blob: f32ecba9f27029300a3561438d5e376f6313559e [file] [log] [blame]
.. highlight:: c
.. _fileobjects:
File Objects
.. index:: pair: object; file
These APIs are a minimal emulation of the Python 2 C API for built-in file
objects, which used to rely on the buffered I/O (:c:expr:`FILE*`) support
from the C standard library. In Python 3, files and streams use the new
:mod:`io` module, which defines several layers over the low-level unbuffered
I/O of the operating system. The functions described below are
convenience C wrappers over these new APIs, and meant mostly for internal
error reporting in the interpreter; third-party code is advised to access
the :mod:`io` APIs instead.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyFile_FromFd(int fd, const char *name, const char *mode, int buffering, const char *encoding, const char *errors, const char *newline, int closefd)
Create a Python file object from the file descriptor of an already
opened file *fd*. The arguments *name*, *encoding*, *errors* and *newline*
can be ``NULL`` to use the defaults; *buffering* can be *-1* to use the
default. *name* is ignored and kept for backward compatibility. Return
``NULL`` on failure. For a more comprehensive description of the arguments,
please refer to the :func:`` function documentation.
.. warning::
Since Python streams have their own buffering layer, mixing them with
OS-level file descriptors can produce various issues (such as unexpected
ordering of data).
.. versionchanged:: 3.2
Ignore *name* attribute.
.. c:function:: int PyObject_AsFileDescriptor(PyObject *p)
Return the file descriptor associated with *p* as an :c:expr:`int`. If the
object is an integer, its value is returned. If not, the
object's :meth:`~io.IOBase.fileno` method is called if it exists; the
method must return an integer, which is returned as the file descriptor
value. Sets an exception and returns ``-1`` on failure.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyFile_GetLine(PyObject *p, int n)
.. index:: single: EOFError (built-in exception)
Equivalent to ``p.readline([n])``, this function reads one line from the
object *p*. *p* may be a file object or any object with a
method. If *n* is ``0``, exactly one line is read, regardless of the length of
the line. If *n* is greater than ``0``, no more than *n* bytes will be read
from the file; a partial line can be returned. In both cases, an empty string
is returned if the end of the file is reached immediately. If *n* is less than
``0``, however, one line is read regardless of length, but :exc:`EOFError` is
raised if the end of the file is reached immediately.
.. c:function:: int PyFile_SetOpenCodeHook(Py_OpenCodeHookFunction handler)
Overrides the normal behavior of :func:`io.open_code` to pass its parameter
through the provided handler.
The handler is a function of type :c:expr:`PyObject *(\*)(PyObject *path,
void *userData)`, where *path* is guaranteed to be :c:type:`PyUnicodeObject`.
The *userData* pointer is passed into the hook function. Since hook
functions may be called from different runtimes, this pointer should not
refer directly to Python state.
As this hook is intentionally used during import, avoid importing new modules
during its execution unless they are known to be frozen or available in
Once a hook has been set, it cannot be removed or replaced, and later calls to
:c:func:`PyFile_SetOpenCodeHook` will fail. On failure, the function returns
-1 and sets an exception if the interpreter has been initialized.
This function is safe to call before :c:func:`Py_Initialize`.
.. audit-event:: setopencodehook "" c.PyFile_SetOpenCodeHook
.. versionadded:: 3.8
.. c:function:: int PyFile_WriteObject(PyObject *obj, PyObject *p, int flags)
.. index:: single: Py_PRINT_RAW
Write object *obj* to file object *p*. The only supported flag for *flags* is
:const:`Py_PRINT_RAW`; if given, the :func:`str` of the object is written
instead of the :func:`repr`. Return ``0`` on success or ``-1`` on failure; the
appropriate exception will be set.
.. c:function:: int PyFile_WriteString(const char *s, PyObject *p)
Write string *s* to file object *p*. Return ``0`` on success or ``-1`` on
failure; the appropriate exception will be set.