blob: 65c9e7b942ea304e81edaf46872a60eec002a801 [file] [log] [blame]
/*
* linux/kernel/panic.c
*
* Copyright (C) 1991, 1992 Linus Torvalds
*/
/*
* This function is used through-out the kernel (including mm and fs)
* to indicate a major problem.
*/
#include <linux/debug_locks.h>
#include <linux/sched/debug.h>
#include <linux/interrupt.h>
#include <linux/kmsg_dump.h>
#include <linux/kallsyms.h>
#include <linux/notifier.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/random.h>
#include <linux/ftrace.h>
#include <linux/reboot.h>
#include <linux/delay.h>
#include <linux/kexec.h>
#include <linux/sched.h>
#include <linux/sysrq.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/nmi.h>
#include <linux/console.h>
#include <linux/bug.h>
#include <linux/ratelimit.h>
#define PANIC_TIMER_STEP 100
#define PANIC_BLINK_SPD 18
int panic_on_oops = CONFIG_PANIC_ON_OOPS_VALUE;
static unsigned long tainted_mask;
static int pause_on_oops;
static int pause_on_oops_flag;
static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(pause_on_oops_lock);
bool crash_kexec_post_notifiers;
int panic_on_warn __read_mostly;
int panic_timeout = CONFIG_PANIC_TIMEOUT;
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(panic_timeout);
ATOMIC_NOTIFIER_HEAD(panic_notifier_list);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(panic_notifier_list);
static long no_blink(int state)
{
return 0;
}
/* Returns how long it waited in ms */
long (*panic_blink)(int state);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(panic_blink);
/*
* Stop ourself in panic -- architecture code may override this
*/
void __weak panic_smp_self_stop(void)
{
while (1)
cpu_relax();
}
/*
* Stop ourselves in NMI context if another CPU has already panicked. Arch code
* may override this to prepare for crash dumping, e.g. save regs info.
*/
void __weak nmi_panic_self_stop(struct pt_regs *regs)
{
panic_smp_self_stop();
}
/*
* Stop other CPUs in panic. Architecture dependent code may override this
* with more suitable version. For example, if the architecture supports
* crash dump, it should save registers of each stopped CPU and disable
* per-CPU features such as virtualization extensions.
*/
void __weak crash_smp_send_stop(void)
{
static int cpus_stopped;
/*
* This function can be called twice in panic path, but obviously
* we execute this only once.
*/
if (cpus_stopped)
return;
/*
* Note smp_send_stop is the usual smp shutdown function, which
* unfortunately means it may not be hardened to work in a panic
* situation.
*/
smp_send_stop();
cpus_stopped = 1;
}
atomic_t panic_cpu = ATOMIC_INIT(PANIC_CPU_INVALID);
/*
* A variant of panic() called from NMI context. We return if we've already
* panicked on this CPU. If another CPU already panicked, loop in
* nmi_panic_self_stop() which can provide architecture dependent code such
* as saving register state for crash dump.
*/
void nmi_panic(struct pt_regs *regs, const char *msg)
{
int old_cpu, cpu;
cpu = raw_smp_processor_id();
old_cpu = atomic_cmpxchg(&panic_cpu, PANIC_CPU_INVALID, cpu);
if (old_cpu == PANIC_CPU_INVALID)
panic("%s", msg);
else if (old_cpu != cpu)
nmi_panic_self_stop(regs);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(nmi_panic);
/**
* panic - halt the system
* @fmt: The text string to print
*
* Display a message, then perform cleanups.
*
* This function never returns.
*/
void panic(const char *fmt, ...)
{
static char buf[1024];
va_list args;
long i, i_next = 0;
int state = 0;
int old_cpu, this_cpu;
bool _crash_kexec_post_notifiers = crash_kexec_post_notifiers;
/*
* Disable local interrupts. This will prevent panic_smp_self_stop
* from deadlocking the first cpu that invokes the panic, since
* there is nothing to prevent an interrupt handler (that runs
* after setting panic_cpu) from invoking panic() again.
*/
local_irq_disable();
/*
* It's possible to come here directly from a panic-assertion and
* not have preempt disabled. Some functions called from here want
* preempt to be disabled. No point enabling it later though...
*
* Only one CPU is allowed to execute the panic code from here. For
* multiple parallel invocations of panic, all other CPUs either
* stop themself or will wait until they are stopped by the 1st CPU
* with smp_send_stop().
*
* `old_cpu == PANIC_CPU_INVALID' means this is the 1st CPU which
* comes here, so go ahead.
* `old_cpu == this_cpu' means we came from nmi_panic() which sets
* panic_cpu to this CPU. In this case, this is also the 1st CPU.
*/
this_cpu = raw_smp_processor_id();
old_cpu = atomic_cmpxchg(&panic_cpu, PANIC_CPU_INVALID, this_cpu);
if (old_cpu != PANIC_CPU_INVALID && old_cpu != this_cpu)
panic_smp_self_stop();
console_verbose();
bust_spinlocks(1);
va_start(args, fmt);
vsnprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), fmt, args);
va_end(args);
pr_emerg("Kernel panic - not syncing: %s\n", buf);
#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_BUGVERBOSE
/*
* Avoid nested stack-dumping if a panic occurs during oops processing
*/
if (!test_taint(TAINT_DIE) && oops_in_progress <= 1)
dump_stack();
#endif
/*
* If we have crashed and we have a crash kernel loaded let it handle
* everything else.
* If we want to run this after calling panic_notifiers, pass
* the "crash_kexec_post_notifiers" option to the kernel.
*
* Bypass the panic_cpu check and call __crash_kexec directly.
*/
if (!_crash_kexec_post_notifiers) {
printk_safe_flush_on_panic();
__crash_kexec(NULL);
/*
* Note smp_send_stop is the usual smp shutdown function, which
* unfortunately means it may not be hardened to work in a
* panic situation.
*/
smp_send_stop();
} else {
/*
* If we want to do crash dump after notifier calls and
* kmsg_dump, we will need architecture dependent extra
* works in addition to stopping other CPUs.
*/
crash_smp_send_stop();
}
/*
* Run any panic handlers, including those that might need to
* add information to the kmsg dump output.
*/
atomic_notifier_call_chain(&panic_notifier_list, 0, buf);
/* Call flush even twice. It tries harder with a single online CPU */
printk_safe_flush_on_panic();
kmsg_dump(KMSG_DUMP_PANIC);
/*
* If you doubt kdump always works fine in any situation,
* "crash_kexec_post_notifiers" offers you a chance to run
* panic_notifiers and dumping kmsg before kdump.
* Note: since some panic_notifiers can make crashed kernel
* more unstable, it can increase risks of the kdump failure too.
*
* Bypass the panic_cpu check and call __crash_kexec directly.
*/
if (_crash_kexec_post_notifiers)
__crash_kexec(NULL);
bust_spinlocks(0);
/*
* We may have ended up stopping the CPU holding the lock (in
* smp_send_stop()) while still having some valuable data in the console
* buffer. Try to acquire the lock then release it regardless of the
* result. The release will also print the buffers out. Locks debug
* should be disabled to avoid reporting bad unlock balance when
* panic() is not being callled from OOPS.
*/
debug_locks_off();
console_flush_on_panic();
if (!panic_blink)
panic_blink = no_blink;
if (panic_timeout > 0) {
/*
* Delay timeout seconds before rebooting the machine.
* We can't use the "normal" timers since we just panicked.
*/
pr_emerg("Rebooting in %d seconds..\n", panic_timeout);
for (i = 0; i < panic_timeout * 1000; i += PANIC_TIMER_STEP) {
touch_nmi_watchdog();
if (i >= i_next) {
i += panic_blink(state ^= 1);
i_next = i + 3600 / PANIC_BLINK_SPD;
}
mdelay(PANIC_TIMER_STEP);
}
}
if (panic_timeout != 0) {
/*
* This will not be a clean reboot, with everything
* shutting down. But if there is a chance of
* rebooting the system it will be rebooted.
*/
emergency_restart();
}
#ifdef __sparc__
{
extern int stop_a_enabled;
/* Make sure the user can actually press Stop-A (L1-A) */
stop_a_enabled = 1;
pr_emerg("Press Stop-A (L1-A) from sun keyboard or send break\n"
"twice on console to return to the boot prom\n");
}
#endif
#if defined(CONFIG_S390)
{
unsigned long caller;
caller = (unsigned long)__builtin_return_address(0);
disabled_wait(caller);
}
#endif
pr_emerg("---[ end Kernel panic - not syncing: %s\n", buf);
local_irq_enable();
for (i = 0; ; i += PANIC_TIMER_STEP) {
touch_softlockup_watchdog();
if (i >= i_next) {
i += panic_blink(state ^= 1);
i_next = i + 3600 / PANIC_BLINK_SPD;
}
mdelay(PANIC_TIMER_STEP);
}
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(panic);
/*
* TAINT_FORCED_RMMOD could be a per-module flag but the module
* is being removed anyway.
