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// Copyright (c) 2012 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
#include "content/browser/site_instance_impl.h"
#include <string>
#include "base/command_line.h"
#include "base/debug/crash_logging.h"
#include "base/macros.h"
#include "content/browser/browsing_instance.h"
#include "content/browser/child_process_security_policy_impl.h"
#include "content/browser/frame_host/debug_urls.h"
#include "content/browser/frame_host/frame_tree_node.h"
#include "content/browser/renderer_host/render_process_host_impl.h"
#include "content/browser/storage_partition_impl.h"
#include "content/public/browser/content_browser_client.h"
#include "content/public/browser/render_process_host_factory.h"
#include "content/public/browser/site_isolation_policy.h"
#include "content/public/browser/web_ui_controller_factory.h"
#include "content/public/common/content_switches.h"
#include "content/public/common/url_constants.h"
#include "content/public/common/url_utils.h"
#include "net/base/registry_controlled_domains/registry_controlled_domain.h"
namespace content {
int32_t SiteInstanceImpl::next_site_instance_id_ = 1;
using CheckOriginLockResult =
SiteInstanceImpl::SiteInstanceImpl(BrowsingInstance* browsing_instance)
: id_(next_site_instance_id_++),
is_for_service_worker_(false) {
SiteInstanceImpl::~SiteInstanceImpl() {
if (process_)
// Now that no one is referencing us, we can safely remove ourselves from
// the BrowsingInstance. Any future visits to a page from this site
// (within the same BrowsingInstance) can safely create a new SiteInstance.
if (has_site_)
// static
scoped_refptr<SiteInstanceImpl> SiteInstanceImpl::Create(
BrowserContext* browser_context) {
return base::WrapRefCounted(
new SiteInstanceImpl(new BrowsingInstance(browser_context)));
// static
scoped_refptr<SiteInstanceImpl> SiteInstanceImpl::CreateForURL(
BrowserContext* browser_context,
const GURL& url) {
// This will create a new SiteInstance and BrowsingInstance.
scoped_refptr<BrowsingInstance> instance(
new BrowsingInstance(browser_context));
return instance->GetSiteInstanceForURL(url);
// static
bool SiteInstanceImpl::ShouldAssignSiteForURL(const GURL& url) {
// about:blank should not "use up" a new SiteInstance. The SiteInstance can
// still be used for a normal web site.
if (url == url::kAboutBlankURL)
return false;
// The embedder will then have the opportunity to determine if the URL
// should "use up" the SiteInstance.
return GetContentClient()->browser()->ShouldAssignSiteForURL(url);
// static
bool SiteInstanceImpl::IsOriginLockASite(const GURL& lock_url) {
return lock_url.has_scheme() && lock_url.has_host();
int32_t SiteInstanceImpl::GetId() {
return id_;
bool SiteInstanceImpl::HasProcess() const {
if (process_ != nullptr)
return true;
// If we would use process-per-site for this site, also check if there is an
// existing process that we would use if GetProcess() were called.
BrowserContext* browser_context =
if (has_site_ &&
RenderProcessHost::ShouldUseProcessPerSite(browser_context, site_) &&
RenderProcessHostImpl::GetSoleProcessHostForSite(browser_context, site_,
lock_url_)) {
return true;
return false;
RenderProcessHost* SiteInstanceImpl::GetProcess() {
// TODO(erikkay) It would be nice to ensure that the renderer type had been
// properly set before we get here. The default tab creation case winds up
// with no site set at this point, so it will default to TYPE_NORMAL. This
// may not be correct, so we'll wind up potentially creating a process that
// we then throw away, or worse sharing a process with the wrong process type.
// See
// Create a new process if ours went away or was reused.
if (!process_) {
BrowserContext* browser_context = browsing_instance_->browser_context();
// Check if the ProcessReusePolicy should be updated.
bool should_use_process_per_site =
has_site_ &&
RenderProcessHost::ShouldUseProcessPerSite(browser_context, site_);
if (should_use_process_per_site) {
process_reuse_policy_ = ProcessReusePolicy::PROCESS_PER_SITE;
} else if (process_reuse_policy_ == ProcessReusePolicy::PROCESS_PER_SITE) {
process_reuse_policy_ = ProcessReusePolicy::DEFAULT;
process_ = RenderProcessHostImpl::GetProcessHostForSiteInstance(this);
// If we are using process-per-site, we need to register this process
// for the current site so that we can find it again. (If no site is set
// at this time, we will register it in SetSite().)
