); // e.g. free user_data.
/// return;
/// }
/// ... do your work...
/// }
/// @endcode
/// For a C++ example, see ppapi/utility/threading/simple_thread.h
/// (You can also create the message loop resource on the background thread,
/// but then the main thread will have no reference to it should you want to
/// call PostWork()).
/// The main thread has an implicitly created message loop. The main thread is
/// the thread where PPP_InitializeModule and PPP_Instance functions are called.
/// You can retrieve a reference to this message loop by calling
/// GetForMainThread() or, if your code is on the main thread, GetCurrent() will
/// also work.
/// Some special threads created by the system can not have message loops. In
/// particular, the background thread created for audio processing has this
/// requirement because it's intended to be highly responsive to keep up with
/// the realtime requirements of audio processing. You can not make PPAPI calls
/// from these threads.
/// Once you associate a message loop with a thread, you don't have to keep a
/// reference to it. The system will hold a reference to the message loop for as
/// long as the thread is running. The current message loop can be retrieved
/// using the GetCurrent() function.
/// It is legal to create threads in your plugin without message loops, but
/// PPAPI calls will fail unless explicitly noted in the documentation.
/// You can create a message loop object on a thread and never actually run the
/// message loop. This will allow you to call blocking PPAPI calls (via
/// PP_BlockUntilComplete()). If you make any asynchronous calls, the callbacks
/// from those calls will be queued in the message loop and never run. The same
/// thing will happen if work is scheduled after the message loop exits and
/// the message loop is not run again.
/// Often, your application will associate memory with completion callbacks. For
/// example, the C++ CompletionCallbackFactory has a small amount of
/// heap-allocated memory for each callback. This memory will be leaked if the
/// callback is never run. To avoid this memory leak, you need to be careful
/// about error handling and shutdown.
/// There are a number of cases where posted callbacks will never be run:
/// - You tear down the thread (via pthreads) without "destroying" the message
/// loop (via PostQuit with should_destroy = PP_TRUE). In this case, any
/// tasks in the message queue will be lost.
/// - You create a message loop, post callbacks to it, and never run it.
/// - You quit the message loop via PostQuit with should_destroy set to
/// PP_FALSE. In this case, the system will assume the message loop will be
/// run again later and keep your tasks.
/// To do proper shutdown, call PostQuit with should_destroy = PP_TRUE. This
/// will prohibit future work from being posted, and will allow the message loop
/// to run until all pending tasks are run.
/// If you post a callback to a message loop that's been destroyed, or to an
/// invalid message loop, PostWork will return an error and will not run the
/// callback. This is true even for callbacks with the "required" flag set,
/// since the system may not even know what thread to issue the error callback
/// on.
/// Therefore, you should check for errors from PostWork and destroy any
/// associated memory to avoid leaks. If you're using the C++
/// CompletionCallbackFactory, use the following pattern:
/// @code
/// pp::CompletionCallback callback = factory_.NewOptionalCallback(...);
/// int32_t result = message_loop.PostWork(callback);
/// if (result != PP_OK)
/// callback.Run(result);
/// @endcode
/// This will run the callback with an error value, and assumes that the
/// implementation of your callback checks the "result" argument and returns
/// immediately on error.
class MessageLoop : public Resource {
/// Creates an is_null() MessageLoop resource.
/// Creates a message loop associated with the given instance. The resource
/// will be is_null() on failure.
/// This may be called from any thread. After your thread starts but before
/// issuing any other PPAPI calls on it, you must associate it with a message
/// loop by calling AttachToCurrentThread.
explicit MessageLoop(const InstanceHandle& instance);
MessageLoop(const MessageLoop& other);
/// Takes an additional ref to the resource.
explicit MessageLoop(PP_Resource pp_message_loop);
static MessageLoop GetForMainThread();
static MessageLoop GetCurrent();
/// Sets the given message loop resource as being the associated message loop
/// for the currently running thread.
/// You must call this function exactly once on a thread before making any
/// PPAPI calls. A message loop can only be attached to one thread, and the
/// message loop can not be changed later. The message loop will be attached
/// as long as the thread is running or until you quit with should_destroy
/// set to PP_TRUE.
/// If this function fails, attempting to run the message loop will fail.
