[libc++] Rename *SAFE_STATIC to *CONSTINIT, and normalize its uses.

In src/, most files can use `constinit` directly because they're always
compiled with C++20. But some files, like "libcxxabi/src/fallback_malloc.cpp",
can't, because they're `#include`d directly from test cases in libcxxabi/test/
and therefore must (currently) compile as C++03. We might consider refactoring
those offending tests, or at least marking them `UNSUPPORTED: c++03`.

Differential Revision: https://reviews.llvm.org/D119264

NOKEYCHECK=True
GitOrigin-RevId: 05337a756c6606fdbf2c0ff3a8399da3e60f1591
3 files changed