*/
const struct taint_flag taint_flags[TAINT_FLAGS_COUNT] = {
{ 'P', 'G', true }, /* TAINT_PROPRIETARY_MODULE */
{ 'F', ' ', true }, /* TAINT_FORCED_MODULE */
{ 'S', ' ', false }, /* TAINT_CPU_OUT_OF_SPEC */
{ 'R', ' ', false }, /* TAINT_FORCED_RMMOD */
{ 'M', ' ', false }, /* TAINT_MACHINE_CHECK */
{ 'B', ' ', false }, /* TAINT_BAD_PAGE */
{ 'U', ' ', false }, /* TAINT_USER */
{ 'D', ' ', false }, /* TAINT_DIE */
{ 'A', ' ', false }, /* TAINT_OVERRIDDEN_ACPI_TABLE */
{ 'W', ' ', false }, /* TAINT_WARN */
{ 'C', ' ', true }, /* TAINT_CRAP */
{ 'I', ' ', false }, /* TAINT_FIRMWARE_WORKAROUND */
{ 'O', ' ', true }, /* TAINT_OOT_MODULE */
{ 'E', ' ', true }, /* TAINT_UNSIGNED_MODULE */
{ 'L', ' ', false }, /* TAINT_SOFTLOCKUP */
{ 'K', ' ', true }, /* TAINT_LIVEPATCH */
};
/**
* print_tainted - return a string to represent the kernel taint state.
*
* 'P' - Proprietary module has been loaded.
* 'F' - Module has been forcibly loaded.
* 'S' - SMP with CPUs not designed for SMP.
* 'R' - User forced a module unload.
* 'M' - System experienced a machine check exception.
* 'B' - System has hit bad_page.
* 'U' - Userspace-defined naughtiness.
* 'D' - Kernel has oopsed before
* 'A' - ACPI table overridden.
* 'W' - Taint on warning.
* 'C' - modules from drivers/staging are loaded.
* 'I' - Working around severe firmware bug.
* 'O' - Out-of-tree module has been loaded.
* 'E' - Unsigned module has been loaded.
* 'L' - A soft lockup has previously occurred.
* 'K' - Kernel has been live patched.
*
* The string is overwritten by the next call to print_tainted().
*/
const char *print_tainted(void)
{
static char buf[TAINT_FLAGS_COUNT + sizeof("Tainted: ")];
if (tainted_mask) {
char *s;
int i;
s = buf + sprintf(buf, "Tainted: ");
for (i = 0; i < TAINT_FLAGS_COUNT; i++) {
const struct taint_flag *t = &taint_flags[i];
*s++ = test_bit(i, &tainted_mask) ?
t->c_true : t->c_false;
}
*s = 0;
} else
snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "Not tainted");
return buf;
}
int test_taint(unsigned flag)
{
return test_bit(flag, &tainted_mask);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(test_taint);
unsigned long get_taint(void)
{
return tainted_mask;
}
/**
* add_taint: add a taint flag if not already set.
* @flag: one of the TAINT_* constants.
* @lockdep_ok: whether lock debugging is still OK.
*
* If something bad has gone wrong, you'll want @lockdebug_ok = false, but for
* some notewortht-but-not-corrupting cases, it can be set to true.
*/
void add_taint(unsigned flag, enum lockdep_ok lockdep_ok)
{
if (lockdep_ok == LOCKDEP_NOW_UNRELIABLE && __debug_locks_off())
pr_warn("Disabling lock debugging due to kernel taint\n");
set_bit(flag, &tainted_mask);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(add_taint);
static void spin_msec(int msecs)
{
int i;
for (i = 0; i < msecs; i++) {
touch_nmi_watchdog();
mdelay(1);
}
}
/*
* It just happens that oops_enter() and oops_exit() are identically
* implemented...
*/
static void do_oops_enter_exit(void)
{
unsigned long flags;
static int spin_counter;
if (!pause_on_oops)
return;
spin_lock_irqsave(&pause_on_oops_lock, flags);
if (pause_on_oops_flag == 0) {
/* This CPU may now print the oops message */
pause_on_oops_flag = 1;
} else {
/* We need to stall this CPU */
if (!spin_counter) {
/* This CPU gets to do the counting */
spin_counter = pause_on_oops;
do {
spin_unlock(&pause_on_oops_lock);
spin_msec(MSEC_PER_SEC);
spin_lock(&pause_on_oops_lock);
} while (--spin_counter);
pause_on_oops_flag = 0;
} else {
/* This CPU waits for a different one */
while (spin_counter) {
spin_unlock(&pause_on_oops_lock);
spin_msec(1);
spin_lock(&pause_on_oops_lock);
}
}
}
spin_unlock_irqrestore(&pause_on_oops_lock, flags);
}
/*
* Return true if the calling CPU is allowed to print oops-related info.
* This is a bit racy..
*/
int oops_may_print(void)
{
return pause_on_oops_flag == 0;
}
/*
* Called when the architecture enters its oops handler, before it prints
* anything. If this is the first CPU to oops, and it's oopsing the first
* time then let it proceed.
