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# Checking out and building Chromium on Linux
There are instructions for other platforms linked from the
[get the code](get_the_code.md) page.
## Instructions for Google Employees
Are you a Google employee? See
[go/building-chrome](https://goto.google.com/building-chrome) instead.
[TOC]
## System requirements
* A 64-bit Intel machine with at least 8GB of RAM. More than 16GB is highly
recommended.
* At least 100GB of free disk space.
* You must have Git and Python installed already.
Most development is done on Ubuntu (currently 14.04, Trusty Tahr). There are
some instructions for other distros below, but they are mostly unsupported.
## Install `depot_tools`
Clone the `depot_tools` repository:
```shell
$ git clone https://chromium.googlesource.com/chromium/tools/depot_tools.git
```
Add `depot_tools` to the end of your PATH (you will probably want to put this
in your `~/.bashrc` or `~/.zshrc`). Assuming you cloned `depot_tools` to
`/path/to/depot_tools`:
```shell
$ export PATH="$PATH:/path/to/depot_tools"
```
## Get the code
Create a `chromium` directory for the checkout and change to it (you can call
this whatever you like and put it wherever you like, as long as the full path
has no spaces):
```shell
$ mkdir ~/chromium && cd ~/chromium
```
Run the `fetch` tool from depot_tools to check out the code and its
dependencies.
```shell
$ fetch --nohooks chromium
```
If you don't want the full repo history, you can save a lot of time by
adding the `--no-history` flag to `fetch`.
Expect the command to take 30 minutes on even a fast connection, and many
hours on slower ones.
If you've already installed the build dependencies on the machine (from another
checkout, for example), you can omit the `--nohooks` flag and `fetch`
will automatically execute `gclient runhooks` at the end.
When `fetch` completes, it will have created a hidden `.gclient` file and a
directory called `src` in the working directory. The remaining instructions
assume you have switched to the `src` directory:
```shell
$ cd src
```
### Install additional build dependencies
Once you have checked out the code, and assuming you're using Ubuntu, run
[build/install-build-deps.sh](/build/install-build-deps.sh)
You may need to adjust the build dependencies for other distros. There are
some [notes](#notes) at the end of this document, but we make no guarantees
for their accuracy.
### Run the hooks
Once you've run `install-build-deps` at least once, you can now run the
Chromium-specific hooks, which will download additional binaries and other
things you might need:
```shell
$ gclient runhooks
```
*Optional*: You can also [install API
keys](https://www.chromium.org/developers/how-tos/api-keys) if you want your
build to talk to some Google services, but this is not necessary for most
development and testing purposes.
## Setting up the build
Chromium uses [Ninja](https://ninja-build.org) as its main build tool along
with a tool called [GN](../tools/gn/docs/quick_start.md) to generate `.ninja`
files. You can create any number of *build directories* with different
configurations. To create a build directory, run:
```shell
$ gn gen out/Default
```
* You only have to run this once for each new build directory, Ninja will
update the build files as needed.
* You can replace `Default` with another name, but
it should be a subdirectory of `out`.
* For other build arguments, including release settings, see [GN build
configuration](https://www.chromium.org/developers/gn-build-configuration).
The default will be a debug component build matching the current host
operating system and CPU.
* For more info on GN, run `gn help` on the command line or read the
[quick start guide](../tools/gn/docs/quick_start.md).
### <a name="faster-builds"></a>Faster builds
This section contains some things you can change to speed up your builds,
sorted so that the things that make the biggest difference are first.
#### Disable NaCl
By default, the build includes support for
[Native Client (NaCl)](https://developer.chrome.com/native-client), but
most of the time you won't need it. You can set the GN argument
`enable_nacl=false` and it won't be built.
#### Include fewer debug symbols
By default GN produces a build with all of the debug assertions enabled
(`is_debug=true`) and including full debug info (`symbol_level=2`). Setting
`symbol_level=1` will produce enough information for stack traces, but not
line-by-line debugging. Setting `symbol_level=0` will include no debug
symbols at all. Either will speed up the build compared to full symbols.
#### Disable debug symbols for Blink
Due to its extensive use of templates, the Blink code produces about half
of our debug symbols. If you don't ever need to debug Blink, you can set
the GN arg `remove_webcore_debug_symbols=true`.