/// Note that you can still post work to the message loop: it will get queued
/// up should the message loop eventually be successfully attached and run.
/// @return
/// - PP_OK: The message loop was successfully attached to the thread and is
/// ready to use.
/// - PP_ERROR_BADRESOURCE: The given message loop resource is invalid.
/// - PP_ERROR_INPROGRESS: The current thread already has a message loop
/// attached. This will always be the case for the main thread, which has
/// an implicit system-created message loop attached.
/// - PP_ERROR_WRONG_THREAD: The current thread type can not have a message
/// loop attached to it. See the interface level discussion about these
/// special threads, which include realtime audio threads.
int32_t AttachToCurrentThread();
/// Runs the thread message loop. Running the message loop is required for
/// you to get issued completion callbacks on the thread.
/// The message loop identified by the argument must have been previously
/// successfully attached to the current thread.
/// You may not run nested message loops. Since the main thread has an
/// implicit message loop that the system runs, you may not call Run on the
/// main thread.
/// @return
/// - PP_OK: The message loop was successfully run. Note that on
/// success, the message loop will only exit when you call PostQuit().
/// - PP_ERROR_BADRESOURCE: The given message loop resource is invalid.
/// - PP_ERROR_WRONG_THREAD: You are attempting to run a message loop that
/// has not been successfully attached to the current thread. Call
/// AttachToCurrentThread().
/// - PP_ERROR_INPROGRESS: You are attempting to call Run in a nested
/// fashion (Run is already on the stack). This will occur if you attempt
/// to call run on the main thread's message loop (see above).
int32_t Run();
/// Schedules work to run on the given message loop. This may be called from
/// any thread. Posted work will be executed in the order it was posted when
/// the message loop is Run().
/// @param callback A pointer to the completion callback to execute from the
/// message loop.
/// @param delay_ms The number of milliseconds to delay execution of the given
/// completion callback. Passing 0 means it will get queued normally and
/// executed in order.
/// The completion callback will be called with PP_OK as the "result"
/// parameter if it is run normally. It is good practice to check for PP_OK
/// and return early otherwise.
/// The "required" flag on the completion callback is ignored. If there is an
/// error posting your callback, the error will be returned from PostWork and
/// the callback will never be run (because there is no appropriate place to
/// run your callback with an error without causing unexpected threading
/// problems). If you associate memory with the completion callback (for
/// example, you're using the C++ CompletionCallbackFactory), you will need to
/// free this or manually run the callback. See "Desctruction and error
/// handling" above.
/// You can call this function before the message loop has started and the
/// work will get queued until the message loop is run. You can also post
/// work after the message loop has exited as long as should_destroy was
/// PP_FALSE. It will be queued until the next invocation of Run().
/// @return
/// - PP_OK: The work was posted to the message loop's queue. As described
/// above, this does not mean that the work has been or will be executed
/// (if you never run the message loop after posting).
/// - PP_ERROR_BADRESOURCE: The given message loop resource is invalid.
/// - PP_ERROR_BADARGUMENT: The function pointer for the completion callback
/// is null (this will be the case if you pass PP_BlockUntilComplete()).
/// - PP_ERROR_FAILED: The message loop has been destroyed.
int32_t PostWork(const CompletionCallback& callback,
int64_t delay_ms = 0);
/// Posts a quit message to the given message loop's work queue. Work posted
/// before that point will be processed before quitting.
/// This may be called on the message loop registered for the current thread,
/// or it may be called on the message loop registered for another thread. It
/// is an error to attempt to quit the main thread loop.
/// @param should_destroy Marks the message loop as being in a destroyed
/// state and prevents further posting of messages.
/// If you quit a message loop without setting should_destroy, it will still
/// be attached to the thread and you can still run it again by calling Run()
/// again. If you destroy it, it will be detached from the current thread.
/// @return
/// - PP_OK: The request to quit was successfully posted.
/// - PP_ERROR_BADRESOURCE: The message loop was invalid.
/// - PP_ERROR_WRONG_THREAD: You are attempting to quit the main thread.
/// The main thread's message loop is managed by the system and can't be
/// quit.
int32_t PostQuit(bool should_destroy);
} // namespace pp