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// Copyright 2013 The Chromium Authors
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
// Canonicalizer functions for working with and resolving relative URLs.
#include <algorithm>
#include <ostream>
#include <string_view>
#include "base/check_op.h"
#include "base/strings/string_util.h"
#include "url/url_canon.h"
#include "url/url_canon_internal.h"
#include "url/url_constants.h"
#include "url/url_features.h"
#include "url/url_file.h"
#include "url/url_parse_internal.h"
#include "url/url_util.h"
#include "url/url_util_internal.h"
namespace url {
namespace {
// Firefox does a case-sensitive compare (which is probably wrong--Mozilla bug
// 379034), whereas IE is case-insensitive.
//
// We choose to be more permissive like IE. We don't need to worry about
// unescaping or anything here: neither IE or Firefox allow this. We also
// don't have to worry about invalid scheme characters since we are comparing
// against the canonical scheme of the base.
//
// The base URL should always be canonical, therefore it should be ASCII.
template<typename CHAR>
bool AreSchemesEqual(const char* base,
const Component& base_scheme,
const CHAR* cmp,
const Component& cmp_scheme) {
if (base_scheme.len != cmp_scheme.len)
return false;
for (int i = 0; i < base_scheme.len; i++) {
// We assume the base is already canonical, so we don't have to
// canonicalize it.
if (CanonicalSchemeChar(cmp[cmp_scheme.begin + i]) !=
base[base_scheme.begin + i])
return false;
}
return true;
}
#ifdef WIN32
// Here, we also allow Windows paths to be represented as "/C:/" so we can be
// consistent about URL paths beginning with slashes. This function is like
// DoesBeginWindowsDrivePath except that it also requires a slash at the
// beginning.
template<typename CHAR>
bool DoesBeginSlashWindowsDriveSpec(const CHAR* spec, int start_offset,
int spec_len) {
if (start_offset >= spec_len)
return false;
return IsSlashOrBackslash(spec[start_offset]) &&
DoesBeginWindowsDriveSpec(spec, start_offset + 1, spec_len);
}
#endif // WIN32
template <typename CHAR>
bool IsValidScheme(const CHAR* url, const Component& scheme) {
// Caller should ensure that the |scheme| is not empty.
DCHECK_NE(0, scheme.len);
// From https://url.spec.whatwg.org/#scheme-start-state:
// scheme start state:
// 1. If c is an ASCII alpha, append c, lowercased, to buffer, and set
// state to scheme state.
// 2. Otherwise, if state override is not given, set state to no scheme
// state, and decrease pointer by one.
// 3. Otherwise, validation error, return failure.
// Note that both step 2 and step 3 mean that the scheme was not valid.
if (!base::IsAsciiAlpha(url[scheme.begin]))
return false;
// From https://url.spec.whatwg.org/#scheme-state:
// scheme state:
// 1. If c is an ASCII alphanumeric, U+002B (+), U+002D (-), or U+002E
// (.), append c, lowercased, to buffer.
// 2. Otherwise, if c is U+003A (:), then [...]
//
// We begin at |scheme.begin + 1|, because the character at |scheme.begin| has
// already been checked by base::IsAsciiAlpha above.
int scheme_end = scheme.end();
for (int i = scheme.begin + 1; i < scheme_end; i++) {
if (!CanonicalSchemeChar(url[i]))
return false;
}
return true;
}
// See IsRelativeURL in the header file for usage.
template<typename CHAR>
bool DoIsRelativeURL(const char* base,
const Parsed& base_parsed,
const CHAR* url,
int url_len,
bool is_base_hierarchical,
bool* is_relative,
Component* relative_component) {
*is_relative = false; // So we can default later to not relative.
// Trim whitespace and construct a new range for the substring.
int begin = 0;
TrimURL(url, &begin, &url_len);
if (begin >= url_len) {
// Empty URLs are relative, but do nothing.
if (!is_base_hierarchical) {
// Don't allow relative URLs if the base scheme doesn't support it.
return false;
}
*relative_component = Component(begin, 0);
*is_relative = true;
return true;
}
#ifdef WIN32
// We special case paths like "C:\foo" so they can link directly to the
// file on Windows (IE compatibility). The security domain stuff should
// prevent a link like this from actually being followed if its on a
// web page.
//
// We treat "C:/foo" as an absolute URL. We can go ahead and treat "/c:/"
// as relative, as this will just replace the path when the base scheme
// is a file and the answer will still be correct.
//
// We require strict backslashes when detecting UNC since two forward
// slashes should be treated a a relative URL with a hostname.
if (DoesBeginWindowsDriveSpec(url, begin, url_len) ||
DoesBeginUNCPath(url, begin, url_len, true))
return true;
#endif // WIN32
// See if we've got a scheme, if not, we know this is a relative URL.
// BUT, just because we have a scheme, doesn't make it absolute.
// "http:foo.html" is a relative URL with path "foo.html". If the scheme is
// empty, we treat it as relative (":foo"), like IE does.
Component scheme;
const bool scheme_is_empty =
!ExtractScheme(url, url_len, &scheme) || scheme.len == 0;
if (scheme_is_empty) {
if (url[begin] == '#') {
// |url| is a bare fragment (e.g. "#foo"). This can be resolved against
// any base. Fall-through.
} else if (!is_base_hierarchical) {
// Don't allow relative URLs if the base scheme doesn't support it.
return false;
}
*relative_component = MakeRange(begin, url_len);
*is_relative = true;
return true;
}
// If the scheme isn't valid, then it's relative.
if (!IsValidScheme(url, scheme)) {
if (url[begin] == '#') {
// |url| is a bare fragment (e.g. "#foo:bar"). This can be resolved
// against any base. Fall-through.
} else if (!is_base_hierarchical) {
// Don't allow relative URLs if the base scheme doesn't support it.
return false;
}
*relative_component = MakeRange(begin, url_len);
*is_relative = true;
return true;
}
// If base scheme is not standard, or the schemes are different, we can't
// count it as relative.
//
// URL Standard: https://url.spec.whatwg.org/#scheme-state
//
// scheme state:
// > 2.6. Otherwise, if url is special, base is non-null, and base’s scheme is
// > url’s scheme:
if ((IsUsingStandardCompliantNonSpecialSchemeURLParsing() &&
!IsStandard(base, base_parsed.scheme)) ||
!AreSchemesEqual(base, base_parsed.scheme, url, scheme)) {
return true;
}
// When the scheme that they both share is not hierarchical, treat the
// incoming scheme as absolute (this way with the base of "data:foo",
// "data:bar" will be reported as absolute.
if (!is_base_hierarchical)
return true;
int colon_offset = scheme.end();
// If it's a filesystem URL, the only valid way to make it relative is not to
// supply a scheme. There's no equivalent to e.g. http:index.html.
if (CompareSchemeComponent(url, scheme, kFileSystemScheme))
return true;
// ExtractScheme guarantees that the colon immediately follows what it
// considers to be the scheme. CountConsecutiveSlashes will handle the
// case where the begin offset is the end of the input.
int num_slashes = CountConsecutiveSlashes(url, colon_offset + 1, url_len);
if (num_slashes == 0 || num_slashes == 1) {
// No slashes means it's a relative path like "http:foo.html". One slash
// is an absolute path. "http:/home/foo.html"
*is_relative = true;
*relative_component = MakeRange(colon_offset + 1, url_len);
return true;
}
// Two or more slashes after the scheme we treat as absolute.
return true;
}
// Copies all characters in the range [begin, end) of |spec| to the output,
// up until and including the last slash. There should be a slash in the
// range, if not, nothing will be copied.
//
// For stardard URLs the input should be canonical, but when resolving relative
// URLs on a non-standard base (like "data:") the input can be anything.
void CopyToLastSlash(const char* spec,
int begin,
int end,
CanonOutput* output) {
// Find the last slash.
int last_slash = -1;
for (int i = end - 1; i >= begin; i--) {
if (spec[i] == '/' || spec[i] == '\\') {
last_slash = i;
break;
}
}
if (last_slash < 0)
return; // No slash.
// Copy.
for (int i = begin; i <= last_slash; i++)
output->push_back(spec[i]);
}
// Copies a single component from the source to the output. This is used
// when resolving relative URLs and a given component is unchanged. Since the
// source should already be canonical, we don't have to do anything special,
// and the input is ASCII.
void CopyOneComponent(const char* source,
const Component& source_component,
CanonOutput* output,
Component* output_component) {
if (!source_component.is_valid()) {
// This component is not present.
