blob: 5f94bf13b2eb302b0e56652d8d437a18c3058abc [file] [log] [blame]
Random number generation
When generating random data for use in cryptographic operations, such as an
initialization vector for encryption in
:class:`~cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.modes.CBC` mode, you do not
want to use the standard :mod:`random` module APIs. This is because they do not
provide a cryptographically secure random number generator, which can result in
major security issues depending on the algorithms in use.
Therefore, it is our recommendation to `always use your operating system's
provided random number generator`_, which is available as :func:`os.urandom`.
For example, if you need 16 bytes of random data for an initialization vector,
you can obtain them with:
.. doctest::
>>> import os
>>> iv = os.urandom(16)
This will use ``/dev/urandom`` on UNIX platforms, and ``CryptGenRandom`` on
If you need your random number as an integer (for example, for
:meth:`~cryptography.x509.CertificateBuilder.serial_number`), you can use
``int.from_bytes`` to convert the result of ``os.urandom``:
.. code-block:: pycon
>>> serial = int.from_bytes(os.urandom(20), byteorder="big")
.. _`always use your operating system's provided random number generator`: