blob: 13d3c5af956905a5e3dd9c94ed22408a98577431 [file] [log] [blame]
.. highlight:: c
.. _number:
Number Protocol
===============
.. c:function:: int PyNumber_Check(PyObject *o)
Returns ``1`` if the object *o* provides numeric protocols, and false otherwise.
This function always succeeds.
.. versionchanged:: 3.8
Returns ``1`` if *o* is an index integer.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_Add(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Returns the result of adding *o1* and *o2*, or ``NULL`` on failure. This is the
equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 + o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_Subtract(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Returns the result of subtracting *o2* from *o1*, or ``NULL`` on failure. This is
the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 - o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_Multiply(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Returns the result of multiplying *o1* and *o2*, or ``NULL`` on failure. This is
the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 * o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_MatrixMultiply(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Returns the result of matrix multiplication on *o1* and *o2*, or ``NULL`` on
failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 @ o2``.
.. versionadded:: 3.5
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_FloorDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return the floor of *o1* divided by *o2*, or ``NULL`` on failure. This is
the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 // o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_TrueDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return a reasonable approximation for the mathematical value of *o1* divided by
*o2*, or ``NULL`` on failure. The return value is "approximate" because binary
floating point numbers are approximate; it is not possible to represent all real
numbers in base two. This function can return a floating point value when
passed two integers. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 / o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_Remainder(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Returns the remainder of dividing *o1* by *o2*, or ``NULL`` on failure. This is
the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 % o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_Divmod(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
.. index:: pair: built-in function; divmod
See the built-in function :func:`divmod`. Returns ``NULL`` on failure. This is
the equivalent of the Python expression ``divmod(o1, o2)``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_Power(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2, PyObject *o3)
.. index:: pair: built-in function; pow
See the built-in function :func:`pow`. Returns ``NULL`` on failure. This is the
equivalent of the Python expression ``pow(o1, o2, o3)``, where *o3* is optional.
If *o3* is to be ignored, pass :c:data:`Py_None` in its place (passing ``NULL`` for
*o3* would cause an illegal memory access).
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_Negative(PyObject *o)
Returns the negation of *o* on success, or ``NULL`` on failure. This is the
equivalent of the Python expression ``-o``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_Positive(PyObject *o)
Returns *o* on success, or ``NULL`` on failure. This is the equivalent of the
Python expression ``+o``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_Absolute(PyObject *o)
.. index:: pair: built-in function; abs
Returns the absolute value of *o*, or ``NULL`` on failure. This is the equivalent
of the Python expression ``abs(o)``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_Invert(PyObject *o)
Returns the bitwise negation of *o* on success, or ``NULL`` on failure. This is
the equivalent of the Python expression ``~o``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_Lshift(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Returns the result of left shifting *o1* by *o2* on success, or ``NULL`` on
failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 << o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_Rshift(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Returns the result of right shifting *o1* by *o2* on success, or ``NULL`` on
failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 >> o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_And(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Returns the "bitwise and" of *o1* and *o2* on success and ``NULL`` on failure.
This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 & o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_Xor(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Returns the "bitwise exclusive or" of *o1* by *o2* on success, or ``NULL`` on
failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 ^ o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_Or(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Returns the "bitwise or" of *o1* and *o2* on success, or ``NULL`` on failure.
This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 | o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceAdd(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Returns the result of adding *o1* and *o2*, or ``NULL`` on failure. The operation
is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python
statement ``o1 += o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceSubtract(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Returns the result of subtracting *o2* from *o1*, or ``NULL`` on failure. The
operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the equivalent of
the Python statement ``o1 -= o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceMultiply(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Returns the result of multiplying *o1* and *o2*, or ``NULL`` on failure. The
operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the equivalent of
the Python statement ``o1 *= o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceMatrixMultiply(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Returns the result of matrix multiplication on *o1* and *o2*, or ``NULL`` on
failure. The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is
the equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 @= o2``.