if (process_reuse_policy_ == ProcessReusePolicy::PROCESS_PER_SITE &&
has_site_) {
process_, this);
TRACE_EVENT2("navigation", "SiteInstanceImpl::GetProcess",
"site id", id_, "process id", process_->GetID());
if (has_site_)
return process_;
bool SiteInstanceImpl::CanAssociateWithSpareProcess() {
return can_associate_with_spare_process_;
void SiteInstanceImpl::PreventAssociationWithSpareProcess() {
can_associate_with_spare_process_ = false;
void SiteInstanceImpl::SetSite(const GURL& url) {
TRACE_EVENT2("navigation", "SiteInstanceImpl::SetSite",
"site id", id_, "url", url.possibly_invalid_spec());
// A SiteInstance's site should not change.
// TODO(creis): When following links or script navigations, we can currently
// render pages from other sites in this SiteInstance. This will eventually
// be fixed, but until then, we should still not set the site of a
// SiteInstance more than once.
// Remember that this SiteInstance has been used to load a URL, even if the
// URL is invalid.
has_site_ = true;
BrowserContext* browser_context = browsing_instance_->browser_context();
site_ =
GetSiteForURL(browser_context, url, true /* should_use_effective_urls */);
original_url_ = url;
lock_url_ = DetermineProcessLockURL(browser_context, url);
// Now that we have a site, register it with the BrowsingInstance. This
// ensures that we won't create another SiteInstance for this site within
// the same BrowsingInstance, because all same-site pages within a
// BrowsingInstance can script each other.
// Update the process reuse policy based on the site.
bool should_use_process_per_site =
RenderProcessHost::ShouldUseProcessPerSite(browser_context, site_);
if (should_use_process_per_site) {
process_reuse_policy_ = ProcessReusePolicy::PROCESS_PER_SITE;
if (process_) {
// Ensure the process is registered for this site if necessary.
if (should_use_process_per_site) {
process_, this);
const GURL& SiteInstanceImpl::GetSiteURL() const {
return site_;
bool SiteInstanceImpl::HasSite() const {
return has_site_;
bool SiteInstanceImpl::HasRelatedSiteInstance(const GURL& url) {
return browsing_instance_->HasSiteInstance(url);
scoped_refptr<SiteInstance> SiteInstanceImpl::GetRelatedSiteInstance(
const GURL& url) {
return browsing_instance_->GetSiteInstanceForURL(url);
bool SiteInstanceImpl::IsRelatedSiteInstance(const SiteInstance* instance) {
return browsing_instance_.get() == static_cast<const SiteInstanceImpl*>(
size_t SiteInstanceImpl::GetRelatedActiveContentsCount() {
return browsing_instance_->active_contents_count();
bool SiteInstanceImpl::HasWrongProcessForURL(const GURL& url) {
// Having no process isn't a problem, since we'll assign it correctly.
// Note that HasProcess() may return true if process_ is null, in
// process-per-site cases where there's an existing process available.
// We want to use such a process in the IsSuitableHost check, so we
// may end up assigning process_ in the GetProcess() call below.
if (!HasProcess())
return false;
// If the URL to navigate to can be associated with any site instance,
// we want to keep it in the same process.
if (IsRendererDebugURL(url))
return false;
// Any process can host an about:blank URL, except the one used for error
// pages, which should not commit successful navigations. This check avoids a
// process transfer for browser-initiated navigations to about:blank in a
// dedicated process; without it, IsSuitableHost would consider this process
// unsuitable for about:blank when it compares origin locks.
// Renderer-initiated navigations will handle about:blank navigations
// elsewhere and leave them in the source SiteInstance, along with
// about:srcdoc and data:.
if (url.IsAboutBlank() && site_ != GURL(kUnreachableWebDataURL))
return false;
// If the site URL is an extension (e.g., for hosted apps or WebUI) but the
// process is not (or vice versa), make sure we notice and fix it.
GURL site_url =
SiteInstance::GetSiteForURL(browsing_instance_->browser_context(), url);
GURL origin_lock =
DetermineProcessLockURL(browsing_instance_->browser_context(), url);
return !RenderProcessHostImpl::IsSuitableHost(
GetProcess(), browsing_instance_->browser_context(), site_url,
bool SiteInstanceImpl::RequiresDedicatedProcess() {
if (!has_site_)
return false;
return DoesSiteRequireDedicatedProcess(GetBrowserContext(), site_);
void SiteInstanceImpl::IncrementActiveFrameCount() {
void SiteInstanceImpl::DecrementActiveFrameCount() {
if (--active_frame_count_ == 0) {
for (auto& observer : observers_)
void SiteInstanceImpl::IncrementRelatedActiveContentsCount() {
void SiteInstanceImpl::DecrementRelatedActiveContentsCount() {
void SiteInstanceImpl::AddObserver(Observer* observer) {
void SiteInstanceImpl::RemoveObserver(Observer* observer) {
BrowserContext* SiteInstanceImpl::GetBrowserContext() const {
return browsing_instance_->browser_context();
// static
scoped_refptr<SiteInstance> SiteInstance::Create(
BrowserContext* browser_context) {
return SiteInstanceImpl::Create(browser_context);
// static
scoped_refptr<SiteInstance> SiteInstance::CreateForURL(
BrowserContext* browser_context,
const GURL& url) {
return SiteInstanceImpl::CreateForURL(browser_context, url);
// static
bool SiteInstance::ShouldAssignSiteForURL(const GURL& url) {
return SiteInstanceImpl::ShouldAssignSiteForURL(url);
bool SiteInstanceImpl::IsSameSiteWithURL(const GURL& url) {
return SiteInstanceImpl::IsSameWebSite(
browsing_instance_->browser_context(), site_, url,
true /* should_compare_effective_urls */);
// static
bool SiteInstanceImpl::IsSameWebSite(BrowserContext* browser_context,
const GURL& real_src_url,
const GURL& real_dest_url,
bool should_compare_effective_urls) {
GURL src_url =
? SiteInstanceImpl::GetEffectiveURL(browser_context, real_src_url)
: real_src_url;
GURL dest_url =
? SiteInstanceImpl::GetEffectiveURL(browser_context, real_dest_url)
: real_dest_url;
// We infer web site boundaries based on the registered domain name of the
// top-level page and the scheme. We do not pay attention to the port if
// one is present, because pages served from different ports can still
// access each other if they change their document.domain variable.
// Some special URLs will match the site instance of any other URL. This is
// done before checking both of them for validity, since we want these URLs
// to have the same site instance as even an invalid one.
if (IsRendererDebugURL(src_url) || IsRendererDebugURL(dest_url))
return true;
// If either URL is invalid, they aren't part of the same site.
if (!src_url.is_valid() || !dest_url.is_valid())
return false;
// If the destination url is just a blank page, we treat them as part of the
// same site.
GURL blank_page(url::kAboutBlankURL);
if (dest_url == blank_page)
return true;
// If the source and destination URLs are equal excluding the hash, they have
// the same site. This matters for file URLs, where SameDomainOrHost() would
// otherwise return false below.
if (src_url.EqualsIgnoringRef(dest_url))
return true;
url::Origin src_origin = url::Origin::Create(src_url);
url::Origin dest_origin = url::Origin::Create(dest_url);
// If the schemes differ, they aren't part of the same site.
if (src_origin.scheme() != dest_origin.scheme())
return false;
if (!net::registry_controlled_domains::SameDomainOrHost(
src_origin, dest_origin,
net::registry_controlled_domains::INCLUDE_PRIVATE_REGISTRIES)) {
return false;
// If the sites are the same, check isolated origins. If either URL matches
// an isolated origin, compare origins rather than sites. As an optimization
// to avoid unneeded isolated origin lookups, shortcut this check if the two
// origins are the same.
if (src_origin == dest_origin)
return true;
auto* policy = ChildProcessSecurityPolicyImpl::GetInstance();
url::Origin src_isolated_origin;
url::Origin dest_isolated_origin;
bool src_origin_is_isolated =
policy->GetMatchingIsolatedOrigin(src_origin, &src_isolated_origin);
bool dest_origin_is_isolated =
policy->GetMatchingIsolatedOrigin(dest_origin, &dest_isolated_origin);
if (src_origin_is_isolated || dest_origin_is_isolated) {
// Compare most specific matching origins to ensure that a subdomain of an
// isolated origin (e.g., also matches
// the isolated origin's site URL (e.g.,
return src_isolated_origin == dest_isolated_origin;
return true;
// static
GURL SiteInstance::GetSiteForURL(BrowserContext* browser_context,
const GURL& url) {
// By default, GetSiteForURL will resolve |real_url| to an effective URL
// before computing its site.
return SiteInstanceImpl::GetSiteForURL(browser_context, url,
true /* should_use_effective_urls */);
// static
GURL SiteInstanceImpl::DetermineProcessLockURL(BrowserContext* browser_context,
const GURL& url) {
// For the process lock URL, convert |url| to a site without resolving |url|
// to an effective URL.
