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// Copyright (c) 2012 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
// Portions of this code based on Mozilla:
// (netwerk/cookie/src/nsCookieService.cpp)
/* ***** BEGIN LICENSE BLOCK *****
* Version: MPL 1.1/GPL 2.0/LGPL 2.1
* The contents of this file are subject to the Mozilla Public License Version
* 1.1 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
* the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at
* Software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" basis,
* WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License
* for the specific language governing rights and limitations under the
* License.
* The Original Code is code.
* The Initial Developer of the Original Code is
* Netscape Communications Corporation.
* Portions created by the Initial Developer are Copyright (C) 2003
* the Initial Developer. All Rights Reserved.
* Contributor(s):
* Daniel Witte (
* Michiel van Leeuwen (
* Alternatively, the contents of this file may be used under the terms of
* either the GNU General Public License Version 2 or later (the "GPL"), or
* the GNU Lesser General Public License Version 2.1 or later (the "LGPL"),
* in which case the provisions of the GPL or the LGPL are applicable instead
* of those above. If you wish to allow use of your version of this file only
* under the terms of either the GPL or the LGPL, and not to allow others to
* use your version of this file under the terms of the MPL, indicate your
* decision by deleting the provisions above and replace them with the notice
* and other provisions required by the GPL or the LGPL. If you do not delete
* the provisions above, a recipient may use your version of this file under
* the terms of any one of the MPL, the GPL or the LGPL.
* ***** END LICENSE BLOCK ***** */
#include "net/cookies/canonical_cookie.h"
#include "base/format_macros.h"
#include "base/logging.h"
#include "base/metrics/histogram_macros.h"
#include "base/strings/string_util.h"
#include "base/strings/stringprintf.h"
#include "net/base/url_util.h"
#include "net/cookies/cookie_util.h"
#include "net/cookies/parsed_cookie.h"
#include "url/gurl.h"
#include "url/url_canon.h"
#include "url/url_util.h"
using base::Time;
using base::TimeDelta;
namespace net {
namespace {
// Determine the cookie domain to use for setting the specified cookie.
bool GetCookieDomain(const GURL& url,
const ParsedCookie& pc,
std::string* result) {
std::string domain_string;
if (pc.HasDomain())
domain_string = pc.Domain();
return cookie_util::GetCookieDomainWithString(url, domain_string, result);
// Compares cookies using name, domain and path, so that "equivalent" cookies
// (per RFC 2965) are equal to each other.
int PartialCookieOrdering(const CanonicalCookie& a, const CanonicalCookie& b) {
int diff = a.Name().compare(b.Name());
if (diff != 0)
return diff;
diff = a.Domain().compare(b.Domain());
if (diff != 0)
return diff;
return a.Path().compare(b.Path());
} // namespace
// Keep defaults here in sync with content/public/common/cookie_manager.mojom.
: secure_(false),
CanonicalCookie::CanonicalCookie(const CanonicalCookie& other) = default;
CanonicalCookie::CanonicalCookie(const std::string& name,
const std::string& value,
const std::string& domain,
const std::string& path,
const base::Time& creation,
const base::Time& expiration,
const base::Time& last_access,
bool secure,
bool httponly,
CookieSameSite same_site,
CookiePriority priority)
: name_(name),
priority_(priority) {}
CanonicalCookie::~CanonicalCookie() = default;
// static
std::string CanonicalCookie::CanonPathWithString(
const GURL& url,
const std::string& path_string) {
// The RFC says the path should be a prefix of the current URL path.
// However, Mozilla allows you to set any path for compatibility with
// broken websites. We unfortunately will mimic this behavior. We try
// to be generous and accept cookies with an invalid path attribute, and
// default the path to something reasonable.
// The path was supplied in the cookie, we'll take it.
if (!path_string.empty() && path_string[0] == '/')
return path_string;
// The path was not supplied in the cookie or invalid, we will default
// to the current URL path.
// """Defaults to the path of the request URL that generated the
// Set-Cookie response, up to, but not including, the
// right-most /."""
