blob: 0584989233de3fdfcb4ad09baeaec353a017d819 [file] [log] [blame]
.. highlight:: c
.. _type-structs:
Type Objects
============
Perhaps one of the most important structures of the Python object system is the
structure that defines a new type: the :c:type:`PyTypeObject` structure. Type
objects can be handled using any of the ``PyObject_*`` or
``PyType_*`` functions, but do not offer much that's interesting to most
Python applications. These objects are fundamental to how objects behave, so
they are very important to the interpreter itself and to any extension module
that implements new types.
Type objects are fairly large compared to most of the standard types. The reason
for the size is that each type object stores a large number of values, mostly C
function pointers, each of which implements a small part of the type's
functionality. The fields of the type object are examined in detail in this
section. The fields will be described in the order in which they occur in the
structure.
In addition to the following quick reference, the :ref:`typedef-examples`
section provides at-a-glance insight into the meaning and use of
:c:type:`PyTypeObject`.
Quick Reference
---------------
.. _tp-slots-table:
"tp slots"
^^^^^^^^^^
.. table::
:widths: 18,18,18,1,1,1,1
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---------------+
| PyTypeObject Slot [#slots]_ | :ref:`Type <slot-typedefs-table>` | special | Info [#cols]_ |
| | | methods/attrs +---+---+---+---+
| | | | O | T | D | I |
+================================================+===================================+===================+===+===+===+===+
| <R> :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_name` | const char * | __name__ | X | X | | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_basicsize` | :c:type:`Py_ssize_t` | | X | X | | X |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_itemsize` | :c:type:`Py_ssize_t` | | | X | | X |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_dealloc` | :c:type:`destructor` | | X | X | | X |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_vectorcall_offset` | :c:type:`Py_ssize_t` | | | X | | X |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| (:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_getattr`) | :c:type:`getattrfunc` | __getattribute__, | | | | G |
| | | __getattr__ | | | | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| (:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_setattr`) | :c:type:`setattrfunc` | __setattr__, | | | | G |
| | | __delattr__ | | | | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_as_async` | :c:type:`PyAsyncMethods` * | :ref:`sub-slots` | | | | % |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_repr` | :c:type:`reprfunc` | __repr__ | X | X | | X |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_as_number` | :c:type:`PyNumberMethods` * | :ref:`sub-slots` | | | | % |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_as_sequence` | :c:type:`PySequenceMethods` * | :ref:`sub-slots` | | | | % |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_as_mapping` | :c:type:`PyMappingMethods` * | :ref:`sub-slots` | | | | % |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_hash` | :c:type:`hashfunc` | __hash__ | X | | | G |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_call` | :c:type:`ternaryfunc` | __call__ | | X | | X |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_str` | :c:type:`reprfunc` | __str__ | X | | | X |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_getattro` | :c:type:`getattrofunc` | __getattribute__, | X | X | | G |
| | | __getattr__ | | | | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_setattro` | :c:type:`setattrofunc` | __setattr__, | X | X | | G |
| | | __delattr__ | | | | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_as_buffer` | :c:type:`PyBufferProcs` * | | | | | % |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_flags` | unsigned long | | X | X | | ? |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_doc` | const char * | __doc__ | X | X | | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_traverse` | :c:type:`traverseproc` | | | X | | G |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_clear` | :c:type:`inquiry` | | | X | | G |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_richcompare` | :c:type:`richcmpfunc` | __lt__, | X | | | G |
| | | __le__, | | | | |
| | | __eq__, | | | | |
| | | __ne__, | | | | |
| | | __gt__, | | | | |
| | | __ge__ | | | | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| (:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_weaklistoffset`) | :c:type:`Py_ssize_t` | | | X | | ? |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_iter` | :c:type:`getiterfunc` | __iter__ | | | | X |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_iternext` | :c:type:`iternextfunc` | __next__ | | | | X |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_methods` | :c:type:`PyMethodDef` [] | | X | X | | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_members` | :c:type:`PyMemberDef` [] | | | X | | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_getset` | :c:type:`PyGetSetDef` [] | | X | X | | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_base` | :c:type:`PyTypeObject` * | __base__ | | | X | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_dict` | :c:type:`PyObject` * | __dict__ | | | ? | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_descr_get` | :c:type:`descrgetfunc` | __get__ | | | | X |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_descr_set` | :c:type:`descrsetfunc` | __set__, | | | | X |
| | | __delete__ | | | | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| (:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_dictoffset`) | :c:type:`Py_ssize_t` | | | X | | ? |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_init` | :c:type:`initproc` | __init__ | X | X | | X |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_alloc` | :c:type:`allocfunc` | | X | | ? | ? |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_new` | :c:type:`newfunc` | __new__ | X | X | ? | ? |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_free` | :c:type:`freefunc` | | X | X | ? | ? |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_is_gc` | :c:type:`inquiry` | | | X | | X |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| <:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_bases`> | :c:type:`PyObject` * | __bases__ | | | ~ | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| <:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_mro`> | :c:type:`PyObject` * | __mro__ | | | ~ | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| [:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_cache`] | :c:type:`PyObject` * | | | | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| [:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_subclasses`] | void * | __subclasses__ | | | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| [:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_weaklist`] | :c:type:`PyObject` * | | | | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| (:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_del`) | :c:type:`destructor` | | | | | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| [:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_version_tag`] | unsigned int | | | | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_finalize` | :c:type:`destructor` | __del__ | | | | X |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_vectorcall` | :c:type:`vectorcallfunc` | | | | | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
| [:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_watched`] | char | | | | | |
+------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+-------------------+---+---+---+---+
.. [#slots]
**()**: A slot name in parentheses indicates it is (effectively) deprecated.
**<>**: Names in angle brackets should be initially set to ``NULL`` and
treated as read-only.
**[]**: Names in square brackets are for internal use only.
**<R>** (as a prefix) means the field is required (must be non-``NULL``).
.. [#cols] Columns:
**"O"**: set on :c:type:`PyBaseObject_Type`
**"T"**: set on :c:type:`PyType_Type`
**"D"**: default (if slot is set to ``NULL``)
.. code-block:: none
X - PyType_Ready sets this value if it is NULL
~ - PyType_Ready always sets this value (it should be NULL)
? - PyType_Ready may set this value depending on other slots
Also see the inheritance column ("I").
**"I"**: inheritance
.. code-block:: none
X - type slot is inherited via *PyType_Ready* if defined with a *NULL* value
% - the slots of the sub-struct are inherited individually
G - inherited, but only in combination with other slots; see the slot's description
? - it's complicated; see the slot's description
Note that some slots are effectively inherited through the normal
attribute lookup chain.
