blob: 62ec41f818e0cd2eed2043ca9bc5123368216e6c [file] [log] [blame]
#!/usr/bin/env python
# Copyright (c) 2011 The Chromium OS Authors. All rights reserved.
# Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
# found in the LICENSE file.
This module provides convenience routines to access Flash ROM (EEPROM).
- flashrom_util is a low level wrapper of flashrom(8) program.
- FlashromUtility is a high level object which provides more advanced
features like journaling-alike (log-based) changing.
Original tool syntax:
(common) -p internal:bus=BUS (BUS: BIOS=spi, EC=lpc)
(read ) flashrom -r <file>
(write) flashrom -l <layout_fn> [-i <image_name> ...] -w <file>
The layout_fn is in format of
address_begin:address_end image_name
which defines a region between (address_begin, address_end) and can
be accessed by the name image_name.
Currently the tool supports multiple partial write but not partial read.
For more information, see help(flashrom_util.flashrom_util) and
import os
import re
import subprocess
import sys
import tempfile
import types
import fmap
# Constant Values -----------------------------------------------------------
# The location of flashrom(8)' tool binary
DEFAULT_FLASHROM_TOOL_PATH = '/usr/sbin/flashrom'
# The default target names for BIOS and Embedded Controller (EC)
# The default description of ChromeOS firmware layout
# Check help(compile_layout) for the syntax.
# NOTE: Since the memory layout of BIOS may change very often,
# the default layout is removed to prevent confusion.
# Any BIOS image without FMAP is considered as corrupted.
"bios": "", # retrieve from fmap, no defaults.
"ec": """
# The default conversion table for fmap_decode for legacy firmware (ex, CR48)
"Boot Stub": "BOOT_STUB",
"GBB Area": "GBB",
"Recovery Firmware": "RECOVERY",
"Firmware A Key": "VBLOCK_A",
"Firmware A Data": "FW_MAIN_A",
"Firmware B Key": "VBLOCK_B",
"Firmware B Data": "FW_MAIN_B",
# Default "skip" sections when verifying section data.
# This is required because some flashrom chip may create timestamps (or checksum
# values) when (or immediately after) we change flashrom content.
# The syntax is a comma-separated list of string tuples (separated by ':'):
# If there's no need to skip anything, provide an empty list [].
"bios": [],
"ec": "EC_RO:0x48:4",
# Default target selection commands, by machine architecture
# Syntax: { 'arch_regex': exec_script, ... }
'^x86|^i\d86': {
# The magic numbers here are register indexes and values that apply
# to all current known x86 based ChromeOS devices.
# Detail information is defined in section #"10.1.50 GCS-General
# Control and Status Register" of document "Intel NM10 Express
# Chipsets".
"bios": '-p internal:bus=spi',
"ec": '-p internal:bus=lpc',
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
# simple layout description language compiler
def compile_layout(desc, size):
""" compile_layout(desc, size) -> layout
Compiles a flashrom layout by simple description language.
Returns the result as a map. Empty map for any error.
syntax: <desc> ::= <partitions>
<partitions> ::= <partition>
| <partitions> '|' <partition>
<partition> ::= <spare_section>
| <partition> ',' <section>
| <section> ',' <partition>
<section> ::= <name> '=' <size>
<spare_section> ::= '*'
| <name>
| <name> '=' '*'
* Example: 'ro|rw', 'ro=0x1000,*|*,rw=0x1000'
* Each partition share same space from total size of flashrom.
* Sections are fix sized, or "spare" which consumes all remaining
space from a partition.
* You can use any non-zero decimal or heximal (0xXXXX) in <size>.
(size as zero is reserved now)
* You can use '*' as <name> for "unamed" items which will be ignored in
final layout output.
* You can use "<name>=*" or simply "<name>" (including '*', the
'unamed section') to define spare section.
* There must be always one (no more, no less) spare section in
each partition.
