Given a cron expression and a time stamp, you can get the next time stamp which satisfies the cron expression.
In another project, I decided to use cron expression syntax to encode scheduling information. Thus this standalone library to parse and apply time stamps to cron expressions.
The time-matching algorithm in this implementation is efficient, it avoids as much as possible to guess the next matching time stamp, a common technique seen in a number of implementations out there.
There is also a companion command-line utility to evaluate cron time expressions: https://github.com/gorhill/cronexpr/tree/master/cronexpr (which of course uses this library).
The reference documentation for this implementation is found at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cron#CRON_expression, which I copy/pasted here (laziness!) with modifications where this implementation differs:
Field name Mandatory? Allowed values Allowed special characters ---------- ---------- -------------- -------------------------- Seconds No 0-59 * / , - Minutes Yes 0-59 * / , - Hours Yes 0-23 * / , - Day of month Yes 1-31 * / , - L W Month Yes 1-12 or JAN-DEC * / , - Day of week Yes 0-6 or SUN-SAT * / , - L # Year No 1970–2099 * / , -
The asterisk indicates that the cron expression matches for all values of the field. E.g., using an asterisk in the 4th field (month) indicates every month.
Slashes describe increments of ranges. For example
3-59/15 in the minute field indicate the third minute of the hour and every 15 minutes thereafter. The form
*/... is equivalent to the form “first-last/...”, that is, an increment over the largest possible range of the field.
Commas are used to separate items of a list. For example, using
MON,WED,FRI in the 5th field (day of week) means Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays.
Hyphens define ranges. For example, 2000-2010 indicates every year between 2000 and 2010 AD, inclusive.
L stands for “last”. When used in the day-of-week field, it allows you to specify constructs such as “the last Friday” (
5L) of a given month. In the day-of-month field, it specifies the last day of the month.
W character is allowed for the day-of-month field. This character is used to specify the business day (Monday-Friday) nearest the given day. As an example, if you were to specify
15W as the value for the day-of-month field, the meaning is: “the nearest business day to the 15th of the month.”
So, if the 15th is a Saturday, the trigger fires on Friday the 14th. If the 15th is a Sunday, the trigger fires on Monday the 16th. If the 15th is a Tuesday, then it fires on Tuesday the 15th. However if you specify
1W as the value for day-of-month, and the 1st is a Saturday, the trigger fires on Monday the 3rd, as it does not ‘jump’ over the boundary of a month's days.
W character can be specified only when the day-of-month is a single day, not a range or list of days.
W character can also be combined with
LW to mean “the last business day of the month.”
# is allowed for the day-of-week field, and must be followed by a number between one and five. It allows you to specify constructs such as “the second Friday” of a given month.
(Copied from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cron#Predefined_scheduling_definitions, with text modified according to this implementation)
Entry Description Equivalent to @annually Run once a year at midnight in the morning of January 1 0 0 0 1 1 * * @yearly Run once a year at midnight in the morning of January 1 0 0 0 1 1 * * @monthly Run once a month at midnight in the morning of the first of the month 0 0 0 1 * * * @weekly Run once a week at midnight in the morning of Sunday 0 0 0 * * 0 * @daily Run once a day at midnight 0 0 0 * * * * @hourly Run once an hour at the beginning of the hour 0 0 * * * * * @reboot Not supported
0second field is prepended, that is,
* * * * * 2013internally become
0 * * * * * 2013.
0second field is prepended and a wildcard year field is appended, that is,
* * * * Moninternally become
0 * * * * Mon *.
go get github.com/gorhill/cronexpr
Import the library:
import "github.com/gorhill/cronexpr" import "time"
nextTime := cronexpr.MustParse("0 0 29 2 *").Next(time.Now())
time.Now() is “2013-08-29 09:28:00”, then
nextTime will be “2016-02-29 00:00:00”.
You can keep the returned Expression pointer around if you want to reuse it:
expr := cronexpr.MustParse("0 0 29 2 *") nextTime := expr.Next(time.Now()) ... nextTime = expr.Next(nextTime)
time.IsZero() to find out whether a valid time was returned. For example,
cronexpr.MustParse("* * * * * 1980").Next(time.Now()).IsZero()
cronexpr.MustParse("* * * * * 2050").Next(time.Now()).IsZero()
false (as of 2013-08-29...)
You may also query for
n next time stamps:
cronexpr.MustParse("0 0 29 2 *").NextN(time.Now(), 5)
which returns a slice of time.Time objects, containing the following time stamps (as of 2013-08-30):
2016-02-29 00:00:00 2020-02-29 00:00:00 2024-02-29 00:00:00 2028-02-29 00:00:00 2032-02-29 00:00:00
The time zone of time values returned by
NextN is always the time zone of the time value passed as argument, unless a zero time value is returned.
License: pick the one which suits you best: