blob: 1dfe07f69f4ab2a96b5db498b046bba4c4638090 [file] [log] [blame]
# Copyright (c) 2011 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.
# Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
# found in the LICENSE file.
# Usage: [--executable-heap] [--no-pie] <executable_path>
# Arranges for the executable at |executable_path| to have its data (heap)
# pages protected to prevent execution on Mac OS X 10.7 ("Lion"), and to have
# the PIE (position independent executable) bit set to enable ASLR (address
# space layout randomization). With --executable-heap or --no-pie, the
# respective bits are cleared instead of set, making the heap executable or
# disabling PIE/ASLR.
# This script is able to operate on thin (single-architecture) Mach-O files
# and fat (universal, multi-architecture) files. When operating on fat files,
# it will set or clear the bits for each architecture contained therein.
# Traditionally in Mac OS X, 32-bit processes did not have data pages set to
# prohibit execution. Although user programs could call mprotect and
# mach_vm_protect to deny execution of code in data pages, the kernel would
# silently ignore such requests without updating the page tables, and the
# hardware would happily execute code on such pages. 64-bit processes were
# always given proper hardware protection of data pages. This behavior was
# controllable on a system-wide level via the vm.allow_data_exec sysctl, which
# is set by default to 1. The bit with value 1 (set by default) allows code
# execution on data pages for 32-bit processes, and the bit with value 2
# (clear by default) does the same for 64-bit processes.
# In Mac OS X 10.7, executables can "opt in" to having hardware protection
# against code execution on data pages applied. This is done by setting a new
# bit in the |flags| field of an executable's |mach_header|. When
# MH_NO_HEAP_EXECUTION is set, proper protections will be applied, regardless
# of the setting of vm.allow_data_exec. See xnu-1699.22.73/osfmk/vm/vm_map.c
# override_nx and xnu-1699.22.73/bsd/kern/mach_loader.c load_machfile.
# The Apple toolchain has been revised to set the MH_NO_HEAP_EXECUTION when
# producing executables, provided that -allow_heap_execute is not specified
# at link time. Only linkers shipping with Xcode 4.0 and later (ld64-123.2 and
# later) have this ability. See ld64-123.2.1/src/ld/Options.cpp
# Options::reconfigureDefaults() and
# ld64-123.2.1/src/ld/HeaderAndLoadCommands.hpp
# HeaderAndLoadCommandsAtom<A>::flags().
# This script sets the MH_NO_HEAP_EXECUTION bit on Mach-O executables. It is
# intended for use with executables produced by a linker that predates Apple's
# modifications to set this bit itself. It is also useful for setting this bit
# for non-i386 executables, including x86_64 executables. Apple's linker only
# sets it for 32-bit i386 executables, presumably under the assumption that
# the value of vm.allow_data_exec is set in stone. However, if someone were to
# change vm.allow_data_exec to 2 or 3, 64-bit x86_64 executables would run
# without hardware protection against code execution on data pages. This
# script can set the bit for x86_64 executables, guaranteeing that they run
# with appropriate protection even when vm.allow_data_exec has been tampered
# with.
# This script sets or clears the MH_PIE bit in an executable's Mach-O header,
# enabling or disabling position independence on Mac OS X 10.5 and later.
# Processes running position-independent executables have varying levels of
# ASLR protection depending on the OS release. The main executable's load
# address, shared library load addresess, and the heap and stack base
# addresses may be randomized. Position-independent executables are produced
# by supplying the -pie flag to the linker (or defeated by supplying -no_pie).
# Executables linked with a deployment target of 10.7 or higher have PIE on
# by default.
# This script is never strictly needed during the build to enable PIE, as all
# linkers used are recent enough to support -pie. However, it's used to
# disable the PIE bit as needed on already-linked executables.
import optparse
import os
import struct
import sys
# <mach-o/fat.h>
FAT_MAGIC = 0xcafebabe
FAT_CIGAM = 0xbebafeca
# <mach-o/loader.h>
MH_MAGIC = 0xfeedface
MH_CIGAM = 0xcefaedfe
MH_MAGIC_64 = 0xfeedfacf
MH_CIGAM_64 = 0xcffaedfe
MH_PIE = 0x00200000
class MachOError(Exception):
"""A class for exceptions thrown by this module."""
def CheckedSeek(file, offset):
"""Seeks the file-like object at |file| to offset |offset| and raises a
MachOError if anything funny happens.""", os.SEEK_SET)
new_offset = file.tell()
if new_offset != offset:
raise MachOError, \
'seek: expected offset %d, observed %d' % (offset, new_offset)
def CheckedRead(file, count):
"""Reads |count| bytes from the file-like |file| object, raising a
MachOError if any other number of bytes is read."""
bytes =
if len(bytes) != count:
raise MachOError, \
'read: expected length %d, observed %d' % (count, len(bytes))
return bytes
def ReadUInt32(file, endian):
"""Reads an unsinged 32-bit integer from the file-like |file| object,
treating it as having endianness specified by |endian| (per the |struct|
module), and returns it as a number. Raises a MachOError if the proper
length of data can't be read from |file|."""
