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.. _arguments:
Arguments to ``waitress.serve``
Here are the arguments you can pass to the ``waitress.serve`` function or use
in :term:`PasteDeploy` configuration (interchangeably):
Hostname or IP address (string) on which to listen, default ````,
which means "all IP addresses on this host".
.. warning::
May not be used with ``listen``
TCP port (integer) on which to listen, default ``8080``
.. warning::
May not be used with ``listen``
Tell waitress to listen on combinations of ``host:port`` arguments.
Combinations should be a quoted, space-delimited list, as in the following examples.
.. code-block:: python
listen=" [::1]:8080"
listen="*:8080 *:6543"
A wildcard for the hostname is also supported and will bind to both
IPv4/IPv6 depending on whether they are enabled or disabled.
IPv6 IP addresses are supported by surrounding the IP address with brackets.
.. versionadded:: 1.0
This is the value that will be placed in the WSGI environment as
``SERVER_NAME``, the only time that this value is used in the WSGI
environment for a request is if the client sent a HTTP/1.0 request without
a ``Host`` header set, and no other proxy headers.
The default is value is ``waitress.invalid``, if your WSGI application is
creating URL's that include this as the hostname and you are using a
reverse proxy setup, you may want to validate that your reverse proxy is
sending the appropriate headers.
In most situations you will not need to set this value.
Default: ``waitress.invalid``
.. versionadded:: 2.0
Enable or disable IPv4 (boolean)
Enable or disable IPv6 (boolean)
Path of Unix socket (string). If a socket path is specified, a Unix domain
socket is made instead of the usual inet domain socket.
Not available on Windows.
Default: ``None``
Octal permissions to use for the Unix domain socket (string).
Only used if ``unix_socket`` is not ``None``.
Default: ``'600'``
A list of sockets. The sockets can be either Internet or UNIX sockets and have
to be bound. Internet and UNIX sockets cannot be mixed.
If the socket list is not empty, waitress creates one server for each socket.
Default: ``[]``
.. versionadded:: 1.1.1
.. warning::
May not be used with ``listen``, ``host``, ``port`` or ``unix_socket``
The number of threads used to process application logic (integer).
Default: ``4``
IP address of a remote peer allowed to override various WSGI environment
variables using proxy headers.
For unix sockets, set this value to ``localhost`` instead of an IP address.
Default: ``None``
How many proxies we trust when chained. For example,
``X-Forwarded-For:, "[2001:db8::1]"``
``Forwarded: for=, For="[2001:db8::1]"``
means there were (potentially), two proxies involved. If we know there is
only 1 valid proxy, then that initial IP address "" is not trusted
and we completely ignore it.
If there are two trusted proxies in the path, this value should be set to
2. If there are more proxies, this value should be set higher.
Default: ``1``
.. versionadded:: 1.2.0
Which of the proxy headers should we trust, this is a set where you
either specify "forwarded" or one or more of "x-forwarded-host", "x-forwarded-for",
"x-forwarded-proto", "x-forwarded-port", "x-forwarded-by".
This list of trusted headers is used when ``trusted_proxy`` is set and will
allow waitress to modify the WSGI environment using the values provided by
the proxy.
.. versionadded:: 1.2.0
.. warning::
If ``trusted_proxy`` is set, the default is ``x-forwarded-proto`` to
match older versions of Waitress. Users should explicitly opt-in by
selecting the headers to be trusted as future versions of waitress will
use an empty default.
.. warning::
It is an error to set this value without setting ``trusted_proxy``.
Should waitress log warning messages about proxy headers that are being
sent from upstream that are not trusted by ``trusted_proxy_headers`` but
are being cleared due to ``clear_untrusted_proxy_headers``?
This may be useful for debugging if you expect your upstream proxy server
to only send specific headers.
Default: ``False``
.. versionadded:: 1.2.0
.. warning::
It is a no-op to set this value without also setting
``clear_untrusted_proxy_headers`` and ``trusted_proxy``
This tells Waitress to remove any untrusted proxy headers ("Forwarded",
"X-Forwared-For", "X-Forwarded-By", "X-Forwarded-Host", "X-Forwarded-Port",
"X-Forwarded-Proto") not explicitly allowed by ``trusted_proxy_headers``.
Default: ``False``
.. versionadded:: 1.2.0
.. warning::
The default value is set to ``False`` for backwards compatibility. In
future versions of Waitress this default will be changed to ``True``.
Warnings will be raised unless the user explicitly provides a value for
this option, allowing the user to opt-in to the new safety features
.. warning::
It is an error to set this value without setting ``trusted_proxy``.
The value of ``wsgi.url_scheme`` in the environ. This can be
overridden per-request by the value of the ``X_FORWARDED_PROTO`` header,
but only if the client address matches ``trusted_proxy``.
Default: ``http``
Server identity (string) used in "Server:" header in responses.
Default: ``waitress``
The value waitress passes to pass to ``socket.listen()`` (integer).
This is the maximum number of incoming TCP
connections that will wait in an OS queue for an available channel. From
listen(1): "If a connection request arrives when the queue is full, the
client may receive an error with an indication of ECONNREFUSED or, if the
underlying protocol supports retransmission, the request may be ignored
so that a later reattempt at connection succeeds."
Default: ``1024``
The argument waitress passes to ``socket.recv()`` (integer).
Default: ``8192``
The number of bytes to send to ``socket.send()`` (integer).
Multiples of 9000 should avoid partly-filled TCP
packets, but don't set this larger than the TCP write buffer size. In
Linux, ``/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_wmem`` controls the minimum, default, and
maximum sizes of TCP write buffers.
Default: ``1``
.. deprecated:: 1.3
A tempfile should be created if the pending output is larger than
outbuf_overflow, which is measured in bytes. The default is conservative.
Default: ``1048576`` (1MB)
The app_iter will pause when pending output is larger than this value
and will resume once enough data is written to the socket to fall below
this threshold.
Default: ``16777216`` (16MB)
A tempfile should be created if the pending input is larger than
inbuf_overflow, which is measured in bytes. The default is conservative.
Default: ``524288`` (512K)
Stop creating new channels if too many are already active (integer).
Each channel consumes at least one file descriptor,
and, depending on the input and output body sizes, potentially up to
three, plus whatever file descriptors your application logic happens to
open. The default is conservative, but you may need to increase the
number of file descriptors available to the Waitress process on most
platforms in order to safely change it (see ``ulimit -a`` "open files"
setting). Note that this doesn't control the maximum number of TCP
connections that can be waiting for processing; the ``backlog`` argument
controls that.
Default: ``100``
Minimum seconds between cleaning up inactive channels (integer).
See also ``channel_timeout``.
Default: ``30``
Maximum seconds to leave an inactive connection open (integer).
"Inactive" is defined as "has received no data from a client
and has sent no data to a client".
Default: ``120``
Set to ``False`` to not log premature client disconnect tracebacks.
Default: ``True``
Maximum number of bytes of all request headers combined (integer).
Default: ``262144`` (256K)
Maximum number of bytes in request body (integer).
Default: ``1073741824`` (1GB)
Set to ``True`` to expose tracebacks of unhandled exceptions to client.
Default: ``False``
The ``timeout`` value (seconds) passed to ``asyncore.loop`` to run the mainloop.
Default: ``1``
.. versionadded:: 0.8.3
Set to ``True`` to switch from using ``select()`` to ``poll()`` in ``asyncore.loop``.
By default ``asyncore.loop()`` uses ``select()`` which has a limit of 1024 file descriptors.
``select()`` and ``poll()`` provide basically the same functionality, but ``poll()`` doesn't have the file descriptors limit.
Default: ``False``
.. versionadded:: 0.8.6
String: the value used as the WSGI ``SCRIPT_NAME`` value. Setting this to
anything except the empty string will cause the WSGI ``SCRIPT_NAME`` value
to be the value passed minus any trailing slashes you add, and it will
cause the ``PATH_INFO`` of any request which is prefixed with this value to
be stripped of the prefix.
Default: ``''``