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  1. d13326f Remove references to v1 branch by Lann Martin · 8 days ago master
  2. b4b75d1 Merge pull request #188 from efarrer/v1 by Lann · 11 days ago v1
  3. ab81990 Merge pull request #189 from Masterminds/fix-183 by Lann · 11 days ago
  4. 8ff7435 Prevent misnumbered parameters in nested selects by Lann Martin · 11 days ago fix-183
  5. c8a93b5 Update tested Go version list by Lann Martin · 11 days ago

Squirrel - fluent SQL generator for Go

import ""

GoDoc Build Status

_Note: This project has moved from to Lann remains the architect of the project, but we're helping him curate.

Squirrel is not an ORM. For an application of Squirrel, check out structable, a table-struct mapper

Squirrel helps you build SQL queries from composable parts:

import sq ""

users := sq.Select("*").From("users").Join("emails USING (email_id)")

active := users.Where(sq.Eq{"deleted_at": nil})

sql, args, err := active.ToSql()

sql == "SELECT * FROM users JOIN emails USING (email_id) WHERE deleted_at IS NULL"
sql, args, err := sq.
    Insert("users").Columns("name", "age").
    Values("moe", 13).Values("larry", sq.Expr("? + 5", 12)).

sql == "INSERT INTO users (name,age) VALUES (?,?),(?,? + 5)"

Squirrel can also execute queries directly:

stooges := users.Where(sq.Eq{"username": []string{"moe", "larry", "curly", "shemp"}})
three_stooges := stooges.Limit(3)
rows, err := three_stooges.RunWith(db).Query()

// Behaves like:
rows, err := db.Query("SELECT * FROM users WHERE username IN (?,?,?,?) LIMIT 3",
                      "moe", "larry", "curly", "shemp")

Squirrel makes conditional query building a breeze:

if len(q) > 0 {
    users = users.Where("name LIKE ?", fmt.Sprint("%", q, "%"))

Squirrel wants to make your life easier:

// StmtCache caches Prepared Stmts for you
dbCache := sq.NewStmtCacher(db)

// StatementBuilder keeps your syntax neat
mydb := sq.StatementBuilder.RunWith(dbCache)
select_users := mydb.Select("*").From("users")

Squirrel loves PostgreSQL:

psql := sq.StatementBuilder.PlaceholderFormat(sq.Dollar)

// You use question marks for placeholders...
sql, _, _ := psql.Select("*").From("elephants").Where("name IN (?,?)", "Dumbo", "Verna").ToSql()

/// ...squirrel replaces them using PlaceholderFormat.
sql == "SELECT * FROM elephants WHERE name IN ($1,$2)"

/// You can retrieve id ...
query := sq.Insert("nodes").
    Columns("uuid", "type", "data").
    Values(node.Uuid, node.Type, node.Data).
    Suffix("RETURNING \"id\"").


You can escape question mask by inserting two question marks:

SELECT * FROM nodes WHERE meta->'format' ??| array[?,?]

will generate with the Dollar Placeholder:

SELECT * FROM nodes WHERE meta->'format' ?| array[$1,$2]


  • How can I build an IN query on composite keys / tuples, e.g. WHERE (col1, col2) IN ((1,2),(3,4))? (#104)

    Squirrel does not explicitly support tuples, but you can get the same effect with e.g.:

      sq.Eq{"col1": 1, "col2": 2},
      sq.Eq{"col1": 3, "col2": 4}}
    WHERE (col1 = 1 AND col2 = 2) OR (col1 = 3 AND col2 = 4)

    (which should produce the same query plan as the tuple version)

  • Why doesn't Eq{"mynumber": []uint8{1,2,3}} turn into an IN query? (#114)

    Values of type []byte are handled specially by database/sql. In Go, byte is just an alias of uint8, so there is no way to distinguish []uint8 from []byte.

  • Some features are poorly documented!

    This isn't a frequent complaints section!

  • Some features are poorly documented?

    Yes. The tests should be considered a part of the documentation; take a look at those for ideas on how to express more complex queries.


Squirrel is released under the MIT License.