.. _sub-slots:
sub-slots
^^^^^^^^^
.. table::
:widths: 26,17,12
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| Slot | :ref:`Type <slot-typedefs-table>` | special |
| | | methods |
+=========================================================+===================================+===============+
| :c:member:`~PyAsyncMethods.am_await` | :c:type:`unaryfunc` | __await__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyAsyncMethods.am_aiter` | :c:type:`unaryfunc` | __aiter__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyAsyncMethods.am_anext` | :c:type:`unaryfunc` | __anext__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyAsyncMethods.am_send` | :c:type:`sendfunc` | |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_add` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __add__ |
| | | __radd__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_add` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __iadd__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_subtract` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __sub__ |
| | | __rsub__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_subtract` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __isub__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_multiply` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __mul__ |
| | | __rmul__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_multiply` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __imul__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_remainder` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __mod__ |
| | | __rmod__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_remainder` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __imod__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_divmod` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __divmod__ |
| | | __rdivmod__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_power` | :c:type:`ternaryfunc` | __pow__ |
| | | __rpow__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_power` | :c:type:`ternaryfunc` | __ipow__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_negative` | :c:type:`unaryfunc` | __neg__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_positive` | :c:type:`unaryfunc` | __pos__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_absolute` | :c:type:`unaryfunc` | __abs__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_bool` | :c:type:`inquiry` | __bool__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_invert` | :c:type:`unaryfunc` | __invert__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_lshift` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __lshift__ |
| | | __rlshift__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_lshift` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __ilshift__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_rshift` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __rshift__ |
| | | __rrshift__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_rshift` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __irshift__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_and` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __and__ |
| | | __rand__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_and` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __iand__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_xor` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __xor__ |
| | | __rxor__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_xor` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __ixor__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_or` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __or__ |
| | | __ror__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_or` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __ior__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_int` | :c:type:`unaryfunc` | __int__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_reserved` | void * | |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_float` | :c:type:`unaryfunc` | __float__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_floor_divide` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __floordiv__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_floor_divide` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __ifloordiv__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_true_divide` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __truediv__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_true_divide` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __itruediv__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_index` | :c:type:`unaryfunc` | __index__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_matrix_multiply` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __matmul__ |
| | | __rmatmul__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_matrix_multiply` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __imatmul__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyMappingMethods.mp_length` | :c:type:`lenfunc` | __len__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyMappingMethods.mp_subscript` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __getitem__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyMappingMethods.mp_ass_subscript` | :c:type:`objobjargproc` | __setitem__, |
| | | __delitem__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PySequenceMethods.sq_length` | :c:type:`lenfunc` | __len__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PySequenceMethods.sq_concat` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __add__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PySequenceMethods.sq_repeat` | :c:type:`ssizeargfunc` | __mul__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PySequenceMethods.sq_item` | :c:type:`ssizeargfunc` | __getitem__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PySequenceMethods.sq_ass_item` | :c:type:`ssizeobjargproc` | __setitem__ |
| | | __delitem__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PySequenceMethods.sq_contains` | :c:type:`objobjproc` | __contains__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PySequenceMethods.sq_inplace_concat` | :c:type:`binaryfunc` | __iadd__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PySequenceMethods.sq_inplace_repeat` | :c:type:`ssizeargfunc` | __imul__ |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyBufferProcs.bf_getbuffer` | :c:func:`getbufferproc` | |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
| :c:member:`~PyBufferProcs.bf_releasebuffer` | :c:func:`releasebufferproc` | |
+---------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+---------------+
.. _slot-typedefs-table:
slot typedefs
^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| typedef | Parameter Types | Return Type |
+=============================+=============================+======================+
| :c:type:`allocfunc` | .. line-block:: | :c:type:`PyObject` * |
| | | |
| | :c:type:`PyTypeObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`Py_ssize_t` | |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`destructor` | void * | void |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`freefunc` | void * | void |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`traverseproc` | .. line-block:: | int |
| | | |
| | void * | |
| | :c:type:`visitproc` | |
| | void * | |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`newfunc` | .. line-block:: | :c:type:`PyObject` * |
| | | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`initproc` | .. line-block:: | int |
| | | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`reprfunc` | :c:type:`PyObject` * | :c:type:`PyObject` * |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`getattrfunc` | .. line-block:: | :c:type:`PyObject` * |
| | | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | const char * | |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`setattrfunc` | .. line-block:: | int |
| | | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | const char * | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`getattrofunc` | .. line-block:: | :c:type:`PyObject` * |
| | | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`setattrofunc` | .. line-block:: | int |
| | | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`descrgetfunc` | .. line-block:: | :c:type:`PyObject` * |
| | | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`descrsetfunc` | .. line-block:: | int |
| | | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`hashfunc` | :c:type:`PyObject` * | Py_hash_t |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`richcmpfunc` | .. line-block:: | :c:type:`PyObject` * |
| | | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | int | |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`getiterfunc` | :c:type:`PyObject` * | :c:type:`PyObject` * |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`iternextfunc` | :c:type:`PyObject` * | :c:type:`PyObject` * |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`lenfunc` | :c:type:`PyObject` * | :c:type:`Py_ssize_t` |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`getbufferproc` | .. line-block:: | int |
| | | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`Py_buffer` * | |
| | int | |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`releasebufferproc` | .. line-block:: | void |
| | | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`Py_buffer` * | |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`inquiry` | void * | int |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`unaryfunc` | .. line-block:: | :c:type:`PyObject` * |
| | | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`binaryfunc` | .. line-block:: | :c:type:`PyObject` * |
| | | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`ternaryfunc` | .. line-block:: | :c:type:`PyObject` * |
| | | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`ssizeargfunc` | .. line-block:: | :c:type:`PyObject` * |
| | | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`Py_ssize_t` | |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`ssizeobjargproc` | .. line-block:: | int |
| | | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`Py_ssize_t` | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`objobjproc` | .. line-block:: | int |
| | | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
| :c:type:`objobjargproc` | .. line-block:: | int |
| | | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
| | :c:type:`PyObject` * | |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
See :ref:`slot-typedefs` below for more detail.
PyTypeObject Definition
-----------------------
The structure definition for :c:type:`PyTypeObject` can be found in
:file:`Include/object.h`. For convenience of reference, this repeats the
definition found there:
.. XXX Drop this?
.. literalinclude:: ../includes/typestruct.h
PyObject Slots
--------------
The type object structure extends the :c:type:`PyVarObject` structure. The
:attr:`ob_size` field is used for dynamic types (created by :func:`type_new`,
usually called from a class statement). Note that :c:data:`PyType_Type` (the
metatype) initializes :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_itemsize`, which means that its instances (i.e.
type objects) *must* have the :attr:`ob_size` field.
.. c:member:: Py_ssize_t PyObject.ob_refcnt
This is the type object's reference count, initialized to ``1`` by the
``PyObject_HEAD_INIT`` macro. Note that for :ref:`statically allocated type
objects <static-types>`, the type's instances (objects whose :attr:`ob_type`
points back to the type) do *not* count as references. But for
:ref:`dynamically allocated type objects <heap-types>`, the instances *do*
count as references.
**Inheritance:**
This field is not inherited by subtypes.
.. c:member:: PyTypeObject* PyObject.ob_type
This is the type's type, in other words its metatype. It is initialized by the
argument to the ``PyObject_HEAD_INIT`` macro, and its value should normally be
``&PyType_Type``. However, for dynamically loadable extension modules that must
be usable on Windows (at least), the compiler complains that this is not a valid
initializer. Therefore, the convention is to pass ``NULL`` to the
``PyObject_HEAD_INIT`` macro and to initialize this field explicitly at the
start of the module's initialization function, before doing anything else. This
is typically done like this::
Foo_Type.ob_type = &PyType_Type;
This should be done before any instances of the type are created.
:c:func:`PyType_Ready` checks if :attr:`ob_type` is ``NULL``, and if so,
initializes it to the :attr:`ob_type` field of the base class.
:c:func:`PyType_Ready` will not change this field if it is non-zero.
**Inheritance:**
This field is inherited by subtypes.
.. c:member:: PyObject* PyObject._ob_next
PyObject* PyObject._ob_prev
These fields are only present when the macro ``Py_TRACE_REFS`` is defined
(see the :option:`configure --with-trace-refs option <--with-trace-refs>`).
Their initialization to ``NULL`` is taken care of by the
``PyObject_HEAD_INIT`` macro. For :ref:`statically allocated objects
<static-types>`, these fields always remain ``NULL``. For :ref:`dynamically
allocated objects <heap-types>`, these two fields are used to link the
object into a doubly linked list of *all* live objects on the heap.
This could be used for various debugging purposes; currently the only uses
are the :func:`sys.getobjects` function and to print the objects that are
still alive at the end of a run when the environment variable
:envvar:`PYTHONDUMPREFS` is set.
**Inheritance:**
These fields are not inherited by subtypes.
PyVarObject Slots
-----------------
.. c:member:: Py_ssize_t PyVarObject.ob_size
For :ref:`statically allocated type objects <static-types>`, this should be
initialized to zero. For :ref:`dynamically allocated type objects
<heap-types>`, this field has a special internal meaning.
**Inheritance:**
This field is not inherited by subtypes.
PyTypeObject Slots
------------------
Each slot has a section describing inheritance. If :c:func:`PyType_Ready`
may set a value when the field is set to ``NULL`` then there will also be
a "Default" section. (Note that many fields set on :c:type:`PyBaseObject_Type`
and :c:type:`PyType_Type` effectively act as defaults.)
.. c:member:: const char* PyTypeObject.tp_name
Pointer to a NUL-terminated string containing the name of the type. For types
that are accessible as module globals, the string should be the full module
name, followed by a dot, followed by the type name; for built-in types, it
should be just the type name. If the module is a submodule of a package, the
full package name is part of the full module name. For example, a type named
:class:`T` defined in module :mod:`M` in subpackage :mod:`Q` in package :mod:`P`
should have the :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_name` initializer ``"P.Q.M.T"``.
For :ref:`dynamically allocated type objects <heap-types>`,
this should just be the type name, and
the module name explicitly stored in the type dict as the value for key
``'__module__'``.
For :ref:`statically allocated type objects <static-types>`,
the *tp_name* field should contain a dot.
Everything before the last dot is made accessible as the :attr:`__module__`
attribute, and everything after the last dot is made accessible as the
:attr:`~definition.__name__` attribute.