#### Use Icecc
[Icecc](https://github.com/icecc/icecream) is the distributed compiler with a
central scheduler to share build load. Currently, many external contributors use
it. e.g. Intel, Opera, Samsung (Googlers use an internal system called Goma).
In order to use `icecc`, set the following GN args:
```
linux_use_bundled_binutils=false
use_debug_fission=false
is_clang=false
```
See these links for more on the
[bundled_binutils limitation](https://github.com/icecc/icecream/commit/b2ce5b9cc4bd1900f55c3684214e409fa81e7a92),
the [debug fission limitation](http://gcc.gnu.org/wiki/DebugFission).
Using the system linker may also be necessary when using glibc 2.21 or newer.
See [related bug](https://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/bugreport.cgi?bug=808181).
#### ccache
You can use [ccache](https://ccache.samba.org) to speed up local builds (again,
this is not useful if you're using a Googler using Goma).
Increase your ccache hit rate by setting `CCACHE_BASEDIR` to a parent directory
that the working directories all have in common (e.g.,
`/home/yourusername/development`). Consider using
`CCACHE_SLOPPINESS=include_file_mtime` (since if you are using multiple working
directories, header times in svn sync'ed portions of your trees will be
different - see
[the ccache troubleshooting section](http://ccache.samba.org/manual.html#_troubleshooting)
for additional information). If you use symbolic links from your home directory
to get to the local physical disk directory where you keep those working
development directories, consider putting
alias cd="cd -P"
in your `.bashrc` so that `$PWD` or `cwd` always refers to a physical, not
logical directory (and make sure `CCACHE_BASEDIR` also refers to a physical
parent).
If you tune ccache correctly, a second working directory that uses a branch
tracking trunk and is up to date with trunk and was gclient sync'ed at about the
same time should build chrome in about 1/3 the time, and the cache misses as
reported by `ccache -s` should barely increase.
This is especially useful if you use `git-new-workdir` and keep multiple local
working directories going at once.
#### Using tmpfs
You can use tmpfs for the build output to reduce the amount of disk writes
required. I.e. mount tmpfs to the output directory where the build output goes:
As root:
mount -t tmpfs -o size=20G,nr_inodes=40k,mode=1777 tmpfs /path/to/out
*** note
**Caveat:** You need to have enough RAM + swap to back the tmpfs. For a full
debug build, you will need about 20 GB. Less for just building the chrome target
or for a release build.
***
Quick and dirty benchmark numbers on a HP Z600 (Intel core i7, 16 cores
hyperthreaded, 12 GB RAM)
* With tmpfs:
* 12m:20s
* Without tmpfs
* 15m:40s
## Build Chromium
Build Chromium (the "chrome" target) with Ninja using the command:
```shell
$ ninja -C out/Default chrome
```
You can get a list of all of the other build targets from GN by running `gn ls
out/Default` from the command line. To compile one, pass the GN label to Ninja
with no preceding "//" (so, for `//chrome/test:unit_tests` use `ninja -C
out/Default chrome/test:unit_tests`).
## Run Chromium
Once it is built, you can simply run the browser:
```shell
$ out/Default/chrome
```
## Running test targets
You can run the tests in the same way. You can also limit which tests are
run using the `--gtest_filter` arg, e.g.:
```shell
$ out/Default/unit_tests --gtest_filter="PushClientTest.*"
```
You can find out more about GoogleTest at its
[GitHub page](https://github.com/google/googletest).
## Update your checkout
To update an existing checkout, you can run
```shell
$ git rebase-update
$ gclient sync
```
The first command updates the primary Chromium source repository and rebases
any of your local branches on top of tip-of-tree (aka the Git branch
`origin/master`). If you don't want to use this script, you can also just use
`git pull` or other common Git commands to update the repo.
The second command syncs dependencies to the appropriate versions and re-runs
hooks as needed.
## Tips, tricks, and troubleshooting
### Linker Crashes
If, during the final link stage:
```
LINK out/Debug/chrome
```
You get an error like:
```
collect2: ld terminated with signal 6 Aborted terminate called after throwing an instance of 'std::bad_alloc'
collect2: ld terminated with signal 11 [Segmentation fault], core dumped
```
you are probably running out of memory when linking. You *must* use a 64-bit
system to build. Try the following build settings (see [GN build
configuration](https://www.chromium.org/developers/gn-build-configuration) for
other settings):
* Build in release mode (debugging symbols require more memory):
`is_debug = false`
* Turn off symbols: `symbol_level = 0`
* Build in component mode (this is for development only, it will be slower and
may have broken functionality): `is_component_build = true`
### More links
* Information about [building with Clang](clang.md).
* You may want to [use a chroot](using_a_linux_chroot.md) to
isolate yourself from versioning or packaging conflicts.
* Cross-compiling for ARM? See [LinuxChromiumArm](linux_chromium_arm.md).
* Want to use Eclipse as your IDE? See
[LinuxEclipseDev](linux_eclipse_dev.md).
* Want to use your built version as your default browser? See
[LinuxDevBuildAsDefaultBrowser](linux_dev_build_as_default_browser.md).
## Next Steps
If you want to contribute to the effort toward a Chromium-based browser for
Linux, please check out the [Linux Development page](linux_development.md) for
more information.
## Notes for other distros <a name="notes"></a>
### Arch Linux
Instead of running `install-build-deps.sh` to install build dependencies, run:
```shell
$ sudo pacman -S --needed python perl gcc gcc-libs bison flex gperf pkgconfig \
nss alsa-lib gconf glib2 gtk2 nspr ttf-ms-fonts freetype2 cairo dbus \
libgnome-keyring
```
For the optional packages on Arch Linux:
* `php-cgi` is provided with `pacman`
* `wdiff` is not in the main repository but `dwdiff` is. You can get `wdiff`
in AUR/`yaourt`
* `sun-java6-fonts` do not seem to be in main repository or AUR.
### Debian
Some tests require the `ttf-mscorefonts-installer` package from the `contrib`
component. `contrib` packages may have dependencies on non-free software.
If you need to run tests requiring MS TTF fonts, you can edit your apt
`sources.list` by adding `contrib` to the end of each line beginning with `deb`.
You might end up with something like this:
```
deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ jessie main contrib
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ jessie main contrib
deb http://security.debian.org/ jessie/updates main contrib
deb-src http://security.debian.org/ jessie/updates main contrib
# jessie-updates, previously known as 'volatile'
deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ jessie-updates main contrib
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ jessie-updates main contrib
```
Next, run:
``` shell
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install ttf-mscorefonts-installer
```
If you already have the `contrib` component enabled, `install-build-deps.sh`
will install `ttf-mscorefonts-installer` for you.
### Fedora
Instead of running `build/install-build-deps.sh`, run:
```shell
su -c 'yum install git python bzip2 tar pkgconfig atk-devel alsa-lib-devel \
bison binutils brlapi-devel bluez-libs-devel bzip2-devel cairo-devel \
cups-devel dbus-devel dbus-glib-devel expat-devel fontconfig-devel \
freetype-devel gcc-c++ GConf2-devel glib2-devel glibc.i686 gperf \
glib2-devel gtk2-devel gtk3-devel java-1.*.0-openjdk-devel libatomic \
libcap-devel libffi-devel libgcc.i686 libgnome-keyring-devel libjpeg-devel \
libstdc++.i686 libX11-devel libXScrnSaver-devel libXtst-devel \
libxkbcommon-x11-devel ncurses-compat-libs nspr-devel nss-devel pam-devel \
pango-devel pciutils-devel pulseaudio-libs-devel zlib.i686 httpd mod_ssl \
php php-cli python-psutil wdiff'
```
The `msttcorefonts` packages can be obtained by following [these
instructions](http://www.fedorafaq.org/#installfonts). For the optional
packages:
* `php-cgi` is provided by the `php-cli` package.
* `sun-java6-fonts` doesn't exist in Fedora repositories, needs investigating.
### Gentoo
You can just run `emerge www-client/chromium`.
### Mandriva
Instead of running `build/install-build-deps.sh`, run:
```shell
urpmi lib64fontconfig-devel lib64alsa2-devel lib64dbus-1-devel \
lib64GConf2-devel lib64freetype6-devel lib64atk1.0-devel lib64gtk+2.0_0-devel \
lib64pango1.0-devel lib64cairo-devel lib64nss-devel lib64nspr-devel g++ python \
perl bison flex subversion gperf
```
* `msttcorefonts` are not available, you will need to build your own (see
instructions, not hard to do, see
[mandriva_msttcorefonts.md](mandriva_msttcorefonts.md)) or use `drakfont` to
import the fonts from a Windows installation.
### OpenSUSE
Use `zypper` command to install dependencies:
(openSUSE 11.1 and higher)
```shell
sudo zypper in subversion pkg-config python perl \
bison flex gperf mozilla-nss-devel glib2-devel gtk-devel \
wdiff lighttpd gcc gcc-c++ gconf2-devel mozilla-nspr \
mozilla-nspr-devel php5-fastcgi alsa-devel libexpat-devel \
libjpeg-devel libbz2-devel
```
For 11.0, use `libnspr4-0d` and `libnspr4-dev` instead of `mozilla-nspr` and
`mozilla-nspr-devel`, and use `php5-cgi` instead of `php5-fastcgi`. And need
`gtk2-devel`.
(openSUSE 11.0)
```shell
sudo zypper in subversion pkg-config python perl \
bison flex gperf mozilla-nss-devel glib2-devel gtk-devel \
libnspr4-0d libnspr4-dev wdiff lighttpd gcc gcc-c++ libexpat-devel \
php5-cgi gconf2-devel alsa-devel gtk2-devel jpeg-devel
```
The Ubuntu package `sun-java6-fonts` contains a subset of Java of the fonts used.
Since this package requires Java as a prerequisite anyway, we can do the same
thing by just installing the equivalent openSUSE Sun Java package:
```shell
sudo zypper in java-1_6_0-sun
```
WebKit is currently hard-linked to the Microsoft fonts. To install these using `zypper`
```shell
sudo zypper in fetchmsttfonts pullin-msttf-fonts
```
To make the fonts installed above work, as the paths are hardcoded for Ubuntu,
create symlinks to the appropriate locations:
```shell
sudo mkdir -p /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/arial.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Arial.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/arialbd.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Arial_Bold.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/arialbi.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Arial_Bold_Italic.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/ariali.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Arial_Italic.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/comic.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Comic_Sans_MS.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/comicbd.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Comic_Sans_MS_Bold.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/cour.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Courier_New.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/courbd.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Courier_New_Bold.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/courbi.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Courier_New_Bold_Italic.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/couri.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Courier_New_Italic.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/impact.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Impact.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/times.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Times_New_Roman.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/timesbd.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Times_New_Roman_Bold.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/timesbi.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Times_New_Roman_Bold_Italic.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/timesi.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Times_New_Roman_Italic.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/verdana.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Verdana.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/verdanab.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Verdana_Bold.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/verdanai.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Verdana_Italic.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/verdanaz.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Verdana_Bold_Italic.ttf
```
The Ubuntu package `sun-java6-fonts` contains a subset of Java of the fonts used.
Since this package requires Java as a prerequisite anyway, we can do the same
thing by just installing the equivalent openSUSE Sun Java package:
```shell
sudo zypper in java-1_6_0-sun
```
WebKit is currently hard-linked to the Microsoft fonts. To install these using `zypper`
```shell
sudo zypper in fetchmsttfonts pullin-msttf-fonts
```
To make the fonts installed above work, as the paths are hardcoded for Ubuntu,
create symlinks to the appropriate locations:
```shell
sudo mkdir -p /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/arial.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Arial.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/arialbd.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Arial_Bold.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/arialbi.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Arial_Bold_Italic.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/ariali.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Arial_Italic.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/comic.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Comic_Sans_MS.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/comicbd.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Comic_Sans_MS_Bold.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/cour.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Courier_New.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/courbd.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Courier_New_Bold.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/courbi.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Courier_New_Bold_Italic.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/couri.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Courier_New_Italic.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/impact.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Impact.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/times.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Times_New_Roman.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/timesbd.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Times_New_Roman_Bold.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/timesbi.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Times_New_Roman_Bold_Italic.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/timesi.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Times_New_Roman_Italic.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/verdana.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Verdana.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/verdanab.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Verdana_Bold.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/verdanai.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Verdana_Italic.ttf
sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/verdanaz.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Verdana_Bold_Italic.ttf
```
And then for the Java fonts:
```shell
sudo mkdir -p /usr/share/fonts/truetype/ttf-lucida
sudo find /usr/lib*/jvm/java-1.6.*-sun-*/jre/lib -iname '*.ttf' -print \
-exec ln -s {} /usr/share/fonts/truetype/ttf-lucida \;
```