*output_component = Component();
return;
}
output_component->begin = output->length();
int source_end = source_component.end();
for (int i = source_component.begin; i < source_end; i++)
output->push_back(source[i]);
output_component->len = output->length() - output_component->begin;
}
#ifdef WIN32
// Called on Windows when the base URL is a file URL, this will copy the "C:"
// to the output, if there is a drive letter and if that drive letter is not
// being overridden by the relative URL. Otherwise, do nothing.
//
// It will return the index of the beginning of the next character in the
// base to be processed: if there is a "C:", the slash after it, or if
// there is no drive letter, the slash at the beginning of the path, or
// the end of the base. This can be used as the starting offset for further
// path processing.
template<typename CHAR>
int CopyBaseDriveSpecIfNecessary(const char* base_url,
int base_path_begin,
int base_path_end,
const CHAR* relative_url,
int path_start,
int relative_url_len,
CanonOutput* output) {
if (base_path_begin >= base_path_end)
return base_path_begin; // No path.
// If the relative begins with a drive spec, don't do anything. The existing
// drive spec in the base will be replaced.
if (DoesBeginWindowsDriveSpec(relative_url, path_start, relative_url_len)) {
return base_path_begin; // Relative URL path is "C:/foo"
}
// The path should begin with a slash (as all canonical paths do). We check
// if it is followed by a drive letter and copy it.
if (DoesBeginSlashWindowsDriveSpec(base_url,
base_path_begin,
base_path_end)) {
// Copy the two-character drive spec to the output. It will now look like
// "file:///C:" so the rest of it can be treated like a standard path.
output->push_back('/');
output->push_back(base_url[base_path_begin + 1]);
output->push_back(base_url[base_path_begin + 2]);
return base_path_begin + 3;
}
return base_path_begin;
}
#endif // WIN32
// A subroutine of DoResolveRelativeURL, this resolves the URL knowning that
// the input is a relative path or less (query or ref).
template <typename CHAR>
bool DoResolveRelativePath(const char* base_url,
const Parsed& base_parsed,
bool base_is_file,
const CHAR* relative_url,
const Component& relative_component,
CharsetConverter* query_converter,
CanonMode canon_mode,
CanonOutput* output,
Parsed* out_parsed) {
bool success = true;
// We know the authority section didn't change, copy it to the output. We
// also know we have a path so can copy up to there.
Component path, query, ref;
ParsePathInternal(relative_url, relative_component, &path, &query, &ref);
// Canonical URLs always have a path, so we can use that offset. Reserve
// enough room for the base URL, the new path, and some extra bytes for
// possible escaped characters.
output->ReserveSizeIfNeeded(base_parsed.path.begin +
std::max({path.end(), query.end(), ref.end()}));
// Append a base URL up to the beginning of base URL's path.
if (base_parsed.path.is_empty()) {
// A non-special URL may have an empty path (e.g. "git://host"). In these
// cases, attempting to use `base_parsed.path` is invalid.
output->Append(base_url, base_parsed.Length());
} else if (url::IsUsingStandardCompliantNonSpecialSchemeURLParsing() &&
!base_parsed.host.is_valid() &&
// Exclude a file URL and an URL with an inner-path because we are
// interested in only non-special URLs here.
//
// If we don't exclude a file URL here, for example, `new
// URL("test", "file:///tmp").href` will result in
// "file:/tmp/mock/test" instead of "file:///tmp/mock/test".
!base_is_file && !base_parsed.inner_parsed()) {
// The URL is a path-only non-special URL. e.g. "git:/path".
//
// In this case, we can't use `base_parsed.path.begin` because it may append
// "/." wrongly if the URL is, for example, "git:/.//a", where
// `base_parsed.path` represents "//a", instead of "/.//a". We want to
// append "git:", instead of "git:/.".