If no dot is present, the entire :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_name` field is made accessible as the
:attr:`~definition.__name__` attribute, and the :attr:`__module__` attribute is undefined
(unless explicitly set in the dictionary, as explained above). This means your
type will be impossible to pickle. Additionally, it will not be listed in
module documentations created with pydoc.
This field must not be ``NULL``. It is the only required field
in :c:func:`PyTypeObject` (other than potentially
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_itemsize`).
**Inheritance:**
This field is not inherited by subtypes.
.. c:member:: Py_ssize_t PyTypeObject.tp_basicsize
Py_ssize_t PyTypeObject.tp_itemsize
These fields allow calculating the size in bytes of instances of the type.
There are two kinds of types: types with fixed-length instances have a zero
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_itemsize` field, types with variable-length instances have a non-zero
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_itemsize` field. For a type with fixed-length instances, all
instances have the same size, given in :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_basicsize`.
For a type with variable-length instances, the instances must have an
:attr:`ob_size` field, and the instance size is :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_basicsize` plus N
times :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_itemsize`, where N is the "length" of the object. The value of
N is typically stored in the instance's :attr:`ob_size` field. There are
exceptions: for example, ints use a negative :attr:`ob_size` to indicate a
negative number, and N is ``abs(ob_size)`` there. Also, the presence of an
:attr:`ob_size` field in the instance layout doesn't mean that the instance
structure is variable-length (for example, the structure for the list type has
fixed-length instances, yet those instances have a meaningful :attr:`ob_size`
field).
The basic size includes the fields in the instance declared by the macro
:c:macro:`PyObject_HEAD` or :c:macro:`PyObject_VAR_HEAD` (whichever is used to
declare the instance struct) and this in turn includes the :attr:`_ob_prev` and
:attr:`_ob_next` fields if they are present. This means that the only correct
way to get an initializer for the :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_basicsize` is to use the
``sizeof`` operator on the struct used to declare the instance layout.
The basic size does not include the GC header size.
A note about alignment: if the variable items require a particular alignment,
this should be taken care of by the value of :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_basicsize`. Example:
suppose a type implements an array of ``double``. :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_itemsize` is
``sizeof(double)``. It is the programmer's responsibility that
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_basicsize` is a multiple of ``sizeof(double)`` (assuming this is the
alignment requirement for ``double``).
For any type with variable-length instances, this field must not be ``NULL``.
**Inheritance:**
These fields are inherited separately by subtypes. If the base type has a
non-zero :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_itemsize`, it is generally not safe to set
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_itemsize` to a different non-zero value in a subtype (though this
depends on the implementation of the base type).
.. c:member:: destructor PyTypeObject.tp_dealloc
A pointer to the instance destructor function. This function must be defined
unless the type guarantees that its instances will never be deallocated (as is
the case for the singletons ``None`` and ``Ellipsis``). The function signature is::
void tp_dealloc(PyObject *self);
The destructor function is called by the :c:func:`Py_DECREF` and
:c:func:`Py_XDECREF` macros when the new reference count is zero. At this point,
the instance is still in existence, but there are no references to it. The
destructor function should free all references which the instance owns, free all
memory buffers owned by the instance (using the freeing function corresponding
to the allocation function used to allocate the buffer), and call the type's
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_free` function. If the type is not subtypable
(doesn't have the :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_BASETYPE` flag bit set), it is
permissible to call the object deallocator directly instead of via
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_free`. The object deallocator should be the one used to allocate the
instance; this is normally :c:func:`PyObject_Del` if the instance was allocated
using :c:func:`PyObject_New` or :c:func:`PyObject_VarNew`, or
:c:func:`PyObject_GC_Del` if the instance was allocated using
:c:func:`PyObject_GC_New` or :c:func:`PyObject_GC_NewVar`.
If the type supports garbage collection (has the :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC`
flag bit set), the destructor should call :c:func:`PyObject_GC_UnTrack`
before clearing any member fields.
.. code-block:: c
static void foo_dealloc(foo_object *self) {
PyObject_GC_UnTrack(self);
Py_CLEAR(self->ref);
Py_TYPE(self)->tp_free((PyObject *)self);
}
Finally, if the type is heap allocated (:const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HEAPTYPE`), the
deallocator should decrement the reference count for its type object after
calling the type deallocator. In order to avoid dangling pointers, the
recommended way to achieve this is:
.. code-block:: c
static void foo_dealloc(foo_object *self) {
PyTypeObject *tp = Py_TYPE(self);
// free references and buffers here
tp->tp_free(self);
Py_DECREF(tp);
}
**Inheritance:**
This field is inherited by subtypes.
.. c:member:: Py_ssize_t PyTypeObject.tp_vectorcall_offset
An optional offset to a per-instance function that implements calling
the object using the :ref:`vectorcall protocol <vectorcall>`,
a more efficient alternative
of the simpler :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_call`.
This field is only used if the flag :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_VECTORCALL`
is set. If so, this must be a positive integer containing the offset in the
instance of a :c:type:`vectorcallfunc` pointer.
The *vectorcallfunc* pointer may be ``NULL``, in which case the instance behaves
as if :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_VECTORCALL` was not set: calling the instance
falls back to :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_call`.
Any class that sets ``Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_VECTORCALL`` must also set
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_call` and make sure its behaviour is consistent
with the *vectorcallfunc* function.
This can be done by setting *tp_call* to :c:func:`PyVectorcall_Call`.
.. versionchanged:: 3.8
Before version 3.8, this slot was named ``tp_print``.
In Python 2.x, it was used for printing to a file.
In Python 3.0 to 3.7, it was unused.
.. versionchanged:: 3.12
Before version 3.12, it was not recommended for
:ref:`mutable heap types <heap-types>` to implement the vectorcall
protocol.
When a user sets :attr:`~type.__call__` in Python code, only *tp_call* is
updated, likely making it inconsistent with the vectorcall function.
Since 3.12, setting ``__call__`` will disable vectorcall optimization
by clearing the :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_VECTORCALL` flag.
**Inheritance:**
This field is always inherited.
However, the :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_VECTORCALL` flag is not
always inherited. If it's not set, then the subclass won't use
:ref:`vectorcall <vectorcall>`, except when
:c:func:`PyVectorcall_Call` is explicitly called.
.. c:member:: getattrfunc PyTypeObject.tp_getattr
An optional pointer to the get-attribute-string function.
This field is deprecated. When it is defined, it should point to a function
that acts the same as the :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_getattro` function, but taking a C string
instead of a Python string object to give the attribute name.
**Inheritance:**
Group: :attr:`tp_getattr`, :attr:`tp_getattro`
This field is inherited by subtypes together with :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_getattro`: a subtype
inherits both :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_getattr` and :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_getattro` from its base type when
the subtype's :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_getattr` and :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_getattro` are both ``NULL``.
.. c:member:: setattrfunc PyTypeObject.tp_setattr
An optional pointer to the function for setting and deleting attributes.
This field is deprecated. When it is defined, it should point to a function
that acts the same as the :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_setattro` function, but taking a C string
instead of a Python string object to give the attribute name.
**Inheritance:**
Group: :attr:`tp_setattr`, :attr:`tp_setattro`
This field is inherited by subtypes together with :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_setattro`: a subtype
inherits both :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_setattr` and :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_setattro` from its base type when
the subtype's :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_setattr` and :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_setattro` are both ``NULL``.
.. c:member:: PyAsyncMethods* PyTypeObject.tp_as_async
Pointer to an additional structure that contains fields relevant only to
objects which implement :term:`awaitable` and :term:`asynchronous iterator`
protocols at the C-level. See :ref:`async-structs` for details.
.. versionadded:: 3.5
Formerly known as ``tp_compare`` and ``tp_reserved``.
**Inheritance:**
The :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_as_async` field is not inherited,
but the contained fields are inherited individually.
.. c:member:: reprfunc PyTypeObject.tp_repr
.. index:: pair: built-in function; repr
An optional pointer to a function that implements the built-in function
:func:`repr`.
The signature is the same as for :c:func:`PyObject_Repr`::
PyObject *tp_repr(PyObject *self);
The function must return a string or a Unicode object. Ideally,
this function should return a string that, when passed to
:func:`eval`, given a suitable environment, returns an object with the
same value. If this is not feasible, it should return a string starting with
``'<'`` and ending with ``'>'`` from which both the type and the value of the
object can be deduced.
**Inheritance:**
This field is inherited by subtypes.