return SiteInstanceImpl::GetSiteForURL(browser_context, url,
false /* should_use_effective_urls */);
GURL SiteInstanceImpl::GetSiteForURL(BrowserContext* browser_context,
const GURL& real_url,
bool should_use_effective_urls) {
// TODO(fsamuel, creis): For some reason appID is not recognized as a host.
if (real_url.SchemeIs(kGuestScheme))
return real_url;
GURL url = should_use_effective_urls
? SiteInstanceImpl::GetEffectiveURL(browser_context, real_url)
: real_url;
url::Origin origin = url::Origin::Create(url);
// If the url has a host, then determine the site. Skip file URLs to avoid a
// situation where site URL of file://localhost/ would mismatch Blink's origin
// (which ignores the hostname in this case - see
if (! && origin.scheme() != url::kFileScheme) {
GURL site_url(GetSiteForOrigin(origin));
// Isolated origins should use the full origin as their site URL. A
// subdomain of an isolated origin should also use that isolated origin's
// site URL. It is important to check |origin| (based on |url|) rather than
// |real_url| here, since some effective URLs (such as for NTP) need to be
// resolved prior to the isolated origin lookup.
auto* policy = ChildProcessSecurityPolicyImpl::GetInstance();
url::Origin isolated_origin;
if (policy->GetMatchingIsolatedOrigin(origin, site_url, &isolated_origin))
return isolated_origin.GetURL();
// If an effective URL was used, augment the effective site URL with the
// underlying web site in the hash. This is needed to keep
// navigations across sites covered by one hosted app in separate
// SiteInstances. See
// TODO( Consider replacing this hack with
// a proper security principal.
if (should_use_effective_urls && url != real_url) {
std::string non_translated_site_url(
GetSiteForURL(browser_context, real_url,
false /* should_use_effective_urls */)
GURL::Replacements replacements;
site_url = site_url.ReplaceComponents(replacements);
return site_url;
// If there is no host but there is a scheme, return the scheme.
// This is useful for cases like file URLs.
if (!origin.opaque()) {
// Prefer to use the scheme of |origin| rather than |url|, to correctly
// cover blob:file: and filesystem:file: URIs (see also
return GURL(origin.scheme() + ":");
} else if (url.has_scheme()) {
// In some cases, it is not safe to use just the scheme as a site URL, as
// that might allow two URLs created by different sites to share a process.
// See and
// TODO(alexmos,creis): This should eventually be expanded to certain other
// schemes, such as file:.
// TODO(creis): This currently causes problems with tests on Android and
// Android WebView. For now, skip it when Site Isolation is not enabled,
// since there's no need to isolate data and blob URLs from each other in
// that case.
bool is_site_isolation_enabled =
SiteIsolationPolicy::UseDedicatedProcessesForAllSites() ||
if (is_site_isolation_enabled &&
(url.SchemeIsBlob() || url.scheme() == url::kDataScheme)) {
// We get here for blob URLs of form blob:null/guid. Use the full URL
// with the guid in that case, which isolates all blob URLs with unique
// origins from each other. We also get here for browser-initiated
// navigations to data URLs, which have a unique origin and should only
// share a process when they are identical. Remove hash from the URL in
// either case, since same-document navigations shouldn't use a different
// site URL.
if (url.has_ref()) {
GURL::Replacements replacements;
url = url.ReplaceComponents(replacements);
return url;
return GURL(url.scheme() + ":");
// Otherwise the URL should be invalid; return an empty site.
DCHECK(!url.is_valid()) << url;
return GURL();
// static
GURL SiteInstanceImpl::GetSiteForOrigin(const url::Origin& origin) {
// Only keep the scheme and registered domain of |origin|.
std::string domain = net::registry_controlled_domains::GetDomainAndRegistry(,
std::string site = origin.scheme();
site += url::kStandardSchemeSeparator;
site += domain.empty() ? : domain;
return GURL(site);
// static
GURL SiteInstanceImpl::GetEffectiveURL(BrowserContext* browser_context,
const GURL& url) {
return GetContentClient()->browser()->GetEffectiveURL(browser_context, url);
// static
bool SiteInstanceImpl::HasEffectiveURL(BrowserContext* browser_context,
const GURL& url) {
return GetEffectiveURL(browser_context, url) != url;
// static
bool SiteInstanceImpl::DoesSiteRequireDedicatedProcess(
BrowserContext* browser_context,
const GURL& url) {
// If --site-per-process is enabled, site isolation is enabled everywhere.
if (SiteIsolationPolicy::UseDedicatedProcessesForAllSites())
return true;
// Always require a dedicated process for isolated origins.