# create an empty layout first
layout = {}
err_ret = {}
# prepare: remove all spaces (literal from string.whitespace)
desc = ''.join([c for c in desc if c not in '\t\n\x0b\x0c\r '])
# find equally-sized partitions
parts = desc.split('|')
block_size = size / len(parts)
offset = 0
for part in parts:
sections = part.split(',')
sizes = []
names = []
spares = 0
for section in sections:
# skip empty section to allow final ','
if section == '':
# format name=v or name ?
if section.find('=') >= 0:
k, value = section.split('=')
if value == '*':
value = 0 # spare section
value = int(value, 0)
if value == 0:
raise ValueError('Using size as 0 is prohibited now.')
k, value = (section, 0) # spare, should appear for only one.
if value == 0:
spares = spares + 1
if spares != 1:
# each partition should have exactly one spare field
return err_ret
spare_size = block_size - sum(sizes)
sizes[sizes.index(0)] = spare_size
# fill sections
for i in range(len(names)):
# ignore unamed sections
if names[i] != '*':
layout[names[i]] = (offset, offset + sizes[i] - 1)
offset = offset + sizes[i]
return layout
def _convert_fmap_layout(conversion_map, fmap_areas):
(internal utility) Converts a FMAP areas structure to flashrom layout format
by conversion_map.
conversion_map: dictionary of names to convert.
fmap_areas: a list of {name, offset, size} dictionary.
Returns: layout structure for flashrom_util, or empty for failure.
layout = {}
for entry in fmap_areas:
name = entry['name']
offset = entry['offset']
size = entry['size']
if name in conversion_map:
name = conversion_map[name]
name = name.replace(' ', '%20')
layout[name] = (offset, offset + size - 1)
return layout
def decode_fmap_layout(conversion_map, image_blob):
(Utility) Uses fmap_decode to retrieve embedded layout of a prepared
firmware image.
conversion_map: dictionary for FMAP area name conversion
image_blob: binary data of firmware image containing FMAP
Returns: layout structure for flashrom_util, or empty for failure.
fmap_object = fmap.fmap_decode(image_blob)['areas']
# print 'decode_fmap_layout: failed to decode from image blob'
fmap_object = []
return _convert_fmap_layout(conversion_map, fmap_object)
def csv_to_list(csv, delimiter=','):
(Utility) Converts a comma-separated-value (or list) to a list.
To use symbols other that comma, customize with delimiter.
if isinstance(csv, types.StringTypes):
return [i.strip() for i in csv.split(delimiter)]
return csv
def _dummy(*_, **__):
""" Dummy function. """
def _default_system_output(command, ignore_status):
""" Stub for default system_output function. """
return utils.system_output(command, ignore_status=ignore_status)
def _default_system(command, ignore_status):
""" Stub for default system function. """
return utils.system(command, ignore_status=ignore_status)
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
# flashrom utility wrapper
class flashrom_util(object):
""" a wrapper for "flashrom" utility.
You can read, write, or query flash ROM size with this utility.
Although you can do "partial-write", the tools always takes a
full ROM image as input parameter.
NOTE before accessing flash ROM, you may need to first "select"
your target - usually BIOS or EC. That part is not handled by
this utility. Please find other external script to do it.
To perform a read, you need to:
1. Prepare a flashrom_util object
ex: flashrom = flashrom_util.flashrom_util()
2. Decide target (BIOS/EC)
ex: flashrom.select_bios_flashrom()
3. Perform read operation
ex: image = flashrom.read_whole()
To perform a (partial) write, you need to:
1. Select target (BIOS/EC)
ex: flashrom.select_ec_flashrom()
2. Create or load a layout map (see explain of layout below)
ex: layout_map = { 'all': (0, rom_size - 1) }
ex: layout_map = { 'ro': (0, 0xFFF), 'rw': (0x1000, rom_size-1) }
You can also use built-in layout like detect_chromeos_bios_layout(),
detect_chromeos_layout(), or detect_layout() to build the layout maps.