**Default:**
When this field is not set, a string of the form ``<%s object at %p>`` is
returned, where ``%s`` is replaced by the type name, and ``%p`` by the object's
memory address.
.. c:member:: PyNumberMethods* PyTypeObject.tp_as_number
Pointer to an additional structure that contains fields relevant only to
objects which implement the number protocol. These fields are documented in
:ref:`number-structs`.
**Inheritance:**
The :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_as_number` field is not inherited, but the contained fields are
inherited individually.
.. c:member:: PySequenceMethods* PyTypeObject.tp_as_sequence
Pointer to an additional structure that contains fields relevant only to
objects which implement the sequence protocol. These fields are documented
in :ref:`sequence-structs`.
**Inheritance:**
The :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_as_sequence` field is not inherited, but the contained fields
are inherited individually.
.. c:member:: PyMappingMethods* PyTypeObject.tp_as_mapping
Pointer to an additional structure that contains fields relevant only to
objects which implement the mapping protocol. These fields are documented in
:ref:`mapping-structs`.
**Inheritance:**
The :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_as_mapping` field is not inherited, but the contained fields
are inherited individually.
.. c:member:: hashfunc PyTypeObject.tp_hash
.. index:: pair: built-in function; hash
An optional pointer to a function that implements the built-in function
:func:`hash`.
The signature is the same as for :c:func:`PyObject_Hash`::
Py_hash_t tp_hash(PyObject *);
The value ``-1`` should not be returned as a
normal return value; when an error occurs during the computation of the hash
value, the function should set an exception and return ``-1``.
When this field is not set (*and* :attr:`tp_richcompare` is not set),
an attempt to take the hash of the object raises :exc:`TypeError`.
This is the same as setting it to :c:func:`PyObject_HashNotImplemented`.
This field can be set explicitly to :c:func:`PyObject_HashNotImplemented` to
block inheritance of the hash method from a parent type. This is interpreted
as the equivalent of ``__hash__ = None`` at the Python level, causing
``isinstance(o, collections.Hashable)`` to correctly return ``False``. Note
that the converse is also true - setting ``__hash__ = None`` on a class at
the Python level will result in the ``tp_hash`` slot being set to
:c:func:`PyObject_HashNotImplemented`.
**Inheritance:**
Group: :attr:`tp_hash`, :attr:`tp_richcompare`
This field is inherited by subtypes together with
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_richcompare`: a subtype inherits both of
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_richcompare` and :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_hash`, when the subtype's
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_richcompare` and :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_hash` are both ``NULL``.
.. c:member:: ternaryfunc PyTypeObject.tp_call
An optional pointer to a function that implements calling the object. This
should be ``NULL`` if the object is not callable. The signature is the same as
for :c:func:`PyObject_Call`::
PyObject *tp_call(PyObject *self, PyObject *args, PyObject *kwargs);
**Inheritance:**
This field is inherited by subtypes.
.. c:member:: reprfunc PyTypeObject.tp_str
An optional pointer to a function that implements the built-in operation
:func:`str`. (Note that :class:`str` is a type now, and :func:`str` calls the
constructor for that type. This constructor calls :c:func:`PyObject_Str` to do
the actual work, and :c:func:`PyObject_Str` will call this handler.)
The signature is the same as for :c:func:`PyObject_Str`::
PyObject *tp_str(PyObject *self);
The function must return a string or a Unicode object. It should be a "friendly" string
representation of the object, as this is the representation that will be used,
among other things, by the :func:`print` function.
**Inheritance:**
This field is inherited by subtypes.
**Default:**
When this field is not set, :c:func:`PyObject_Repr` is called to return a string
representation.
.. c:member:: getattrofunc PyTypeObject.tp_getattro
An optional pointer to the get-attribute function.
The signature is the same as for :c:func:`PyObject_GetAttr`::
PyObject *tp_getattro(PyObject *self, PyObject *attr);
It is usually convenient to set this field to :c:func:`PyObject_GenericGetAttr`,
which implements the normal way of looking for object attributes.
**Inheritance:**
Group: :attr:`tp_getattr`, :attr:`tp_getattro`
This field is inherited by subtypes together with :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_getattr`: a subtype
inherits both :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_getattr` and :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_getattro` from its base type when
the subtype's :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_getattr` and :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_getattro` are both ``NULL``.
**Default:**
:c:type:`PyBaseObject_Type` uses :c:func:`PyObject_GenericGetAttr`.
.. c:member:: setattrofunc PyTypeObject.tp_setattro
An optional pointer to the function for setting and deleting attributes.
The signature is the same as for :c:func:`PyObject_SetAttr`::
int tp_setattro(PyObject *self, PyObject *attr, PyObject *value);
In addition, setting *value* to ``NULL`` to delete an attribute must be
supported. It is usually convenient to set this field to
:c:func:`PyObject_GenericSetAttr`, which implements the normal
way of setting object attributes.
**Inheritance:**
Group: :attr:`tp_setattr`, :attr:`tp_setattro`
This field is inherited by subtypes together with :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_setattr`: a subtype
inherits both :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_setattr` and :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_setattro` from its base type when
the subtype's :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_setattr` and :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_setattro` are both ``NULL``.
**Default:**
:c:type:`PyBaseObject_Type` uses :c:func:`PyObject_GenericSetAttr`.
.. c:member:: PyBufferProcs* PyTypeObject.tp_as_buffer
Pointer to an additional structure that contains fields relevant only to objects
which implement the buffer interface. These fields are documented in
:ref:`buffer-structs`.
**Inheritance:**
The :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_as_buffer` field is not inherited,
but the contained fields are inherited individually.
.. c:member:: unsigned long PyTypeObject.tp_flags
This field is a bit mask of various flags. Some flags indicate variant
semantics for certain situations; others are used to indicate that certain
fields in the type object (or in the extension structures referenced via
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_as_number`, :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_as_sequence`, :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_as_mapping`, and
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_as_buffer`) that were historically not always present are valid; if
such a flag bit is clear, the type fields it guards must not be accessed and
must be considered to have a zero or ``NULL`` value instead.
**Inheritance:**
Inheritance of this field is complicated. Most flag bits are inherited
individually, i.e. if the base type has a flag bit set, the subtype inherits
this flag bit. The flag bits that pertain to extension structures are strictly
inherited if the extension structure is inherited, i.e. the base type's value of
the flag bit is copied into the subtype together with a pointer to the extension
structure. The :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC` flag bit is inherited together with
the :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_traverse` and :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_clear` fields, i.e. if the
:const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC` flag bit is clear in the subtype and the
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_traverse` and :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_clear` fields in the subtype exist and have
``NULL`` values.
.. XXX are most flag bits *really* inherited individually?
**Default:**
:c:type:`PyBaseObject_Type` uses
``Py_TPFLAGS_DEFAULT | Py_TPFLAGS_BASETYPE``.
**Bit Masks:**
The following bit masks are currently defined; these can be ORed together using
the ``|`` operator to form the value of the :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_flags` field. The macro
:c:func:`PyType_HasFeature` takes a type and a flags value, *tp* and *f*, and
checks whether ``tp->tp_flags & f`` is non-zero.
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_HEAPTYPE
This bit is set when the type object itself is allocated on the heap, for
example, types created dynamically using :c:func:`PyType_FromSpec`. In this
case, the :attr:`ob_type` field of its instances is considered a reference to
the type, and the type object is INCREF'ed when a new instance is created, and
DECREF'ed when an instance is destroyed (this does not apply to instances of
subtypes; only the type referenced by the instance's ob_type gets INCREF'ed or
DECREF'ed).
**Inheritance:**
???
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_BASETYPE
This bit is set when the type can be used as the base type of another type. If
this bit is clear, the type cannot be subtyped (similar to a "final" class in
Java).
**Inheritance:**
???
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_READY
This bit is set when the type object has been fully initialized by
:c:func:`PyType_Ready`.
**Inheritance:**
???
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_READYING
This bit is set while :c:func:`PyType_Ready` is in the process of initializing
the type object.
**Inheritance:**
???
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC
This bit is set when the object supports garbage collection. If this bit
is set, instances must be created using :c:func:`PyObject_GC_New` and
destroyed using :c:func:`PyObject_GC_Del`. More information in section
:ref:`supporting-cycle-detection`. This bit also implies that the
GC-related fields :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_traverse` and :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_clear` are present in
the type object.