GURL site_url = SiteInstance::GetSiteForURL(browser_context, url);
auto* policy = ChildProcessSecurityPolicyImpl::GetInstance();
if (policy->IsIsolatedOrigin(url::Origin::Create(site_url)))
return true;
// Error pages in main frames do require isolation, however since this is
// missing the context whether this is for a main frame or not, that part
// is enforced in RenderFrameHostManager.
if (site_url.SchemeIs(kChromeErrorScheme))
return true;
// Isolate kChromeUIScheme pages from one another and from other kinds of
// schemes.
if (site_url.SchemeIs(content::kChromeUIScheme))
return true;
// Let the content embedder enable site isolation for specific URLs. Use the
// canonical site url for this check, so that schemes with nested origins
// (blob and filesystem) work properly.
if (GetContentClient()->browser()->DoesSiteRequireDedicatedProcess(
browser_context, site_url)) {
return true;
return false;
// static
bool SiteInstanceImpl::ShouldLockToOrigin(BrowserContext* browser_context,
GURL site_url) {
// Don't lock to origin in --single-process mode, since this mode puts
// cross-site pages into the same process.
if (RenderProcessHost::run_renderer_in_process())
return false;
if (!DoesSiteRequireDedicatedProcess(browser_context, site_url))
return false;
// Guest processes cannot be locked to their site because guests always have
// a fixed SiteInstance. The site of GURLs a guest loads doesn't match that
// SiteInstance. So we skip locking the guest process to the site.
// TODO(ncarter): Remove this exclusion once we can make origin lock per
// RenderFrame routing id.
if (site_url.SchemeIs(content::kGuestScheme))
return false;
// TODO(creis, nick): Until we can handle sites with effective URLs at the
// call sites of ChildProcessSecurityPolicy::CanAccessDataForOrigin, we
// must give the embedder a chance to exempt some sites to avoid process
// kills.
if (!GetContentClient()->browser()->ShouldLockToOrigin(browser_context,
site_url)) {
return false;
return true;
void SiteInstanceImpl::RenderProcessHostDestroyed(RenderProcessHost* host) {
DCHECK_EQ(process_, host);
process_ = nullptr;
void SiteInstanceImpl::RenderProcessExited(
RenderProcessHost* host,
const ChildProcessTerminationInfo& info) {
for (auto& observer : observers_)
void SiteInstanceImpl::LockToOriginIfNeeded() {
// From now on, this process should be considered "tainted" for future
// process reuse decisions:
// (1) If |site_| required a dedicated process, this SiteInstance's process
// can only host URLs for the same site.
// (2) Even if |site_| does not require a dedicated process, this
// SiteInstance's process still cannot be reused to host other sites
// requiring dedicated sites in the future.
// We can get here either when we commit a URL into a SiteInstance that does
// not yet have a site, or when we create a process for a SiteInstance with a
// preassigned site.
ChildProcessSecurityPolicyImpl* policy =
auto lock_state = policy->CheckOriginLock(process_->GetID(), lock_url());
if (ShouldLockToOrigin(GetBrowserContext(), site_)) {
// Sanity check that this won't try to assign an origin lock to a <webview>
// process, which can't be locked.
switch (lock_state) {
case CheckOriginLockResult::NO_LOCK: {
// TODO(nick): When all sites are isolated, this operation provides
// strong protection. If only some sites are isolated, we need
// additional logic to prevent the non-isolated sites from requesting
// resources for isolated sites.
TRACE_EVENT2("navigation", "SiteInstanceImpl::LockToOrigin", "site id",
id_, "lock", lock_url().possibly_invalid_spec());
case CheckOriginLockResult::HAS_WRONG_LOCK:
// We should never attempt to reassign a different origin lock to a
// process.
CHECK(false) << "Trying to lock a process to " << lock_url()
<< " but the process is already locked to "
<< policy->GetOriginLock(process_->GetID());
case CheckOriginLockResult::HAS_EQUAL_LOCK:
// Process already has the right origin lock assigned. This case will
// happen for commits to |site_| after the first one.
} else {
// If the site that we've just committed doesn't require a dedicated
// process, make sure we aren't putting it in a process for a site that
// does.
if (lock_state != CheckOriginLockResult::NO_LOCK) {
CHECK(false) << "Trying to commit non-isolated site " << site_
<< " in process locked to "
<< policy->GetOriginLock(process_->GetID());
} // namespace content