Hibernation in powerd

Introduction

Hibernation, also known as suspend-to-disk, or S4, describes a system power state transition wherein RAM is saved to disk and the system is put into a low power state. It can achieve the same fidelity of user state restoration as suspend-to-RAM, but with power consumption closer (and oftentimes identical to) a shut down system. The improved power usage over suspend-to-RAM comes with the tradeoff of disk usage and increased latency. Hibernation can be thought of as a middle ground between suspend and shutdown, taking some attributes from each.

Powerd's role in hibernation

Powerd acts as a policy engine and initiator of hibernate, just as it does for system suspend and shutdown-from-idle transitions. Powerd determines at startup if the system is capable of hibernation. It may initiate a hibernation as part of an explicit SuspendRequest to suspend to disk, or passively as a substitute for shutdown-after-x.

All of the documentation for suspend/resume applies to going down for hibernation as well. From the application perspective, to first order there is no detectable difference between the two. Like suspend/resume, powerd emits a SuspendImminent signal when the system is going to transition to hibernate, and a SuspendDone signal when the resume transition is complete. Users of the SuspendDone signal can look at the deepest_state member to determine whether or not a hibernation occurred.

The actual mechanics of hibernate are handled by a separate service, hiberman. See the hiberman documentation for the gritty details of how the system goes down for and comes up from hibernation.

Powerd and hibernation resume

Resume from hibernation works by first doing a cold boot, then loading the hibernation image from disk and jumping back into it. That means there is a point at which Chrome OS is running, but then the current execution environment abruptly ends as control is returned to the hibernated system. This event is known as a resume from hibernation.

Resume from hibernation is initiated and mostly coordinated by hiberman rather than powerd. Powerd still participates in this transition however in terms of emitting the SuspendImminent signal and executing suspend dbus callbacks before letting the resume transition proceed.

To allow daemons to prepare for an imminent resume from hibernation, powerd sends out the SuspendImminent dbus signal, with the action member set to HIBERNATE_RESUME. Daemons already registered for SuspendImminent signals that are unaware of the action member will end up doing the same thing they would do for a suspend-to-RAM, which almost always ends up being the right behavior anyway.

If for some reason the resume transition fails, then the hibernation image is discarded, and this boot continues as if it were a fresh boot. In this case powerd sends out a SuspendDone corresponding to the SuspendImminent it just sent, hiberman cleans up, and the system proceeds as usual.

Communication between powerd and hiberman during resume

Powerd and hiberman need to coordinate during the resume transition. Hiberman initiates resume early in boot and waits for login credentials to arrive. Once the hibernation image is fully loaded on disk and the resume transition is ready to execute, hiberman asks powerd to send the SuspendImminent signal and run suspend callbacks. It does this using a new flavor value to RequestSuspend: RESUME_FROM_DISK_PREPARE. This causes powerd to do its callback dbus activity, but not actually initiate any further transition itself. It instead emits a HibernateResumeReady signal, which lets hiberman know that resume callbacks have completed. At this point hiberman will trigger the final steps of resume, ending the execution environment upon success.

In the abort scenario, hiberman initiates a rollback of the resume within powerd by using yet another new flavor value of RequestSuspend: RESUME_FROM_DISK_ABORT. Upon receiving this, powerd emits its SuspendDone signal corresponding to the SuspendImminent it sent out earlier, and resets its state machine back to idle.

The period where powerd is braced for an imminent resume from hibernation is meant to be brief, just a few seconds at most. While in this state, other powerd suspend requests are ignored, as only one power state transition is expected to be occurring at a time.

The new RequestSuspend flavors (RESUME_FROM_DISK_PREPARE and RESUME_FROM_DISK_ABORT) as well as the HibernateResumeReady signal are meant to be internal communication mechanisms between powerd and hiberman. Applications and other system daemons should not use these mechanisms directly, as they are subject to change without notice.