**Inheritance:**
Group: :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC`, :attr:`tp_traverse`, :attr:`tp_clear`
The :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC` flag bit is inherited
together with the :attr:`tp_traverse` and :attr:`tp_clear`
fields, i.e. if the :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC` flag bit is
clear in the subtype and the :attr:`tp_traverse` and
:attr:`tp_clear` fields in the subtype exist and have ``NULL``
values.
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_DEFAULT
This is a bitmask of all the bits that pertain to the existence of certain
fields in the type object and its extension structures. Currently, it includes
the following bits: :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_STACKLESS_EXTENSION`.
**Inheritance:**
???
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_METHOD_DESCRIPTOR
This bit indicates that objects behave like unbound methods.
If this flag is set for ``type(meth)``, then:
- ``meth.__get__(obj, cls)(*args, **kwds)`` (with ``obj`` not None)
must be equivalent to ``meth(obj, *args, **kwds)``.
- ``meth.__get__(None, cls)(*args, **kwds)``
must be equivalent to ``meth(*args, **kwds)``.
This flag enables an optimization for typical method calls like
``obj.meth()``: it avoids creating a temporary "bound method" object for
``obj.meth``.
.. versionadded:: 3.8
**Inheritance:**
This flag is never inherited by types without the
:const:`Py_TPFLAGS_IMMUTABLETYPE` flag set. For extension types, it is
inherited whenever :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_descr_get` is inherited.
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_MANAGED_DICT
This bit indicates that instances of the class have a ``__dict__``
attribute, and that the space for the dictionary is managed by the VM.
If this flag is set, :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC` should also be set.
.. versionadded:: 3.12
**Inheritance:**
This flag is inherited unless the
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_dictoffset` field is set in a superclass.
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_MANAGED_WEAKREF
This bit indicates that instances of the class should be weakly
referenceable.
.. versionadded:: 3.12
**Inheritance:**
This flag is inherited unless the
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_weaklistoffset` field is set in a superclass.
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_ITEMS_AT_END
Only usable with variable-size types, i.e. ones with non-zero
:c:member:`~PyObject.tp_itemsize`.
Indicates that the variable-sized portion of an instance of this type is
at the end of the instance's memory area, at an offset of
:c:expr:`Py_TYPE(obj)->tp_basicsize` (which may be different in each
subclass).
When setting this flag, be sure that all superclasses either
use this memory layout, or are not variable-sized.
Python does not check this.
.. versionadded:: 3.12
**Inheritance:**
This flag is inherited.
.. XXX Document more flags here?
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_LONG_SUBCLASS
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_LIST_SUBCLASS
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_TUPLE_SUBCLASS
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_BYTES_SUBCLASS
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_UNICODE_SUBCLASS
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_DICT_SUBCLASS
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_BASE_EXC_SUBCLASS
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_TYPE_SUBCLASS
These flags are used by functions such as
:c:func:`PyLong_Check` to quickly determine if a type is a subclass
of a built-in type; such specific checks are faster than a generic
check, like :c:func:`PyObject_IsInstance`. Custom types that inherit
from built-ins should have their :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_flags`
set appropriately, or the code that interacts with such types
will behave differently depending on what kind of check is used.
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_FINALIZE
This bit is set when the :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_finalize` slot is present in the
type structure.
.. versionadded:: 3.4
.. deprecated:: 3.8
This flag isn't necessary anymore, as the interpreter assumes the
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_finalize` slot is always present in the
type structure.
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_VECTORCALL
This bit is set when the class implements
the :ref:`vectorcall protocol <vectorcall>`.
See :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_vectorcall_offset` for details.
**Inheritance:**
This bit is inherited if :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_call` is also
inherited.
.. versionadded:: 3.9
.. versionchanged:: 3.12
This flag is now removed from a class when the class's
:py:meth:`~object.__call__` method is reassigned.
This flag can now be inherited by mutable classes.
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_IMMUTABLETYPE
This bit is set for type objects that are immutable: type attributes cannot be set nor deleted.
:c:func:`PyType_Ready` automatically applies this flag to
:ref:`static types <static-types>`.
**Inheritance:**
This flag is not inherited.
.. versionadded:: 3.10
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_DISALLOW_INSTANTIATION
Disallow creating instances of the type: set
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_new` to NULL and don't create the ``__new__``
key in the type dictionary.
The flag must be set before creating the type, not after. For example, it
must be set before :c:func:`PyType_Ready` is called on the type.
The flag is set automatically on :ref:`static types <static-types>` if
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_base` is NULL or ``&PyBaseObject_Type`` and
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_new` is NULL.
**Inheritance:**
This flag is not inherited.
However, subclasses will not be instantiable unless they provide a
non-NULL :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_new` (which is only possible
via the C API).
.. note::
To disallow instantiating a class directly but allow instantiating
its subclasses (e.g. for an :term:`abstract base class`),
do not use this flag.
Instead, make :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_new` only succeed for
subclasses.
.. versionadded:: 3.10
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_MAPPING
This bit indicates that instances of the class may match mapping patterns
when used as the subject of a :keyword:`match` block. It is automatically
set when registering or subclassing :class:`collections.abc.Mapping`, and
unset when registering :class:`collections.abc.Sequence`.
.. note::
:const:`Py_TPFLAGS_MAPPING` and :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_SEQUENCE` are
mutually exclusive; it is an error to enable both flags simultaneously.
**Inheritance:**
This flag is inherited by types that do not already set
:const:`Py_TPFLAGS_SEQUENCE`.
.. seealso:: :pep:`634` -- Structural Pattern Matching: Specification
.. versionadded:: 3.10
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_SEQUENCE
This bit indicates that instances of the class may match sequence patterns
when used as the subject of a :keyword:`match` block. It is automatically
set when registering or subclassing :class:`collections.abc.Sequence`, and
unset when registering :class:`collections.abc.Mapping`.
.. note::
:const:`Py_TPFLAGS_MAPPING` and :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_SEQUENCE` are
mutually exclusive; it is an error to enable both flags simultaneously.
**Inheritance:**
This flag is inherited by types that do not already set
:const:`Py_TPFLAGS_MAPPING`.
.. seealso:: :pep:`634` -- Structural Pattern Matching: Specification
.. versionadded:: 3.10
.. data:: Py_TPFLAGS_VALID_VERSION_TAG
Internal. Do not set or unset this flag.
To indicate that a class has changed call :c:func:`PyType_Modified`
.. warning::
This flag is present in header files, but is an internal feature and should
not be used. It will be removed in a future version of CPython
.. c:member:: const char* PyTypeObject.tp_doc
An optional pointer to a NUL-terminated C string giving the docstring for this
type object. This is exposed as the :attr:`__doc__` attribute on the type and
instances of the type.
**Inheritance:**
This field is *not* inherited by subtypes.
.. c:member:: traverseproc PyTypeObject.tp_traverse
An optional pointer to a traversal function for the garbage collector. This is
only used if the :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC` flag bit is set. The signature is::
int tp_traverse(PyObject *self, visitproc visit, void *arg);
More information about Python's garbage collection scheme can be found
in section :ref:`supporting-cycle-detection`.
The :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_traverse` pointer is used by the garbage collector to detect
reference cycles. A typical implementation of a :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_traverse` function
simply calls :c:func:`Py_VISIT` on each of the instance's members that are Python
objects that the instance owns. For example, this is function :c:func:`local_traverse` from the
:mod:`_thread` extension module::
static int
local_traverse(localobject *self, visitproc visit, void *arg)
{
Py_VISIT(self->args);
Py_VISIT(self->kw);
Py_VISIT(self->dict);
return 0;
}
Note that :c:func:`Py_VISIT` is called only on those members that can participate
in reference cycles. Although there is also a ``self->key`` member, it can only
be ``NULL`` or a Python string and therefore cannot be part of a reference cycle.
On the other hand, even if you know a member can never be part of a cycle, as a
debugging aid you may want to visit it anyway just so the :mod:`gc` module's
:func:`~gc.get_referents` function will include it.
.. warning::
When implementing :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_traverse`, only the
members that the instance *owns* (by having :term:`strong references
<strong reference>` to them) must be
visited. For instance, if an object supports weak references via the
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_weaklist` slot, the pointer supporting
the linked list (what *tp_weaklist* points to) must **not** be
visited as the instance does not directly own the weak references to itself
(the weakreference list is there to support the weak reference machinery,
but the instance has no strong reference to the elements inside it, as they
are allowed to be removed even if the instance is still alive).
Note that :c:func:`Py_VISIT` requires the *visit* and *arg* parameters to
:c:func:`local_traverse` to have these specific names; don't name them just
anything.