// How would this work for a cookie on /? We will include it then.
const std::string& url_path = url.path();
size_t idx = url_path.find_last_of('/');
// The cookie path was invalid or a single '/'.
if (idx == 0 || idx == std::string::npos)
return std::string("/");
// Return up to the rightmost '/'.
return url_path.substr(0, idx);
// static
Time CanonicalCookie::CanonExpiration(const ParsedCookie& pc,
const Time& current,
const Time& server_time) {
// First, try the Max-Age attribute.
uint64_t max_age = 0;
if (pc.HasMaxAge() &&
pc.MaxAge().c_str(), " %" PRIu64, &max_age) == 1) {
return current + TimeDelta::FromSeconds(max_age);
// Try the Expires attribute.
if (pc.HasExpires() && !pc.Expires().empty()) {
// Adjust for clock skew between server and host.
base::Time parsed_expiry =
if (!parsed_expiry.is_null())
return parsed_expiry + (current - server_time);
// Invalid or no expiration, persistent cookie.
return Time();
// static
std::unique_ptr<CanonicalCookie> CanonicalCookie::Create(
const GURL& url,
const std::string& cookie_line,
const base::Time& creation_time,
const CookieOptions& options) {
ParsedCookie parsed_cookie(cookie_line);
if (!parsed_cookie.IsValid()) {
VLOG(net::cookie_util::kVlogSetCookies) << "WARNING: Couldn't parse cookie";
return nullptr;
if (options.exclude_httponly() && parsed_cookie.IsHttpOnly()) {
<< "Create() is not creating a httponly cookie";
return nullptr;
std::string cookie_domain;
if (!GetCookieDomain(url, parsed_cookie, &cookie_domain)) {
<< "Create() failed to get a cookie domain";
return nullptr;
// Per 3.2.1 of "Deprecate modification of 'secure' cookies from non-secure
// origins", if the cookie's "secure-only-flag" is "true" and the requesting
// URL does not have a secure scheme, the cookie should be thrown away.
if (parsed_cookie.IsSecure() && !url.SchemeIsCryptographic()) {
<< "Create() is trying to create a secure cookie from an insecure URL";
return nullptr;
std::string cookie_path = CanonPathWithString(
url, parsed_cookie.HasPath() ? parsed_cookie.Path() : std::string());
Time server_time(creation_time);
if (options.has_server_time())
server_time = options.server_time();
Time cookie_expires = CanonicalCookie::CanonExpiration(parsed_cookie,
CookiePrefix prefix = GetCookiePrefix(parsed_cookie.Name());
bool is_cookie_valid = IsCookiePrefixValid(prefix, url, parsed_cookie);
RecordCookiePrefixMetrics(prefix, is_cookie_valid);
if (!is_cookie_valid) {
<< "Create() failed because the cookie violated prefix rules.";
return nullptr;
std::unique_ptr<CanonicalCookie> cc(std::make_unique<CanonicalCookie>(
parsed_cookie.Name(), parsed_cookie.Value(), cookie_domain, cookie_path,
creation_time, cookie_expires, creation_time, parsed_cookie.IsSecure(),
parsed_cookie.IsHttpOnly(), parsed_cookie.SameSite(),
return cc;
// static
std::unique_ptr<CanonicalCookie> CanonicalCookie::CreateSanitizedCookie(
const GURL& url,
const std::string& name,
const std::string& value,
const std::string& domain,
const std::string& path,
base::Time creation_time,
base::Time expiration_time,
base::Time last_access_time,
bool secure,
bool http_only,
CookieSameSite same_site,
CookiePriority priority) {
// Validate consistency of passed arguments.
if (ParsedCookie::ParseTokenString(name) != name ||
ParsedCookie::ParseValueString(value) != value ||
ParsedCookie::ParseValueString(domain) != domain ||
ParsedCookie::ParseValueString(path) != path) {
return nullptr;
std::string cookie_domain;
if (!cookie_util::GetCookieDomainWithString(url, domain, &cookie_domain))
return nullptr;
if (secure && !url.SchemeIsCryptographic())
return nullptr;
std::string cookie_path = CanonicalCookie::CanonPathWithString(url, path);
if (!path.empty() && cookie_path != path)
return nullptr;
if (!last_access_time.is_null() && creation_time.is_null())
return nullptr;
// Canonicalize path again to make sure it escapes characters as needed.