bytes = CheckedRead(file, 4)
(uint32,) = struct.unpack(endian + 'I', bytes)
return uint32
def ReadMachHeader(file, endian):
"""Reads an entire |mach_header| structure (<mach-o/loader.h>) from the
file-like |file| object, treating it as having endianness specified by
|endian| (per the |struct| module), and returns a 7-tuple of its members
as numbers. Raises a MachOError if the proper length of data can't be read
from |file|."""
bytes = CheckedRead(file, 28)
magic, cputype, cpusubtype, filetype, ncmds, sizeofcmds, flags = \
struct.unpack(endian + '7I', bytes)
return magic, cputype, cpusubtype, filetype, ncmds, sizeofcmds, flags
def ReadFatArch(file):
"""Reads an entire |fat_arch| structure (<mach-o/fat.h>) from the file-like
|file| object, treating it as having endianness specified by |endian|
(per the |struct| module), and returns a 5-tuple of its members as numbers.
Raises a MachOError if the proper length of data can't be read from
bytes = CheckedRead(file, 20)
cputype, cpusubtype, offset, size, align = struct.unpack('>5I', bytes)
return cputype, cpusubtype, offset, size, align
def WriteUInt32(file, uint32, endian):
"""Writes |uint32| as an unsinged 32-bit integer to the file-like |file|
object, treating it as having endianness specified by |endian| (per the
|struct| module)."""
bytes = struct.pack(endian + 'I', uint32)
assert len(bytes) == 4
def HandleMachOFile(file, options, offset=0):
"""Seeks the file-like |file| object to |offset|, reads its |mach_header|,
and rewrites the header's |flags| field if appropriate. The header's
endianness is detected. Both 32-bit and 64-bit Mach-O headers are supported
(mach_header and mach_header_64). Raises MachOError if used on a header that
does not have a known magic number or is not of type MH_EXECUTE. The
MH_PIE and MH_NO_HEAP_EXECUTION bits are set or cleared in the |flags| field
according to |options| and written to |file| if any changes need to be made.
If already set or clear as specified by |options|, nothing is written."""
CheckedSeek(file, offset)
magic = ReadUInt32(file, '<')
if magic == MH_MAGIC or magic == MH_MAGIC_64:
endian = '<'
elif magic == MH_CIGAM or magic == MH_CIGAM_64:
endian = '>'
raise MachOError, \
'Mach-O file at offset %d has illusion of magic' % offset
CheckedSeek(file, offset)
magic, cputype, cpusubtype, filetype, ncmds, sizeofcmds, flags = \
ReadMachHeader(file, endian)
assert magic == MH_MAGIC or magic == MH_MAGIC_64
if filetype != MH_EXECUTE:
raise MachOError, \
'Mach-O file at offset %d is type 0x%x, expected MH_EXECUTE' % \
(offset, filetype)
original_flags = flags
if options.no_heap_execution:
if options.pie:
flags |= MH_PIE
flags &= ~MH_PIE
if flags != original_flags:
CheckedSeek(file, offset + 24)
WriteUInt32(file, flags, endian)
def HandleFatFile(file, options, fat_offset=0):
"""Seeks the file-like |file| object to |offset| and loops over its
|fat_header| entries, calling HandleMachOFile for each."""
CheckedSeek(file, fat_offset)
magic = ReadUInt32(file, '>')
assert magic == FAT_MAGIC
nfat_arch = ReadUInt32(file, '>')
for index in xrange(0, nfat_arch):
cputype, cpusubtype, offset, size, align = ReadFatArch(file)
assert size >= 28
# HandleMachOFile will seek around. Come back here after calling it, in
# case it sought.
fat_arch_offset = file.tell()
HandleMachOFile(file, options, offset)
CheckedSeek(file, fat_arch_offset)
def main(me, args):
parser = optparse.OptionParser('%prog [options] <executable_path>')
parser.add_option('--executable-heap', action='store_false',
dest='no_heap_execution', default=True,
help='Clear the MH_NO_HEAP_EXECUTION bit')
parser.add_option('--no-pie', action='store_false',
dest='pie', default=True,
help='Clear the MH_PIE bit')
(options, loose_args) = parser.parse_args(args)
if len(loose_args) != 1:
return 1
executable_path = loose_args[0]
executable_file = open(executable_path, 'rb+')
magic = ReadUInt32(executable_file, '<')
if magic == FAT_CIGAM:
# Check FAT_CIGAM and not FAT_MAGIC because the read was little-endian.
HandleFatFile(executable_file, options)
elif magic == MH_MAGIC or magic == MH_CIGAM or \
magic == MH_MAGIC_64 or magic == MH_CIGAM_64:
HandleMachOFile(executable_file, options)
raise MachOError, '%s is not a Mach-O or fat file' % executable_file
return 0
if __name__ == '__main__':
sys.exit(main(sys.argv[0], sys.argv[1:]))