.. versionadded:: 3.5
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceFloorDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Returns the mathematical floor of dividing *o1* by *o2*, or ``NULL`` on failure.
The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the equivalent
of the Python statement ``o1 //= o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceTrueDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return a reasonable approximation for the mathematical value of *o1* divided by
*o2*, or ``NULL`` on failure. The return value is "approximate" because binary
floating point numbers are approximate; it is not possible to represent all real
numbers in base two. This function can return a floating point value when
passed two integers. The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.
This is the equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 /= o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceRemainder(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Returns the remainder of dividing *o1* by *o2*, or ``NULL`` on failure. The
operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the equivalent of
the Python statement ``o1 %= o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlacePower(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2, PyObject *o3)
.. index:: pair: built-in function; pow
See the built-in function :func:`pow`. Returns ``NULL`` on failure. The operation
is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python
statement ``o1 **= o2`` when o3 is :c:data:`Py_None`, or an in-place variant of
``pow(o1, o2, o3)`` otherwise. If *o3* is to be ignored, pass :c:data:`Py_None`
in its place (passing ``NULL`` for *o3* would cause an illegal memory access).
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceLshift(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Returns the result of left shifting *o1* by *o2* on success, or ``NULL`` on
failure. The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the
equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 <<= o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceRshift(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Returns the result of right shifting *o1* by *o2* on success, or ``NULL`` on
failure. The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the
equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 >>= o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceAnd(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Returns the "bitwise and" of *o1* and *o2* on success and ``NULL`` on failure. The
operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the equivalent of
the Python statement ``o1 &= o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceXor(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Returns the "bitwise exclusive or" of *o1* by *o2* on success, or ``NULL`` on
failure. The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the
equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 ^= o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceOr(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Returns the "bitwise or" of *o1* and *o2* on success, or ``NULL`` on failure. The
operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the equivalent of
the Python statement ``o1 |= o2``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_Long(PyObject *o)
.. index:: pair: built-in function; int
Returns the *o* converted to an integer object on success, or ``NULL`` on
failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``int(o)``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_Float(PyObject *o)
.. index:: pair: built-in function; float
Returns the *o* converted to a float object on success, or ``NULL`` on failure.
This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``float(o)``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_Index(PyObject *o)
Returns the *o* converted to a Python int on success or ``NULL`` with a
:exc:`TypeError` exception raised on failure.
.. versionchanged:: 3.10
The result always has exact type :class:`int`. Previously, the result
could have been an instance of a subclass of ``int``.
.. c:function:: PyObject* PyNumber_ToBase(PyObject *n, int base)
Returns the integer *n* converted to base *base* as a string. The *base*
argument must be one of 2, 8, 10, or 16. For base 2, 8, or 16, the
returned string is prefixed with a base marker of ``'0b'``, ``'0o'``, or
``'0x'``, respectively. If *n* is not a Python int, it is converted with
:c:func:`PyNumber_Index` first.
.. c:function:: Py_ssize_t PyNumber_AsSsize_t(PyObject *o, PyObject *exc)
Returns *o* converted to a :c:type:`Py_ssize_t` value if *o* can be interpreted as an
integer. If the call fails, an exception is raised and ``-1`` is returned.
If *o* can be converted to a Python int but the attempt to
convert to a :c:type:`Py_ssize_t` value would raise an :exc:`OverflowError`, then the
*exc* argument is the type of exception that will be raised (usually
:exc:`IndexError` or :exc:`OverflowError`). If *exc* is ``NULL``, then the
exception is cleared and the value is clipped to ``PY_SSIZE_T_MIN`` for a negative
integer or ``PY_SSIZE_T_MAX`` for a positive integer.
.. c:function:: int PyIndex_Check(PyObject *o)
Returns ``1`` if *o* is an index integer (has the ``nb_index`` slot of the
``tp_as_number`` structure filled in), and ``0`` otherwise.
This function always succeeds.