url::Component path_component(0, cookie_path.length());
url::RawCanonOutputT<char> canon_path;
url::Component canon_path_component;
url::CanonicalizePath(, path_component, &canon_path,
cookie_path = std::string( + canon_path_component.begin,
std::unique_ptr<CanonicalCookie> cc(std::make_unique<CanonicalCookie>(
name, value, cookie_domain, cookie_path, creation_time, expiration_time,
last_access_time, secure, http_only, same_site, priority));
return cc;
bool CanonicalCookie::IsEquivalentForSecureCookieMatching(
const CanonicalCookie& ecc) const {
return (name_ == ecc.Name() && (ecc.IsDomainMatch(DomainWithoutDot()) ||
IsDomainMatch(ecc.DomainWithoutDot())) &&
bool CanonicalCookie::IsOnPath(const std::string& url_path) const {
// A zero length would be unsafe for our trailing '/' checks, and
// would also make no sense for our prefix match. The code that
// creates a CanonicalCookie should make sure the path is never zero length,
// but we double check anyway.
if (path_.empty())
return false;
// The Mozilla code broke this into three cases, based on if the cookie path
// was longer, the same length, or shorter than the length of the url path.
// I think the approach below is simpler.
// Make sure the cookie path is a prefix of the url path. If the url path is
// shorter than the cookie path, then the cookie path can't be a prefix.
if (!base::StartsWith(url_path, path_, base::CompareCase::SENSITIVE))
return false;
// |url_path| is >= |path_|, and |path_| is a prefix of |url_path|. If they
// are the are the same length then they are identical, otherwise need an
// additional check:
// In order to avoid in correctly matching a cookie path of /blah
// with a request path of '/blahblah/', we need to make sure that either
// the cookie path ends in a trailing '/', or that we prefix up to a '/'
// in the url path. Since we know that the url path length is greater
// than the cookie path length, it's safe to index one byte past.
if (path_.length() != url_path.length() && path_.back() != '/' &&
url_path[path_.length()] != '/') {
return false;
return true;
bool CanonicalCookie::IsDomainMatch(const std::string& host) const {
return cookie_util::IsDomainMatch(domain_, host);
CanonicalCookie::CookieInclusionStatus CanonicalCookie::IncludeForRequestURL(
const GURL& url,
const CookieOptions& options) const {
// Filter out HttpOnly cookies, per options.
if (options.exclude_httponly() && IsHttpOnly())
return CanonicalCookie::CookieInclusionStatus::EXCLUDE_HTTP_ONLY;
// Secure cookies should not be included in requests for URLs with an
// insecure scheme.
if (IsSecure() && !url.SchemeIsCryptographic())
return CanonicalCookie::CookieInclusionStatus::EXCLUDE_SECURE_ONLY;
// Don't include cookies for requests that don't apply to the cookie domain.
if (!IsDomainMatch(
return CanonicalCookie::CookieInclusionStatus::EXCLUDE_DOMAIN_MISMATCH;
// Don't include cookies for requests with a url path that does not path
// match the cookie-path.
if (!IsOnPath(url.path()))
return CanonicalCookie::CookieInclusionStatus::EXCLUDE_NOT_ON_PATH;
// Don't include same-site cookies for cross-site requests.
switch (SameSite()) {
case CookieSameSite::STRICT_MODE:
if (options.same_site_cookie_mode() !=
CookieOptions::SameSiteCookieMode::INCLUDE_STRICT_AND_LAX) {
return CanonicalCookie::CookieInclusionStatus::EXCLUDE_SAMESITE_STRICT;
case CookieSameSite::LAX_MODE:
if (options.same_site_cookie_mode() ==
CookieOptions::SameSiteCookieMode::DO_NOT_INCLUDE) {
return CanonicalCookie::CookieInclusionStatus::EXCLUDE_SAMESITE_LAX;
return CanonicalCookie::CookieInclusionStatus::INCLUDE;
std::string CanonicalCookie::DebugString() const {
return base::StringPrintf(
"name: %s value: %s domain: %s path: %s creation: %" PRId64,
name_.c_str(), value_.c_str(), domain_.c_str(), path_.c_str(),
bool CanonicalCookie::PartialCompare(const CanonicalCookie& other) const {
return PartialCookieOrdering(*this, other) < 0;
bool CanonicalCookie::FullCompare(const CanonicalCookie& other) const {
// Do the partial comparison first.
int diff = PartialCookieOrdering(*this, other);
if (diff != 0)
return diff < 0;
// Compare other fields.
diff = Value().compare(other.Value());
if (diff != 0)
return diff < 0;
if (CreationDate() != other.CreationDate())
return CreationDate() < other.CreationDate();
if (ExpiryDate() != other.ExpiryDate())
return ExpiryDate() < other.ExpiryDate();
if (LastAccessDate() != other.LastAccessDate())
return LastAccessDate() < other.LastAccessDate();
if (IsSecure() != other.IsSecure())
return IsSecure();
if (IsHttpOnly() != other.IsHttpOnly())
return IsHttpOnly();
return Priority() < other.Priority();
bool CanonicalCookie::IsCanonical() const {
// Not checking domain or path against ParsedCookie as it may have
// come purely from the URL.
if (ParsedCookie::ParseTokenString(name_) != name_ ||
ParsedCookie::ParseValueString(value_) != value_ ||
!ParsedCookie::IsValidCookieAttributeValue(name_) ||
!ParsedCookie::IsValidCookieAttributeValue(value_)) {
return false;
if (!last_access_date_.is_null() && creation_date_.is_null())
return false;
url::CanonHostInfo canon_host_info;
std::string canonical_domain(CanonicalizeHost(domain_, &canon_host_info));
// TODO(rdsmith): This specifically allows for empty domains. The spec
// suggests this is invalid (if a domain attribute is empty, the cookie's
// domain is set to the canonicalized request host; see
// However, it is
// needed for Chrome extension cookies.
// See for more information.
if (canonical_domain != domain_)
return false;
if (path_.empty() || path_[0] != '/')
return false;
switch (GetCookiePrefix(name_)) {
if (!secure_ || path_ != "/" || domain_.empty() || domain_[0] == '.')
return false;
if (!secure_)
return false;
return true;
// static
std::string CanonicalCookie::BuildCookieLine(
const std::vector<CanonicalCookie>& cookies) {
std::string cookie_line;
for (const auto& cookie : cookies) {
if (!cookie_line.empty())
cookie_line += "; ";
// In Mozilla, if you set a cookie like "AAA", it will have an empty token
// and a value of "AAA". When it sends the cookie back, it will send "AAA",
// so we need to avoid sending "=AAA" for a blank token value.
if (!cookie.Name().empty())
cookie_line += cookie.Name() + "=";
cookie_line += cookie.Value();
return cookie_line;
// static
CanonicalCookie::CookiePrefix CanonicalCookie::GetCookiePrefix(
const std::string& name) {
const char kSecurePrefix[] = "__Secure-";
const char kHostPrefix[] = "__Host-";
if (base::StartsWith(name, kSecurePrefix, base::CompareCase::SENSITIVE))
return CanonicalCookie::COOKIE_PREFIX_SECURE;
if (base::StartsWith(name, kHostPrefix, base::CompareCase::SENSITIVE))
return CanonicalCookie::COOKIE_PREFIX_HOST;
return CanonicalCookie::COOKIE_PREFIX_NONE;
// static
void CanonicalCookie::RecordCookiePrefixMetrics(
CanonicalCookie::CookiePrefix prefix,
bool is_cookie_valid) {
const char kCookiePrefixHistogram[] = "Cookie.CookiePrefix";
const char kCookiePrefixBlockedHistogram[] = "Cookie.CookiePrefixBlocked";
UMA_HISTOGRAM_ENUMERATION(kCookiePrefixHistogram, prefix,
if (!is_cookie_valid) {
UMA_HISTOGRAM_ENUMERATION(kCookiePrefixBlockedHistogram, prefix,
// Returns true if the cookie does not violate any constraints imposed
// by the cookie name's prefix, as described in
// static
bool CanonicalCookie::IsCookiePrefixValid(CanonicalCookie::CookiePrefix prefix,
const GURL& url,
const ParsedCookie& parsed_cookie) {
if (prefix == CanonicalCookie::COOKIE_PREFIX_SECURE)
return parsed_cookie.IsSecure() && url.SchemeIsCryptographic();
if (prefix == CanonicalCookie::COOKIE_PREFIX_HOST) {
return parsed_cookie.IsSecure() && url.SchemeIsCryptographic() &&
!parsed_cookie.HasDomain() && parsed_cookie.Path() == "/";
return true;
std::string CanonicalCookie::DomainWithoutDot() const {
if (domain_.empty() || domain_[0] != '.')
return domain_;
return domain_.substr(1);
} // namespace net