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// Interlingua translation rules for Espeak
// This file is UTF-8 encoded
// GI: Unstressed i and u turn into semiconsonants before a following vowel;
// e.g. Bulgaria, filatorio, persuader
.group a
a a
ai aI
au aU
.group e
e e
ei eI
eu eU
.group i
i i
i (A j // turns into j if followed by vowel
&) i (c_ =i // stress on previous syllable
&) i (ca_ =i
&) i (co_ =i
&) i (da_ =i
&) i (do_ =i
i (fic_ 'i
i (fico_ 'i
.group o
o o
oi oI
.group u
u u
u (A w // turns into w if followed by vowel.
&) u (la_ =u // stress on previous syllable
&) u (lo_ =u
// GI: DOUBLE CONSONANTS merge in pronunciation.
.group b
b b
b (b
// GI: c before e, i, y is pronounced like ts in 'hats' (or, optionally, like
// c in 'city'); otherwise like c in 'cats'; ch like ch in 'echo', 'chrome';
.group c
c k
c (c
c (e ts
c (i ts
c (y ts
// GI: The digraph ch stands frequently for the sound of sh in 'English'
// and is respelled as sh; e.g. choc (sh-).
ch tS // reduce deviation spellings by making ch standardized
ch (l k
ch (r k
.group d
d d
d (d
.group f
f f
f (f
.group g
g g
g (g
// GI: h as in English (or, optionally, silent); after r and t, silent;
.group h
h h
h (h
r) h
t) h
// GI: like z in 'azure' (or, optionally, like g in 'gem' or like y in 'yes');
.group j
j Z // like z in azure
j (j
.group k
k k
k (k
.group l
l l
l (l
.group m
m m
m (m
// The sounds of g and k assimilate a preceding n as in English.
.group n
n n
n (n
n (k N
n (g N
n (q N
.group p
p p
p (p
ph f
.group q
q k
q (q
// GI: r like rr in 'merry' or, better, like r in Spanish 'caro';
.group r
r R // description too vague, so using standard r trill.
r (r
// GI: like s in 'stay'; between vowels, the same
// (or, optionally, like s in 'these');
// e.g. sparse, abstruse, accusativo;
// GI: sound of sh in 'English'
.group s
s s // s always s for simplicity.
s (s
sh S
s (_S1 s
// GI: as in English; ti before vowels, unless stressed or preceded by s,
// like tsy in 'he gets you' (or, optionally, like sy in 'we pass you'
// or like ty in 'we let you'); e.g. actor, garantia, question,
// but action, reverentia;
// GI: h as in English (or, optionally, silent); after r and t, silent;
.group t
t t
t (t
th t // after t, h is silent.
//ti S // too variable, English S, French s, latin t, keeping t.
.group v
v v
v (v
.group w
w w
w (w
// GI: x like x in 'fox'; between vowels, the same
// (or, optionally, like x in 'exact');
.group x
x ks // always ks for simplicty.
x (x
// GI: y unstressed before vowels, like y in 'yes';
// otherwise like i in 'machine'; e.g. Yugoslavia, typo.
.group y
y (A j // j before vowels
A) y j // ??
y i // i otherwise
.group z
z z
z (z