Instances of :ref:`heap-allocated types <heap-types>` hold a reference to
their type. Their traversal function must therefore either visit
:c:func:`Py_TYPE(self) <Py_TYPE>`, or delegate this responsibility by
calling ``tp_traverse`` of another heap-allocated type (such as a
heap-allocated superclass).
If they do not, the type object may not be garbage-collected.
.. versionchanged:: 3.9
Heap-allocated types are expected to visit ``Py_TYPE(self)`` in
``tp_traverse``. In earlier versions of Python, due to
`bug 40217 <https://bugs.python.org/issue40217>`_, doing this
may lead to crashes in subclasses.
**Inheritance:**
Group: :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC`, :attr:`tp_traverse`, :attr:`tp_clear`
This field is inherited by subtypes together with :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_clear` and the
:const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC` flag bit: the flag bit, :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_traverse`, and
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_clear` are all inherited from the base type if they are all zero in
the subtype.
.. c:member:: inquiry PyTypeObject.tp_clear
An optional pointer to a clear function for the garbage collector. This is only
used if the :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC` flag bit is set. The signature is::
int tp_clear(PyObject *);
The :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_clear` member function is used to break reference cycles in cyclic
garbage detected by the garbage collector. Taken together, all :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_clear`
functions in the system must combine to break all reference cycles. This is
subtle, and if in any doubt supply a :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_clear` function. For example,
the tuple type does not implement a :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_clear` function, because it's
possible to prove that no reference cycle can be composed entirely of tuples.
Therefore the :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_clear` functions of other types must be sufficient to
break any cycle containing a tuple. This isn't immediately obvious, and there's
rarely a good reason to avoid implementing :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_clear`.
Implementations of :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_clear` should drop the instance's references to
those of its members that may be Python objects, and set its pointers to those
members to ``NULL``, as in the following example::
static int
local_clear(localobject *self)
{
Py_CLEAR(self->key);
Py_CLEAR(self->args);
Py_CLEAR(self->kw);
Py_CLEAR(self->dict);
return 0;
}
The :c:func:`Py_CLEAR` macro should be used, because clearing references is
delicate: the reference to the contained object must not be decremented until
after the pointer to the contained object is set to ``NULL``. This is because
decrementing the reference count may cause the contained object to become trash,
triggering a chain of reclamation activity that may include invoking arbitrary
Python code (due to finalizers, or weakref callbacks, associated with the
contained object). If it's possible for such code to reference *self* again,
it's important that the pointer to the contained object be ``NULL`` at that time,
so that *self* knows the contained object can no longer be used. The
:c:func:`Py_CLEAR` macro performs the operations in a safe order.
Note that :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_clear` is not *always* called
before an instance is deallocated. For example, when reference counting
is enough to determine that an object is no longer used, the cyclic garbage
collector is not involved and :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_dealloc` is
called directly.
Because the goal of :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_clear` functions is to break reference cycles,
it's not necessary to clear contained objects like Python strings or Python
integers, which can't participate in reference cycles. On the other hand, it may
be convenient to clear all contained Python objects, and write the type's
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_dealloc` function to invoke :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_clear`.
More information about Python's garbage collection scheme can be found in
section :ref:`supporting-cycle-detection`.
**Inheritance:**
Group: :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC`, :attr:`tp_traverse`, :attr:`tp_clear`
This field is inherited by subtypes together with :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_traverse` and the
:const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC` flag bit: the flag bit, :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_traverse`, and
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_clear` are all inherited from the base type if they are all zero in
the subtype.
.. c:member:: richcmpfunc PyTypeObject.tp_richcompare
An optional pointer to the rich comparison function, whose signature is::
PyObject *tp_richcompare(PyObject *self, PyObject *other, int op);
The first parameter is guaranteed to be an instance of the type
that is defined by :c:type:`PyTypeObject`.
The function should return the result of the comparison (usually ``Py_True``
or ``Py_False``). If the comparison is undefined, it must return
``Py_NotImplemented``, if another error occurred it must return ``NULL`` and
set an exception condition.
The following constants are defined to be used as the third argument for
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_richcompare` and for :c:func:`PyObject_RichCompare`:
+----------------+------------+
| Constant | Comparison |
+================+============+
| :const:`Py_LT` | ``<`` |
+----------------+------------+
| :const:`Py_LE` | ``<=`` |
+----------------+------------+
| :const:`Py_EQ` | ``==`` |
+----------------+------------+
| :const:`Py_NE` | ``!=`` |
+----------------+------------+
| :const:`Py_GT` | ``>`` |
+----------------+------------+
| :const:`Py_GE` | ``>=`` |
+----------------+------------+
The following macro is defined to ease writing rich comparison functions:
.. c:macro:: Py_RETURN_RICHCOMPARE(VAL_A, VAL_B, op)
Return ``Py_True`` or ``Py_False`` from the function, depending on the
result of a comparison.
VAL_A and VAL_B must be orderable by C comparison operators (for example,
they may be C ints or floats). The third argument specifies the requested
operation, as for :c:func:`PyObject_RichCompare`.
The return value's reference count is properly incremented.
On error, sets an exception and returns ``NULL`` from the function.
.. versionadded:: 3.7
**Inheritance:**
Group: :attr:`tp_hash`, :attr:`tp_richcompare`
This field is inherited by subtypes together with :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_hash`:
a subtype inherits :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_richcompare` and :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_hash` when
the subtype's :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_richcompare` and :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_hash` are both
``NULL``.
**Default:**
:c:type:`PyBaseObject_Type` provides a :attr:`tp_richcompare`
implementation, which may be inherited. However, if only
:attr:`tp_hash` is defined, not even the inherited function is used
and instances of the type will not be able to participate in any
comparisons.
.. c:member:: Py_ssize_t PyTypeObject.tp_weaklistoffset
While this field is still supported, :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_MANAGED_WEAKREF`
should be used instead, if at all possible.
If the instances of this type are weakly referenceable, this field is greater
than zero and contains the offset in the instance structure of the weak
reference list head (ignoring the GC header, if present); this offset is used by
:c:func:`PyObject_ClearWeakRefs` and the ``PyWeakref_*`` functions. The
instance structure needs to include a field of type :c:expr:`PyObject*` which is
initialized to ``NULL``.
Do not confuse this field with :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_weaklist`; that is the list head for
weak references to the type object itself.
It is an error to set both the :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_MANAGED_WEAKREF` bit and
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_weaklist`.
**Inheritance:**
This field is inherited by subtypes, but see the rules listed below. A subtype
may override this offset; this means that the subtype uses a different weak
reference list head than the base type. Since the list head is always found via
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_weaklistoffset`, this should not be a problem.
**Default:**
If the :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_MANAGED_WEAKREF` bit is set in the
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_dict` field, then
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_weaklistoffset` will be set to a negative value,
to indicate that it is unsafe to use this field.
.. c:member:: getiterfunc PyTypeObject.tp_iter
An optional pointer to a function that returns an :term:`iterator` for the
object. Its presence normally signals that the instances of this type are
:term:`iterable` (although sequences may be iterable without this function).
This function has the same signature as :c:func:`PyObject_GetIter`::
PyObject *tp_iter(PyObject *self);
**Inheritance:**
This field is inherited by subtypes.
.. c:member:: iternextfunc PyTypeObject.tp_iternext
An optional pointer to a function that returns the next item in an
:term:`iterator`. The signature is::
PyObject *tp_iternext(PyObject *self);
When the iterator is exhausted, it must return ``NULL``; a :exc:`StopIteration`
exception may or may not be set. When another error occurs, it must return
``NULL`` too. Its presence signals that the instances of this type are
iterators.
Iterator types should also define the :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_iter` function, and that
function should return the iterator instance itself (not a new iterator
instance).
This function has the same signature as :c:func:`PyIter_Next`.
**Inheritance:**
This field is inherited by subtypes.
.. c:member:: struct PyMethodDef* PyTypeObject.tp_methods
An optional pointer to a static ``NULL``-terminated array of :c:type:`PyMethodDef`
structures, declaring regular methods of this type.
For each entry in the array, an entry is added to the type's dictionary (see
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_dict` below) containing a method descriptor.
**Inheritance:**
This field is not inherited by subtypes (methods are inherited through a
different mechanism).
.. c:member:: struct PyMemberDef* PyTypeObject.tp_members
An optional pointer to a static ``NULL``-terminated array of :c:type:`PyMemberDef`
structures, declaring regular data members (fields or slots) of instances of
this type.