3. Prepare a full base image
ex: image = flashrom.read_whole()
ex: image = chr(0xFF) * rom_size
4. (optional) Modify data in base image
ex: new_image = flashrom.put_section(image, layout_map, 'all', mydata)
5. Perform write operation
ex: flashrom.write_partial(new_image, layout_map, ('all',))
P.S: you can also create the new_image in your own way, for example:
rom_size = flashrom_util.get_size()
erase_image = chr(0xFF) * rom_size
flashrom.write_partial(erase_image, layout_map, ('all',))
The layout is a dictionary of { 'name': (address_begin, addres_end) }.
Note that address_end IS included in the range.
See help(detect_layout) for easier way to generate layout maps.
tool_path: file path to the tool 'flashrom'
cmd_prefix: prefix of every shell cmd, ex: "PATH=.:$PATH;export PATH;"
cmd_current: combined by tool_path, cmd_prefix and selected target
tmp_root: a folder name for mkstemp (for temp of layout and images)
keep_temp_files: boolean flag to control cleaning of temporary files
target_map: map of what commands should be invoked to switch targets.
if you don't need any commands, use empty dict {}.
if you want default detection, use None (default param).
exception_type: the type of exception to raise for errors.
verbose_msg: a function to be called with debugging/helpful messages.
system_output: a function to receive shell command output.
system: a function to execute shell command and return results
def __init__(self,
""" constructor of flashrom_util. help(flashrom_util) for more info """
self.exception_type = exception_type
self.tool_path = tool_path
self.cmd_prefix = cmd_prefix
self.tmp_root = tmp_root
self.keep_temp_files = keep_temp_files
self.target_map = target_map
self.is_debug = False
self.verbose_msg = verbose_msg
self.system_output = system_output
self.system_exit_code = system
# detect bbs map if target_map is None.
# NOTE when target_map == {}, that means "do not execute commands",
# different to default value.
if isinstance(target_map, types.NoneType):
# generate default target map
self.target_map = self.detect_target_map()
# command for current target
self.cmd_current = '%s"%s"' % (self.cmd_prefix, self.tool_path)
def _error_die(self, message):
''' (internal) raises a critical exception on un-recoverable errors. '''
raise self.exception_type('%s: %s' % (self.__class__.__name__,
def _get_temp_filename(self, prefix):
''' (internal) Returns name of a temporary file in self.tmp_root '''
(handle, name) = tempfile.mkstemp(prefix=prefix, dir=self.tmp_root)
return name
def _remove_temp_file(self, filename):
""" (internal) Removes a temp file if self.keep_temp_files is false. """
if self.keep_temp_files:
if os.path.exists(filename):
def _create_layout_file(self, layout_map):
(internal) Creates a layout file based on layout_map.
Returns the file name containing layout information.
layout_text = ['0x%08lX:0x%08lX %s' % (v[0], v[1], k)
for k, v in layout_map.items()]
layout_text.sort() # unstable if range exceeds 2^32
tmpfn = self._get_temp_filename('lay')
open(tmpfn, 'wb').write('\n'.join(layout_text) + '\n')
return tmpfn
def system(self, cmd):
''' (internal) Returns if cmd is successfully executed. '''
return self.system_exit_code(cmd, ignore_status=True) == 0
def get_section(self, base_image, layout_map, section_name):
Retrieves a section of data based on section_name in layout_map.
Raises error if unknown section or invalid layout_map.
assert section_name in layout_map, "Invalid section: " + section_name
pos = layout_map[section_name]
if pos[0] >= pos[1] or pos[1] >= len(base_image):
self._error_die('INTERNAL ERROR: invalid layout map: %s.' %
return base_image[pos[0] : pos[1] + 1]
def put_section(self, base_image, layout_map, section_name, data):
Updates a section of data based on section_name in layout_map.
Raises error if unknown section or invalid layout_map.
Returns the full updated image data.
assert section_name in layout_map, "Invalid section: " + section_name
pos = layout_map[section_name]
if pos[0] >= pos[1] or pos[1] >= len(base_image):
self._error_die('INTERNAL ERROR: invalid layout map.')
if len(data) != pos[1] - pos[0] + 1:
self._error_die('INTERNAL ERROR: unmatched data size.')
return base_image[0 : pos[0]] + data + base_image[pos[1] + 1 :]
def get_size(self):
""" Gets size of current flash ROM """
cmd = '%s --get-size | grep "^[0-9]"' % (self.cmd_current)
self.verbose_msg('flashrom_util.get_size(): ' + cmd)
output = self.system_output(cmd, ignore_status=True)
last_line = output.strip()
size = long(last_line)
except ValueError:
self._error_die('INTERNAL ERROR: unable to get the flash size.')
self.verbose_msg('flashrom_util.get_size(): got %d' % size)
return size
def detect_target_map(self):
Detects the target selection map.
Use machine architecture in current implementation.
arch = utils.get_arch()
for regex, target_map in DEFAULT_ARCH_TARGET_MAP.items():
if re.match(regex, arch):
return target_map
self._error_die('INTERNAL ERROR: unknown architecture, need target_map')
def detect_layout(self, layout_desciption, size, image):
Detects and builds layout according to current flash ROM size
(or image) and a simple layout description language.
NOTE: if you don't trust any available FMAP layout information in
flashrom image, pass image = None.
layout_description: Pre-defined layout description. See
help(flashrom_util.compile_layout) for syntax detail.
size: Size of flashrom. If size is None, self.get_size()
will be called.
image: (optional) Flash ROM image that contains FMAP layout info.
If image is None, layout will be calculated by size only.
Returns the layout map (empty if any error).
ret = None
if image:
if self.is_debug:
print " * detect_layout: try FMAP"
ret = decode_fmap_layout(DEFAULT_CHROMEOS_FMAP_CONVERSION, image)
if not ret:
if not size:
size = self.get_size()
ret = compile_layout(layout_desciption, size)
if self.is_debug:
print " * detect_layout: using pre-defined memory layout"
elif self.is_debug:
print " * detect_layout: using FMAP layout in firmware image."
return ret
def detect_chromeos_layout(self, target, size, image):
Detects and builds ChromeOS firmware layout according to current flash
ROM size. Currently supported targets are: 'bios' or 'ec'.
See help(flashrom_util.flashrom_util.detect_layout) for detail
information of argument size and image.
Returns the layout map (empty if any error).
'unknown layout target: ' + target
return self.detect_layout(chromeos_target, size, image)
def detect_chromeos_bios_layout(self, size, image):
""" Detects standard ChromeOS BIOS layout.
A short cut to detect_chromeos_layout(TARGET_BIOS, size, image). """
return self.detect_chromeos_layout(self.TARGET_BIOS, size, image)
def detect_chromeos_ec_layout(self, size, image):
""" Detects standard ChromeOS Embedded Controller layout.
A short cut to detect_chromeos_layout(TARGET_EC, size, image). """
return self.detect_chromeos_layout(self.TARGET_EC, size, image)
def read_whole_to_file(self, output_file):
Reads whole flash ROM data to a file.
Returns True on success, otherwise False.
cmd = '%s -r "%s"' % (self.cmd_current, output_file)
self.verbose_msg('flashrom_util.read_whole_to_file(): ' + cmd)
return self.system(cmd)
def read_whole(self):
Reads whole flash ROM data.
Returns the data read from flash ROM, or empty string for other error.
result = ''
tmpfn = self._get_temp_filename('rd_')
if self.read_whole_to_file(tmpfn):
result = open(tmpfn, 'rb').read()
except IOError:
result = ''
# clean temporary resources
return result
def _write_flashrom(self, base_image, layout_map, write_list):
(internal) Writes data in sections of write_list to flash ROM.
If layout_map and write_list are both empty, write whole image.
Returns True on success, otherwise False.
cmd_layout = ''
cmd_list = ''
layout_fn = ''
if write_list:
assert layout_map, "Partial writing to flash requires layout"
assert set(write_list).issubset(layout_map.keys())
layout_fn = self._create_layout_file(layout_map)
cmd_layout = '-l "%s" ' % (layout_fn)
cmd_list = '-i %s ' % ' -i '.join(write_list)
assert not layout_map, "Writing whole flash does not allow layout"
tmpfn = self._get_temp_filename('wr_')
open(tmpfn, 'wb').write(base_image)
cmd = '%s %s%s -w "%s"' % (self.cmd_current,
self.verbose_msg('flashrom._write_flashrom(): ' + cmd)
result = self.system(cmd)
# clean temporary resources
if layout_fn:
return result
def write_whole(self, base_image):
Writes whole image to flashrom.
Returns True on success, otherwise False.
assert base_image, "You must provide full image."
return self._write_flashrom(base_image, [], [])
def write_partial(self, base_image, layout_map, write_list):
Writes data in sections of write_list to flash ROM.
Returns True on success, otherwise False.
assert write_list, "You need to provide something to write."
return self._write_flashrom(base_image, layout_map, write_list)
def enable_write_protect(self, layout_map, section):
Enables the "write protection" for specified section on flashrom.
if section not in layout_map:
self._error_die('INTERNAL ERROR: unknown section.')
# syntax: flashrom --wp-range offset size
# flashrom --wp-enable
# NOTE: wp-* won't return error value even if they failed to change
# the value/status due to WP already enabled, so we can't rely on the
# return value; the real status must be verified by --wp-status.
addr = layout_map[section]
cmd = ('%s --wp-disable && '
'%s --wp-range 0x%06X 0x%06X && '
'%s --wp-enable' % (
self.cmd_current, addr[0], addr[1] - addr[0] + 1,
self.verbose_msg('flashrom.enable_write_protect(): ' + cmd)
return self.system(cmd)
def disable_write_protect(self):
Disables whole "write protection" range and status.
# syntax: flashrom --wp-range offset size
# flashrom --wp-disable
cmd = '%s --wp-disable && %s --wp-range 0 0' % (
self.cmd_current, self.cmd_current)
self.verbose_msg('flashrom.disable_write_protect(): ' + cmd)
return self.system(cmd)
def verify_write_protect(self, layout_map, section):
Verifies if write protection is configured correctly.
if section not in layout_map:
self._error_die('INTERNAL ERROR: unknown section.')
# syntax: flashrom --wp-status
addr = layout_map[section]
cmd = '%s --wp-status | grep "^WP: "' % (self.cmd_current)
self.verbose_msg('flashrom.verify_write_protect(): ' + cmd)
results = self.system_output(cmd, ignore_status=True).splitlines()
# output: WP: status: 0x80
# WP: status.srp0: 1
# WP: write protect is %s. (disabled/enabled)
# WP: write protect range: start=0x%8x, len=0x%08x
wp_enabled = None
wp_range_start = -1
wp_range_len = -1
for result in results:
result = result.strip()
if result.startswith('WP: write protect is '):
result = result.rpartition(' ')[-1].strip('.')
