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qmi2cpp - Chrome OS QMI IDL Compiler


libqmi is a library that allows for the encoding and decoding of QMI (Qualcomm MSM Interface) data. The library uses structs that represent the decoded data of requests/responses/indications in conjunction with qmi_elem_info arrays to perform the desired encoding and decoding of data. The purpose of the qmi_elem_info arrays are to fill in the gap left by the lack of reflection in the C language. Each qmi_elem_info element in an array represents a single member in a message struct, allowing for the libqmi runtime to examine and traverse structs during decoding and encoding. The process of hand-writing such arrays is time-consuming and error-prone however, which led to the development of a number of tools--such as qmic--to perform this generation automatically from a human-readible set of message specifications. Existing tools have limitations such as incomplete support for QMI data types (e.g. enums and masks), sometimes not generating code that can be used by a ChromeOS project without hand-modification, and often seem to be difficult to extend in meaningful ways.

qmi2cpp is a QMI IDL compiler that is built with extensibility in mind, allowing for easy modifications to the specification language or the generated output. Additionally, all generated outputs are directly usable by ChromeOS projects without manual modifications.

Basic Usage

As per the usage message: usage: [-h] PROJECT_NAME [QMI_FILE]

qmi2cpp requires the specification of a project name, which is used for include guards and relative paths, and the qmi specification file. Generated output files are by default placed in the same directory as the input qmi specification file.

QMI Message Specification Language

The interface description language used by qmi2cpp input files is a C-like language very similar to the (undocumented) qmic IDL. General characteristics of the language are:

  • Statements, message elements, and message definitions end with a semicolon.
  • Struct definitions do not end with semicolons.
  • The first statement in every specification file should be be package PACKAGE_NAME;.
    • PACKAGE_NAME can be useful for disambiguating message structs for different QMI services (e.g. UIM vs WDS) that have the same name.
  • Message definitions and message elements (but not struct definitions) end with an assignment to a number literal. This number represents the type value of the message or element (which will be the T value in the encoded QMI TLV).
    • Two elements in the same message may NOT have the same type value, but elements in different messages may.
  • Numbers may be decimal integers written as a series of contiguous digits, or hexadecimal integers written as a series of contiguous digits preceded by ‘0x’ or ‘0X’.

The EBNF specification of the IDL (lang_spec.ebnf) can be used as a more complete documentation of the language. For those familiar with C, however, the following example should make the syntax rather clear:

package uim;

const MESSAGE_SIZE = 256;

struct result_t {
  u16 result;
  u16 error;

request initialize_req {
  required u8 slot = 0x01;
  optional u8 hello_message(u16 : MESSAGE_SIZE) = 0x10;
} = 0x12;

response initialize_resp {
  required result_t result = 0x2;
  optional u8 channel_id = 0x10;
  optional u8 hello_response(u8 : MESSAGE_SIZE) = 0x11;
} = 0x12;

request disconnect_req {
  required u8 slot = 0x01;
} = 0x1A;

response disconnect_resp {
  required result_t result = 0x2;
} = 0x1A;