For each entry in the array, an entry is added to the type's dictionary (see
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_dict` below) containing a member descriptor.
**Inheritance:**
This field is not inherited by subtypes (members are inherited through a
different mechanism).
.. c:member:: struct PyGetSetDef* PyTypeObject.tp_getset
An optional pointer to a static ``NULL``-terminated array of :c:type:`PyGetSetDef`
structures, declaring computed attributes of instances of this type.
For each entry in the array, an entry is added to the type's dictionary (see
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_dict` below) containing a getset descriptor.
**Inheritance:**
This field is not inherited by subtypes (computed attributes are inherited
through a different mechanism).
.. c:member:: PyTypeObject* PyTypeObject.tp_base
An optional pointer to a base type from which type properties are inherited. At
this level, only single inheritance is supported; multiple inheritance require
dynamically creating a type object by calling the metatype.
.. note::
.. from Modules/xxmodule.c
Slot initialization is subject to the rules of initializing globals.
C99 requires the initializers to be "address constants". Function
designators like :c:func:`PyType_GenericNew`, with implicit conversion
to a pointer, are valid C99 address constants.
However, the unary '&' operator applied to a non-static variable
like :c:func:`PyBaseObject_Type` is not required to produce an address
constant. Compilers may support this (gcc does), MSVC does not.
Both compilers are strictly standard conforming in this particular
behavior.
Consequently, :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_base` should be set in
the extension module's init function.
**Inheritance:**
This field is not inherited by subtypes (obviously).
**Default:**
This field defaults to ``&PyBaseObject_Type`` (which to Python
programmers is known as the type :class:`object`).
.. c:member:: PyObject* PyTypeObject.tp_dict
The type's dictionary is stored here by :c:func:`PyType_Ready`.
This field should normally be initialized to ``NULL`` before PyType_Ready is
called; it may also be initialized to a dictionary containing initial attributes
for the type. Once :c:func:`PyType_Ready` has initialized the type, extra
attributes for the type may be added to this dictionary only if they don't
correspond to overloaded operations (like :meth:`__add__`).
**Inheritance:**
This field is not inherited by subtypes (though the attributes defined in here
are inherited through a different mechanism).
**Default:**
If this field is ``NULL``, :c:func:`PyType_Ready` will assign a new
dictionary to it.
.. warning::
It is not safe to use :c:func:`PyDict_SetItem` on or otherwise modify
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_dict` with the dictionary C-API.
.. c:member:: descrgetfunc PyTypeObject.tp_descr_get
An optional pointer to a "descriptor get" function.
The function signature is::
PyObject * tp_descr_get(PyObject *self, PyObject *obj, PyObject *type);
.. XXX explain more?
**Inheritance:**
This field is inherited by subtypes.
.. c:member:: descrsetfunc PyTypeObject.tp_descr_set
An optional pointer to a function for setting and deleting
a descriptor's value.
The function signature is::
int tp_descr_set(PyObject *self, PyObject *obj, PyObject *value);
The *value* argument is set to ``NULL`` to delete the value.
.. XXX explain more?
**Inheritance:**
This field is inherited by subtypes.
.. c:member:: Py_ssize_t PyTypeObject.tp_dictoffset
While this field is still supported, :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_MANAGED_DICT` should be
used instead, if at all possible.
If the instances of this type have a dictionary containing instance variables,
this field is non-zero and contains the offset in the instances of the type of
the instance variable dictionary; this offset is used by
:c:func:`PyObject_GenericGetAttr`.
Do not confuse this field with :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_dict`; that is the dictionary for
attributes of the type object itself.
The value specifies the offset of the dictionary from the start of the instance structure.
The :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_dictoffset` should be regarded as write-only.
To get the pointer to the dictionary call :c:func:`PyObject_GenericGetDict`.
Calling :c:func:`PyObject_GenericGetDict` may need to allocate memory for the
dictionary, so it is may be more efficient to call :c:func:`PyObject_GetAttr`
when accessing an attribute on the object.
It is an error to set both the :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_MANAGED_WEAKREF` bit and
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_dictoffset`.
**Inheritance:**
This field is inherited by subtypes. A subtype should not override this offset;
doing so could be unsafe, if C code tries to access the dictionary at the
previous offset.
To properly support inheritance, use :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_MANAGED_DICT`.
**Default:**
This slot has no default. For :ref:`static types <static-types>`, if the
field is ``NULL`` then no :attr:`__dict__` gets created for instances.
If the :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_MANAGED_DICT` bit is set in the
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_dict` field, then
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_dictoffset` will be set to ``-1``, to indicate
that it is unsafe to use this field.
.. c:member:: initproc PyTypeObject.tp_init
An optional pointer to an instance initialization function.
This function corresponds to the :meth:`__init__` method of classes. Like
:meth:`__init__`, it is possible to create an instance without calling
:meth:`__init__`, and it is possible to reinitialize an instance by calling its
:meth:`__init__` method again.
The function signature is::
int tp_init(PyObject *self, PyObject *args, PyObject *kwds);
The self argument is the instance to be initialized; the *args* and *kwds*
arguments represent positional and keyword arguments of the call to
:meth:`__init__`.
The :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_init` function, if not ``NULL``, is called when an instance is
created normally by calling its type, after the type's :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_new` function
has returned an instance of the type. If the :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_new` function returns an
instance of some other type that is not a subtype of the original type, no
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_init` function is called; if :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_new` returns an instance of a
subtype of the original type, the subtype's :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_init` is called.
Returns ``0`` on success, ``-1`` and sets an exception on error.
**Inheritance:**
This field is inherited by subtypes.
**Default:**
For :ref:`static types <static-types>` this field does not have a default.
.. c:member:: allocfunc PyTypeObject.tp_alloc
An optional pointer to an instance allocation function.
The function signature is::
PyObject *tp_alloc(PyTypeObject *self, Py_ssize_t nitems);
**Inheritance:**
This field is inherited by static subtypes, but not by dynamic
subtypes (subtypes created by a class statement).
**Default:**
For dynamic subtypes, this field is always set to
:c:func:`PyType_GenericAlloc`, to force a standard heap
allocation strategy.
For static subtypes, :c:type:`PyBaseObject_Type` uses
:c:func:`PyType_GenericAlloc`. That is the recommended value
for all statically defined types.
.. c:member:: newfunc PyTypeObject.tp_new
An optional pointer to an instance creation function.
The function signature is::
PyObject *tp_new(PyTypeObject *subtype, PyObject *args, PyObject *kwds);
The *subtype* argument is the type of the object being created; the *args* and
*kwds* arguments represent positional and keyword arguments of the call to the
type. Note that *subtype* doesn't have to equal the type whose :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_new`
function is called; it may be a subtype of that type (but not an unrelated
type).
The :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_new` function should call ``subtype->tp_alloc(subtype, nitems)``
to allocate space for the object, and then do only as much further
initialization as is absolutely necessary. Initialization that can safely be
ignored or repeated should be placed in the :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_init` handler. A good
rule of thumb is that for immutable types, all initialization should take place
in :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_new`, while for mutable types, most initialization should be
deferred to :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_init`.
Set the :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_DISALLOW_INSTANTIATION` flag to disallow creating
instances of the type in Python.
**Inheritance:**
This field is inherited by subtypes, except it is not inherited by
:ref:`static types <static-types>` whose :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_base`
is ``NULL`` or ``&PyBaseObject_Type``.
**Default:**
For :ref:`static types <static-types>` this field has no default.
This means if the slot is defined as ``NULL``, the type cannot be called
to create new instances; presumably there is some other way to create
instances, like a factory function.
.. c:member:: freefunc PyTypeObject.tp_free
An optional pointer to an instance deallocation function. Its signature is::
void tp_free(void *self);
An initializer that is compatible with this signature is :c:func:`PyObject_Free`.
**Inheritance:**
This field is inherited by static subtypes, but not by dynamic
subtypes (subtypes created by a class statement)
**Default:**
In dynamic subtypes, this field is set to a deallocator suitable to
match :c:func:`PyType_GenericAlloc` and the value of the
:const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC` flag bit.
For static subtypes, :c:type:`PyBaseObject_Type` uses PyObject_Del.
.. c:member:: inquiry PyTypeObject.tp_is_gc
An optional pointer to a function called by the garbage collector.