if result == 'enabled':
wp_enabled = True
elif result == 'disabled':
wp_enabled = False
self.verbose_msg('flashrom.verify_write_protect: '
'unknown status: ' + result)
if result.startswith('WP: write protect range: '):
value_start = re.findall('start=[0-9xXa-fA-F]+', result)
value_len = re.findall('len=[0-9xXa-fA-F]+', result)
if value_start and value_len:
wp_range_start = int(value_start[0].rpartition('=')[-1], 0)
wp_range_len = int(value_len[0].rpartition('=')[-1], 0)
self.verbose_msg(' wp_enabled: %s' % wp_enabled)
self.verbose_msg(' wp_range_start: %s' % wp_range_start)
self.verbose_msg(' wp_range_len: %s' % wp_range_len)
if (wp_enabled == None) or ((wp_range_start < 0) or (wp_range_len < 0)):
self.verbose_msg('flashrom.verify_write_protect(): invalid output: '
+ '\n'.join(results))
return False
# expected: enabled, and correct range
addr = layout_map[section]
addr_start = addr[0]
addr_len = addr[1] - addr[0] + 1
if (wp_range_start != addr_start) or (wp_range_len != addr_len):
'flashrom.verify_write_protect(): unmatched range: '
'current (%08lx, %08lx), expected (%08lx,%08lx)' %
(wp_range_start, wp_range_len, addr_start, addr_len))
return False
if not wp_enabled:
self.verbose_msg('flashrom.verify_write_protect(): '
'write protect is not enabled.')
return False
# everything is correct.
return True
def select_target(self, target):
Selects (usually by setting BBS register) a target defined in target_map
and then directs all further firmware access to certain region.
assert target in self.target_map, "Unknown target: " + target
if not self.target_map[target]:
return True
self.verbose_msg('flashrom.select_target("%s"): %s' %
(target, self.target_map[target]))
# command for current target
self.cmd_current = '%s"%s" %s ' % (self.cmd_prefix,
return True
def select_bios_flashrom(self):
''' Directs all further accesses to BIOS flash ROM. '''
return self.select_target(self.TARGET_BIOS)
def select_ec_flashrom(self):
''' Directs all further accesses to Embedded Controller flash ROM. '''
return self.select_target(self.TARGET_EC)
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Advanced flashrom utiliity
class FlashromUtility(object):
A high level (easier to use and more advanced) utility class to access
flashrom. FlashromUtility supports general read and journaling-alike (log
based) style write functionality.
To use it, first initialize, read/update section data, and finally commit.
flashrom = FlashromUtility()
# quick access to section data
data = flashrom.read_section('FW_MAIN_A')
flashrom.write_section('FW_MAIN_A', data)
# compare section data
if flashrom.verify_sections('A,B', 'C,D', image1, image2):
print "same contents!"
# copy between sections
flashrom.image_copy(list_A, list_B, image); # copy A in image to B
# check if really need to perform writing to flashrom
if flashrom.need_commit():
print "need to rewrite the flash..."
# perform real write operation
flashrom: instance of flashrom_util
current_image: cached image data of current flashrom
layout: the Chrome OS firmware layout for flashrom to use
whole_flash_layout: a special layout to contain whole flashrom space
skip_verify: a description of what data must be skipped when
doing compare / verification
change_history: a list of every change we should apply when committing.
each item is (changed_list, image_data).
verbose_msg: function to report verbose messages.
def __init__(self,
Initializes internal variables and states.
flashrom_util_instance: An instance of existing flashrom_util. If
not provided, FlashromUtility will create
one with all default values.
self.exception_type = exception_type
self.flashrom = flashrom_util_instance
if not self.flashrom:
self.flashrom = flashrom_util(verbose_msg=verbose_msg,
self.current_image = None
self.target_file = None
self.layout = None
self.whole_flash_layout = None
self.skip_verify = None
self.change_history = []
self.verbose_msg = verbose_msg
self.is_debug = False
def _error_die(self, message):
''' (internal) raises a critical exception on un-recoverable errors. '''
raise self.exception_type('%s: %s' % (self.__class__.__name__,
def initialize(self, target, layout_image=None, layout_desc=None,
use_fmap_layout=True, skip_verify=None, target_file=None):
Starts flashrom initialization with given target.