//
// Fortunately, we can use `base_parsed.scheme.end()` here because we don't
// need to append a user, a password, a host, nor a port when a host is
// invalid.
output->Append(base_url, base_parsed.scheme.end());
output->Append(":");
} else {
output->Append(base_url, base_parsed.path.begin);
}
if (path.is_nonempty()) {
// The path is replaced or modified.
int true_path_begin = output->length();
// For file: URLs on Windows, we don't want to treat the drive letter and
// colon as part of the path for relative file resolution when the
// incoming URL does not provide a drive spec. We save the true path
// beginning so we can fix it up after we are done.
int base_path_begin = base_parsed.path.begin;
#ifdef WIN32
if (base_is_file) {
base_path_begin = CopyBaseDriveSpecIfNecessary(
base_url, base_parsed.path.begin, base_parsed.path.end(),
relative_url, relative_component.begin, relative_component.end(),
output);
// Now the output looks like either "file://" or "file:///C:"
// and we can start appending the rest of the path. |base_path_begin|
// points to the character in the base that comes next.
}
#endif // WIN32
if (IsSlashOrBackslash(relative_url[path.begin])) {
// Easy case: the path is an absolute path on the server, so we can
// just replace everything from the path on with the new versions.
// Since the input should be canonical hierarchical URL, we should
// always have a path.
success &= CanonicalizePath(relative_url, path,
output, &out_parsed->path);
} else {
// Relative path, replace the query, and reference. We take the
// original path with the file part stripped, and append the new path.
// The canonicalizer will take care of resolving ".." and "."
size_t path_begin = output->length();
if (base_parsed.path.is_empty() && !path.is_empty()) {
// Ensure a leading "/" is present before appending a non-empty relative
// path when the base URL's path is empty, as can occur with non-special
// URLs. This prevents incorrect path concatenation, such as resolving
// "path" based on "git://host" resulting in "git://hostpath" instead of
// the intended "git://host/path".
output->push_back('/');
}
CopyToLastSlash(base_url, base_path_begin, base_parsed.path.end(),
output);
success &= CanonicalizePartialPathInternal(relative_url, path, path_begin,
canon_mode, output);
out_parsed->path = MakeRange(path_begin, output->length());
// Copy the rest of the stuff after the path from the relative path.
}
// To avoid path being treated as the host, prepend "/." to the path".
//
// Example:
//
// > const url = new URL("/.//path", "git:/");
// > url.href
// => The result should be "git:/.//path", instead of "git://path".
if (IsUsingStandardCompliantNonSpecialSchemeURLParsing() &&
!base_parsed.host.is_valid() && out_parsed->path.is_valid() &&
out_parsed->path.as_string_view_on(output->view().data())
.starts_with("//")) {
size_t prior_output_length = output->length();
output->Insert(out_parsed->path.begin, "/.");
// Adjust path.
out_parsed->path.begin += output->length() - prior_output_length;
true_path_begin = out_parsed->path.begin;
}
// Finish with the query and reference part (these can't fail).
CanonicalizeQuery(relative_url, query, query_converter,
output, &out_parsed->query);
CanonicalizeRef(relative_url, ref, output, &out_parsed->ref);
// Fix the path beginning to add back the "C:" we may have written above.
out_parsed->path = MakeRange(true_path_begin, out_parsed->path.end());
return success;
}
// If we get here, the path is unchanged: copy to output.
CopyOneComponent(base_url, base_parsed.path, output, &out_parsed->path);
if (query.is_valid()) {
// Just the query specified, replace the query and reference (ignore
// failures for refs)
CanonicalizeQuery(relative_url, query, query_converter,
output, &out_parsed->query);
CanonicalizeRef(relative_url, ref, output, &out_parsed->ref);
return success;
}
// If we get here, the query is unchanged: copy to output. Note that the
// range of the query parameter doesn't include the question mark, so we
// have to add it manually if there is a component.
if (base_parsed.query.is_valid())
output->push_back('?');
CopyOneComponent(base_url, base_parsed.query, output, &out_parsed->query);
if (ref.is_valid()) {
// Just the reference specified: replace it (ignoring failures).
CanonicalizeRef(relative_url, ref, output, &out_parsed->ref);
return success;
}
// We should always have something to do in this function, the caller checks
// that some component is being replaced.
DCHECK(false) << "Not reached";
return success;
}
// Resolves a relative URL that contains a host. Typically, these will
// be of the form "//www.google.com/foo/bar?baz#ref" and the only thing which
// should be kept from the original URL is the scheme.
template<typename CHAR>
bool DoResolveRelativeHost(const char* base_url,
const Parsed& base_parsed,
const CHAR* relative_url,
const Component& relative_component,
CharsetConverter* query_converter,
CanonOutput* output,
Parsed* out_parsed) {
SchemeType scheme_type = SCHEME_WITH_HOST_PORT_AND_USER_INFORMATION;
const bool is_standard_scheme =
GetStandardSchemeType(base_url, base_parsed.scheme, &scheme_type);
// Parse the relative URL, just like we would for anything following a
// scheme.
Parsed relative_parsed; // Everything but the scheme is valid.
if (IsUsingStandardCompliantNonSpecialSchemeURLParsing() &&
!is_standard_scheme) {
ParseAfterNonSpecialScheme(relative_url, relative_component.end(),
relative_component.begin, &relative_parsed);
} else {
ParseAfterSpecialScheme(relative_url, relative_component.end(),
relative_component.begin, &relative_parsed);
}
// Now we can just use the replacement function to replace all the necessary
// parts of the old URL with the new one.
Replacements<CHAR> replacements;
replacements.SetUsername(relative_url, relative_parsed.username);
replacements.SetPassword(relative_url, relative_parsed.password);
replacements.SetHost(relative_url, relative_parsed.host);
replacements.SetPort(relative_url, relative_parsed.port);
replacements.SetPath(relative_url, relative_parsed.path);
replacements.SetQuery(relative_url, relative_parsed.query);
replacements.SetRef(relative_url, relative_parsed.ref);
// Length() does not include the old scheme, so make sure to add it from the
// base URL.
output->ReserveSizeIfNeeded(
replacements.components().Length() +
base_parsed.CountCharactersBefore(Parsed::USERNAME, false));
if (!is_standard_scheme) {
if (IsUsingStandardCompliantNonSpecialSchemeURLParsing()) {
return ReplaceNonSpecialURL(base_url, base_parsed, replacements,
query_converter, *output, *out_parsed);
}
// A path with an authority section gets canonicalized under standard URL
// rules, even though the base was not known to be standard.
scheme_type = SCHEME_WITH_HOST_PORT_AND_USER_INFORMATION;
}
return ReplaceStandardURL(base_url, base_parsed, replacements, scheme_type,
query_converter, output, out_parsed);
}
// Resolves a relative URL that happens to be an absolute file path. Examples
// include: "//hostname/path", "/c:/foo", and "//hostname/c:/foo".
template <typename CharT>
bool DoResolveAbsoluteFile(const CharT* relative_url,
const Component& relative_component,
CharsetConverter* query_converter,
CanonOutput* output,
Parsed* out_parsed) {
// Parse the file URL. The file URL parsing function uses the same logic
// as we do for determining if the file is absolute, in which case it will
// not bother to look for a scheme.
return CanonicalizeFileURL(
&relative_url[relative_component.begin], relative_component.len,
ParseFileURL(std::basic_string_view(
&relative_url[relative_component.begin], relative_component.len)),
query_converter, output, out_parsed);
}
// TODO(brettw) treat two slashes as root like Mozilla for FTP?
template<typename CHAR>
bool DoResolveRelativeURL(const char* base_url,
const Parsed& base_parsed,
bool base_is_file,
const CHAR* relative_url,
const Component& relative_component,
CharsetConverter* query_converter,
CanonOutput* output,
Parsed* out_parsed) {
// |base_parsed| is the starting point for our output. Since we may have
// removed whitespace from |relative_url| before entering this method, we'll
// carry over the |potentially_dangling_markup| flag.
bool potentially_dangling_markup = out_parsed->potentially_dangling_markup;
*out_parsed = base_parsed;
if (potentially_dangling_markup)
out_parsed->potentially_dangling_markup = true;
// A flag-dependent condition check is necessary here because non-special URLs
// may have an empty path if StandardCompliantNonSpecialSchemeURLParsing flag
// is enabled.
//
// TODO(crbug.com/40063064): Remove the following comment when we enable the
// flag. The comment makes sense only when the flag is disabled.
//
// > Sanity check: the input should have a host or we'll break badly below.
// > We can only resolve relative URLs with base URLs that have hosts and
// > paths (even the default path of "/" is OK).
// >
// > We allow hosts with no length so we can handle file URLs, for example.
if (IsUsingStandardCompliantNonSpecialSchemeURLParsing()
? base_parsed.scheme.is_empty()
: base_parsed.path.is_empty()) {
// On error, return the input (resolving a relative URL on a
// non-relative base = the base).
int base_len = base_parsed.Length();
for (int i = 0; i < base_len; i++) {
output->push_back(base_url[i]);
}
return false;
}
if (relative_component.is_empty()) {
// Empty relative URL, leave unchanged, only removing the ref component.
int base_len = base_parsed.Length();
base_len -= base_parsed.ref.len + 1;
out_parsed->ref.reset();
output->Append(base_url, base_len);
return true;
}
int num_slashes = CountConsecutiveSlashes(
relative_url, relative_component.begin, relative_component.end());
#ifdef WIN32
// On Windows, two slashes for a file path (regardless of which direction
// they are) means that it's UNC. Two backslashes on any base scheme mean
// that it's an absolute UNC path (we use the base_is_file flag to control
// how strict the UNC finder is).
//
// We also allow Windows absolute drive specs on any scheme (for example
// "c:\foo") like IE does. There must be no preceding slashes in this
// case (we reject anything like "/c:/foo") because that should be treated
// as a path. For file URLs, we allow any number of slashes since that would
// be setting the path.
//
// This assumes the absolute path resolver handles absolute URLs like this
// properly. DoCanonicalize does this.
int after_slashes = relative_component.begin + num_slashes;
if (DoesBeginUNCPath(relative_url, relative_component.begin,
relative_component.end(), !base_is_file) ||
((num_slashes == 0 || base_is_file) &&
DoesBeginWindowsDriveSpec(
relative_url, after_slashes, relative_component.end()))) {
return DoResolveAbsoluteFile(relative_url, relative_component,
query_converter, output, out_parsed);
}
#else
// Other platforms need explicit handling for file: URLs with multiple
// slashes because the generic scheme parsing always extracts a host, but a
// file: URL only has a host if it has exactly 2 slashes. Even if it does
// have a host, we want to use the special host detection logic for file
// URLs provided by DoResolveAbsoluteFile(), as opposed to the generic host
// detection logic, for consistency with parsing file URLs from scratch.
if (base_is_file && num_slashes >= 2) {
return DoResolveAbsoluteFile(relative_url, relative_component,
query_converter, output, out_parsed);
}
#endif
// Any other double-slashes mean that this is relative to the scheme.
if (num_slashes >= 2) {
return DoResolveRelativeHost(base_url, base_parsed,
relative_url, relative_component,
query_converter, output, out_parsed);
}
// When we get here, we know that the relative URL is on the same host.
return DoResolveRelativePath(
base_url, base_parsed, base_is_file, relative_url, relative_component,
query_converter,
// TODO(crbug.com/40063064): Support Non-special URLs
CanonMode::kSpecialURL, output, out_parsed);
}
} // namespace
bool IsRelativeURL(const char* base,
const Parsed& base_parsed,
const char* fragment,
int fragment_len,
bool is_base_hierarchical,
bool* is_relative,
Component* relative_component) {
return DoIsRelativeURL<char>(
base, base_parsed, fragment, fragment_len, is_base_hierarchical,
is_relative, relative_component);
}
bool IsRelativeURL(const char* base,
const Parsed& base_parsed,
const char16_t* fragment,
int fragment_len,
bool is_base_hierarchical,
bool* is_relative,
Component* relative_component) {
return DoIsRelativeURL<char16_t>(base, base_parsed, fragment, fragment_len,
is_base_hierarchical, is_relative,
relative_component);
}
bool ResolveRelativeURL(const char* base_url,
const Parsed& base_parsed,
bool base_is_file,
const char* relative_url,
const Component& relative_component,
CharsetConverter* query_converter,
CanonOutput* output,
Parsed* out_parsed) {
return DoResolveRelativeURL<char>(
base_url, base_parsed, base_is_file, relative_url,
relative_component, query_converter, output, out_parsed);
}
bool ResolveRelativeURL(const char* base_url,
const Parsed& base_parsed,
bool base_is_file,
const char16_t* relative_url,
const Component& relative_component,
CharsetConverter* query_converter,
CanonOutput* output,
Parsed* out_parsed) {
return DoResolveRelativeURL<char16_t>(base_url, base_parsed, base_is_file,
relative_url, relative_component,
query_converter, output, out_parsed);
}
} // namespace url