*
* This is all enabled by the pause_on_oops kernel boot option. We do all
* this to ensure that oopses don't scroll off the screen. It has the
* side-effect of preventing later-oopsing CPUs from mucking up the display,
* too.
*
* It turns out that the CPU which is allowed to print ends up pausing for
* the right duration, whereas all the other CPUs pause for twice as long:
* once in oops_enter(), once in oops_exit().
*/
void oops_enter(void)
{
tracing_off();
/* can't trust the integrity of the kernel anymore: */
debug_locks_off();
do_oops_enter_exit();
}
/*
* 64-bit random ID for oopses:
*/
static u64 oops_id;
static int init_oops_id(void)
{
if (!oops_id)
get_random_bytes(&oops_id, sizeof(oops_id));
else
oops_id++;
return 0;
}
late_initcall(init_oops_id);
void print_oops_end_marker(void)
{
init_oops_id();
pr_warn("---[ end trace %016llx ]---\n", (unsigned long long)oops_id);
}
/*
* Called when the architecture exits its oops handler, after printing
* everything.
*/
void oops_exit(void)
{
do_oops_enter_exit();
print_oops_end_marker();
kmsg_dump(KMSG_DUMP_OOPS);
}
struct warn_args {
const char *fmt;
va_list args;
};
void __warn(const char *file, int line, void *caller, unsigned taint,
struct pt_regs *regs, struct warn_args *args)
{
disable_trace_on_warning();
if (args)
pr_warn(CUT_HERE);
if (file)
pr_warn("WARNING: CPU: %d PID: %d at %s:%d %pS\n",
raw_smp_processor_id(), current->pid, file, line,
caller);
else
pr_warn("WARNING: CPU: %d PID: %d at %pS\n",
raw_smp_processor_id(), current->pid, caller);
if (args)
vprintk(args->fmt, args->args);
if (panic_on_warn) {
/*
* This thread may hit another WARN() in the panic path.
* Resetting this prevents additional WARN() from panicking the
* system on this thread. Other threads are blocked by the
* panic_mutex in panic().
*/
panic_on_warn = 0;
panic("panic_on_warn set ...\n");
}
print_modules();
if (regs)
show_regs(regs);
else
dump_stack();
print_oops_end_marker();
/* Just a warning, don't kill lockdep. */
add_taint(taint, LOCKDEP_STILL_OK);
}
#ifdef WANT_WARN_ON_SLOWPATH
void warn_slowpath_fmt(const char *file, int line, const char *fmt, ...)
{
struct warn_args args;
args.fmt = fmt;
va_start(args.args, fmt);
__warn(file, line, __builtin_return_address(0), TAINT_WARN, NULL,
&args);
va_end(args.args);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(warn_slowpath_fmt);
void warn_slowpath_fmt_taint(const char *file, int line,
unsigned taint, const char *fmt, ...)
{
struct warn_args args;
args.fmt = fmt;
va_start(args.args, fmt);
__warn(file, line, __builtin_return_address(0), taint, NULL, &args);
va_end(args.args);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(warn_slowpath_fmt_taint);
void warn_slowpath_null(const char *file, int line)
{
pr_warn(CUT_HERE);
__warn(file, line, __builtin_return_address(0), TAINT_WARN, NULL, NULL);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(warn_slowpath_null);
#else
void __warn_printk(const char *fmt, ...)
{
va_list args;
pr_warn(CUT_HERE);
va_start(args, fmt);
vprintk(fmt, args);
va_end(args);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__warn_printk);
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_CC_STACKPROTECTOR
/*
* Called when gcc's -fstack-protector feature is used, and
* gcc detects corruption of the on-stack canary value
*/
__visible void __stack_chk_fail(void)
{
panic("stack-protector: Kernel stack is corrupted in: %p\n",
__builtin_return_address(0));
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__stack_chk_fail);
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_REFCOUNT
void refcount_error_report(struct pt_regs *regs, const char *err)
{
WARN_RATELIMIT(1, "refcount_t %s at %pB in %s[%d], uid/euid: %u/%u\n",
err, (void *)instruction_pointer(regs),
current->comm, task_pid_nr(current),
from_kuid_munged(&init_user_ns, current_uid()),
from_kuid_munged(&init_user_ns, current_euid()));
}
#endif
core_param(panic, panic_timeout, int, 0644);
core_param(pause_on_oops, pause_on_oops, int, 0644);
core_param(panic_on_warn, panic_on_warn, int, 0644);
core_param(crash_kexec_post_notifiers, crash_kexec_post_notifiers, bool, 0644);
static int __init oops_setup(char *s)
{
if (!s)
return -EINVAL;
if (!strcmp(s, "panic"))
panic_on_oops = 1;
return 0;
}
early_param("oops", oops_setup);