target: Name of the target you are dealing with (check TARGET_*)
layout_desc: (optional) Description of pre-defined layout
layout_image: (optional) A image blob containing FMAP for building
layout. None if you want to use current system flash content
use_fmap_layout: Use True (default) if you trust the FMAP in
skip_verify: (optional) Description of what data must be skipped
when doing comparison / verification.
target_file: (optional) An firmware image file for processing
instead of system flashrom.
flashrom = self.flashrom
if not target_file and not flashrom.select_target(target):
self._error_die("Cannot Select Target. Abort.")
self.target_file = target_file
self.verbose_msg(" - reading current content")
self.current_image = self._perform_read_flash()
if not self.current_image:
self._error_die("Cannot read flashrom image. Abort.")
flashrom_size = len(self.current_image)
if not use_fmap_layout:
layout_image = None
elif not layout_image:
layout_image = self.current_image
if layout_desc:
layout = flashrom.detect_layout(
layout_desc, flashrom_size, layout_image)
layout = flashrom.detect_chromeos_layout(
target, flashrom_size, layout_image)
self.layout = layout
self.whole_flash_layout = flashrom.detect_layout('all', flashrom_size,
if not skip_verify:
self.skip_verify = skip_verify
self.change_history = [] # reset list
def get_current_image(self):
""" Returns current flashrom image (physically, not changed) """
return self.current_image
def get_latest_changed_image(self):
""" Returns the latest changed result image (not written yet) """
if not self.change_history:
return self.get_current_image()
# the [1] refers to the latter element of (changed_list, image_data)
return self.change_history[-1][1]
def need_commit(self):
""" Returns if we have uncommitted changes """
if self.change_history:
return True
return False
def image_copy(self, from_list, to_list, from_image=None):
Copies sections (in from_list) of data from from_image to the sections
(in to_list) in latest changed image.
If from_image is not assigned, use latest changed image as source.
from_list and to_list can be real list or comma-separated-value.
# simplify arguments and local variables
if not from_image:
from_image = self.get_latest_changed_image()
to_image = self.get_latest_changed_image()
from_list = csv_to_list(from_list)
to_list = csv_to_list(to_list)
changed_list = []
changed_image = to_image
flashrom = self.flashrom
layout = self.layout
for f, t in zip(from_list, to_list):
if self.verify_sections(f, t, from_image, to_image):
from_data = flashrom.get_section(from_image, layout, f)
to_data = flashrom.get_section(to_image, layout, t)
assert len(from_data) == len(to_data)
changed_image = flashrom.put_section(changed_image, layout, t,
assert changed_image != to_image
# add to history if anything has been changed.
if changed_list:
self.change_history.append((changed_list, changed_image))
assert changed_image != to_image
def read_section(self, section, from_image=None):
""" Returns data of the section in image.
If from_image is omitted, read from get_latest_changed_image();
otherwise read directly from from_image.
if not from_image:
from_image = self.get_latest_changed_image()
return self.flashrom.get_section(from_image, self.layout, section)
def write_section(self, section, data):
""" Change the section data of latest changed image. """
new_image = self.get_latest_changed_image()
new_image = self.flashrom.put_section(new_image, self.layout, section, \
return self.image_copy(section, section, new_image)
def get_verification_image(self, from_image, pad_value=chr(0)):
Returns an image derived from from_image with "skip verification"
regions padded by pad_value.
layout = self.layout
# decode skip_verify with layout, and then modify images
for verify_tuple in csv_to_list(self.skip_verify):
(name, offset, size) = verify_tuple.split(':')
name = name.strip()
offset = int(offset.strip(), 0)
size = int(size.strip(), 0)
assert name in layout, "(make_verify) Unknown section name: " + name
if self.is_debug:
print " ** skipping range: %s +%d [%d]" % (name, offset, size)
# we use the layout's internal structure here...
offset = layout[name][0] + offset
from_image = from_image[:offset] + (pad_value * size) + \
from_image[(offset + size):]
return from_image
def verify_sections(self, from_list, to_list, from_image, to_image):
Compares if sections in from_list and to_list are the same, skipping
by self.skip_verify description.
If from_list and to_list are both empty list ([]), compare whole image
# simplify arguments and local variables
from_list = csv_to_list(from_list)
to_list = csv_to_list(to_list)
flashrom = self.flashrom
layout = self.layout
# prepare verification image
if self.skip_verify:
from_image = self.get_verification_image(from_image)
to_image = self.get_verification_image(to_image)
# compare sections in image
if not (from_list or to_list):
return from_image == to_image
for (f, t) in zip(from_list, to_list):
data_f = flashrom.get_section(from_image, layout, f)
data_t = flashrom.get_section(to_image, layout, t)
if data_f != data_t:
return False
return True
def verify_whole_image(self, image1, image2):
""" Compares if image1 and image2 are the same, except the
skip_verify region.
return self.verify_sections([], [], image1, image2)
def _perform_read_flash(self):
""" (INTERNAL) Performs a real read to flashrom. """
flashrom = self.flashrom
if self.target_file:
return open(self.target_file, 'rb').read()
return flashrom.read_whole()
def _perform_write_flash(self, changed_list, layout, new_image):
""" (INTERNAL) Performs a real write to flashrom. """
flashrom = self.flashrom
self.verbose_msg(" - writing firmware sections: %s" %
if self.target_file:
# TODO(hungte) implementt real partial write here?
open(self.target_file, 'wb').write(new_image)
elif not flashrom.write_partial(new_image, layout, changed_list):
self._error_die("Cannot re-write firmware. Abort.")
self.verbose_msg(" - verifying firmware data")
verify_image = self._perform_read_flash()
self.current_image = verify_image
if not self.verify_whole_image(verify_image, new_image):
self._error_die("Tool return success but actual data is incorrect.")
def commit(self):
""" Commits all change data into real flashrom """
# TODO(hungte) if _perform_write_flash failed, we should try to revert
# system back to initial status.
# revert_image =self.get_current_image()
for change_list, change_image in self.change_history:
self._perform_write_flash(change_list, self.layout, change_image)
# all committed, clear log history
self.change_history = []
def commit_whole_flashrom_image(self, image):
""" Updates (and commits directly) whole new flashrom image """
whole_layout = self.whole_flash_layout
assert len(whole_layout) == 1
self._perform_write_flash(whole_layout.keys(), whole_layout, image)
def revert(self):
""" Revert all changed data which were not committed yet. """
self.change_history = []
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
# The flashrom_util supports both running inside and outside 'autotest'
# framework, so we need to provide some mocks and dynamically load
# autotest components here.
class mock_utils(object):
""" a mock for autotest_li.client.bin.utils """
def get_arch(self):
""" gets system architecture. """
arch = os.popen('uname -m').read().rstrip()
arch = re.sub(r"i\d86", r"i386", arch, 1)
return arch
def run_command(self, cmd, ignore_status=False):
""" executes a command and return its output and return code. """
p = subprocess.Popen(cmd, shell=True,
(out_msg, err_msg) = p.communicate()
if p.returncode:
err_msg =
sys.stderr.write("%s\n%s\n" % (out_msg, err_msg))
if not ignore_status:
raise Exception (
"failed to execute: %s\nError messages: %s" %
(cmd, err_msg))
return (p.returncode, out_msg)
def system(self, cmd, ignore_status=False):
(returncode, _) = self.run_command(cmd, ignore_status)
return returncode
def system_output(self, cmd, ignore_status=False):
(_, output) = self.run_command(cmd, ignore_status)
return output
# import autotest or mock utilities
# print 'using autotest'
from autotest_lib.client.bin import utils
except ImportError:
# print 'using mocks'
utils = mock_utils()
# main stub
if __name__ == "__main__":
# TODO(hungte) provide unit tests or command line usage