The garbage collector needs to know whether a particular object is collectible
or not. Normally, it is sufficient to look at the object's type's
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_flags` field, and check the :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC` flag bit. But
some types have a mixture of statically and dynamically allocated instances, and
the statically allocated instances are not collectible. Such types should
define this function; it should return ``1`` for a collectible instance, and
``0`` for a non-collectible instance. The signature is::
int tp_is_gc(PyObject *self);
(The only example of this are types themselves. The metatype,
:c:data:`PyType_Type`, defines this function to distinguish between statically
and :ref:`dynamically allocated types <heap-types>`.)
**Inheritance:**
This field is inherited by subtypes.
**Default:**
This slot has no default. If this field is ``NULL``,
:const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC` is used as the functional equivalent.
.. c:member:: PyObject* PyTypeObject.tp_bases
Tuple of base types.
This field should be set to ``NULL`` and treated as read-only.
Python will fill it in when the type is :c:func:`initialized <PyType_Ready>`.
For dynamically created classes, the ``Py_tp_bases``
:c:type:`slot <PyType_Slot>` can be used instead of the *bases* argument
of :c:func:`PyType_FromSpecWithBases`.
The argument form is preferred.
.. warning::
Multiple inheritance does not work well for statically defined types.
If you set ``tp_bases`` to a tuple, Python will not raise an error,
but some slots will only be inherited from the first base.
**Inheritance:**
This field is not inherited.
.. c:member:: PyObject* PyTypeObject.tp_mro
Tuple containing the expanded set of base types, starting with the type itself
and ending with :class:`object`, in Method Resolution Order.
This field should be set to ``NULL`` and treated as read-only.
Python will fill it in when the type is :c:func:`initialized <PyType_Ready>`.
**Inheritance:**
This field is not inherited; it is calculated fresh by
:c:func:`PyType_Ready`.
.. c:member:: PyObject* PyTypeObject.tp_cache
Unused. Internal use only.
**Inheritance:**
This field is not inherited.
.. c:member:: void* PyTypeObject.tp_subclasses
A collection of subclasses. Internal use only. May be an invalid pointer.
To get a list of subclasses, call the Python method
:py:meth:`~class.__subclasses__`.
.. versionchanged:: 3.12
For some types, this field does not hold a valid :c:expr:`PyObject*`.
The type was changed to :c:expr:`void*` to indicate this.
**Inheritance:**
This field is not inherited.
.. c:member:: PyObject* PyTypeObject.tp_weaklist
Weak reference list head, for weak references to this type object. Not
inherited. Internal use only.
.. versionchanged:: 3.12
Internals detail: For the static builtin types this is always ``NULL``,
even if weakrefs are added. Instead, the weakrefs for each are stored
on ``PyInterpreterState``. Use the public C-API or the internal
``_PyObject_GET_WEAKREFS_LISTPTR()`` macro to avoid the distinction.
**Inheritance:**
This field is not inherited.
.. c:member:: destructor PyTypeObject.tp_del
This field is deprecated. Use :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_finalize` instead.
.. c:member:: unsigned int PyTypeObject.tp_version_tag
Used to index into the method cache. Internal use only.
**Inheritance:**
This field is not inherited.
.. c:member:: destructor PyTypeObject.tp_finalize
An optional pointer to an instance finalization function. Its signature is::
void tp_finalize(PyObject *self);
If :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_finalize` is set, the interpreter calls it once when
finalizing an instance. It is called either from the garbage
collector (if the instance is part of an isolated reference cycle) or
just before the object is deallocated. Either way, it is guaranteed
to be called before attempting to break reference cycles, ensuring
that it finds the object in a sane state.
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_finalize` should not mutate the current exception status;
therefore, a recommended way to write a non-trivial finalizer is::
static void
local_finalize(PyObject *self)
{
PyObject *error_type, *error_value, *error_traceback;
/* Save the current exception, if any. */
PyErr_Fetch(&error_type, &error_value, &error_traceback);
/* ... */
/* Restore the saved exception. */
PyErr_Restore(error_type, error_value, error_traceback);
}
Also, note that, in a garbage collected Python,
:c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_dealloc` may be called from
any Python thread, not just the thread which created the object (if the object
becomes part of a refcount cycle, that cycle might be collected by a garbage
collection on any thread). This is not a problem for Python API calls, since
the thread on which tp_dealloc is called will own the Global Interpreter Lock
(GIL). However, if the object being destroyed in turn destroys objects from some
other C or C++ library, care should be taken to ensure that destroying those
objects on the thread which called tp_dealloc will not violate any assumptions
of the library.
**Inheritance:**
This field is inherited by subtypes.
.. versionadded:: 3.4
.. versionchanged:: 3.8
Before version 3.8 it was necessary to set the
:const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_FINALIZE` flags bit in order for this field to be
used. This is no longer required.
.. seealso:: "Safe object finalization" (:pep:`442`)
.. c:member:: vectorcallfunc PyTypeObject.tp_vectorcall
Vectorcall function to use for calls of this type object.
In other words, it is used to implement
:ref:`vectorcall <vectorcall>` for ``type.__call__``.
If ``tp_vectorcall`` is ``NULL``, the default call implementation
using :attr:`__new__` and :attr:`__init__` is used.
**Inheritance:**
This field is never inherited.
.. versionadded:: 3.9 (the field exists since 3.8 but it's only used since 3.9)
.. c:member:: char PyTypeObject.tp_watched
Internal. Do not use.
.. versionadded:: 3.12
.. _static-types:
Static Types
------------
Traditionally, types defined in C code are *static*, that is,
a static :c:type:`PyTypeObject` structure is defined directly in code
and initialized using :c:func:`PyType_Ready`.
This results in types that are limited relative to types defined in Python:
* Static types are limited to one base, i.e. they cannot use multiple
inheritance.
* Static type objects (but not necessarily their instances) are immutable.
It is not possible to add or modify the type object's attributes from Python.
* Static type objects are shared across
:ref:`sub-interpreters <sub-interpreter-support>`, so they should not
include any subinterpreter-specific state.
Also, since :c:type:`PyTypeObject` is only part of the :ref:`Limited API
<stable>` as an opaque struct, any extension modules using static types must be
compiled for a specific Python minor version.
.. _heap-types:
Heap Types
----------
An alternative to :ref:`static types <static-types>` is *heap-allocated types*,
or *heap types* for short, which correspond closely to classes created by
Python's ``class`` statement. Heap types have the :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HEAPTYPE`
flag set.
This is done by filling a :c:type:`PyType_Spec` structure and calling
:c:func:`PyType_FromSpec`, :c:func:`PyType_FromSpecWithBases`,
:c:func:`PyType_FromModuleAndSpec`, or :c:func:`PyType_FromMetaclass`.
.. _number-structs:
Number Object Structures
========================
.. sectionauthor:: Amaury Forgeot d'Arc
.. c:type:: PyNumberMethods
This structure holds pointers to the functions which an object uses to
implement the number protocol. Each function is used by the function of
similar name documented in the :ref:`number` section.
.. XXX Drop the definition?
Here is the structure definition::
typedef struct {
binaryfunc nb_add;
binaryfunc nb_subtract;
binaryfunc nb_multiply;
binaryfunc nb_remainder;
binaryfunc nb_divmod;
ternaryfunc nb_power;
unaryfunc nb_negative;
unaryfunc nb_positive;
unaryfunc nb_absolute;
inquiry nb_bool;
unaryfunc nb_invert;
binaryfunc nb_lshift;
binaryfunc nb_rshift;
binaryfunc nb_and;
binaryfunc nb_xor;
binaryfunc nb_or;
unaryfunc nb_int;
void *nb_reserved;
unaryfunc nb_float;
binaryfunc nb_inplace_add;
binaryfunc nb_inplace_subtract;
binaryfunc nb_inplace_multiply;
binaryfunc nb_inplace_remainder;
ternaryfunc nb_inplace_power;
binaryfunc nb_inplace_lshift;
binaryfunc nb_inplace_rshift;
binaryfunc nb_inplace_and;
binaryfunc nb_inplace_xor;
binaryfunc nb_inplace_or;
binaryfunc nb_floor_divide;
binaryfunc nb_true_divide;
binaryfunc nb_inplace_floor_divide;
binaryfunc nb_inplace_true_divide;
unaryfunc nb_index;
binaryfunc nb_matrix_multiply;
binaryfunc nb_inplace_matrix_multiply;
} PyNumberMethods;
.. note::
Binary and ternary functions must check the type of all their operands,
and implement the necessary conversions (at least one of the operands is
an instance of the defined type). If the operation is not defined for the
given operands, binary and ternary functions must return
``Py_NotImplemented``, if another error occurred they must return ``NULL``
and set an exception.
.. note::
The :c:data:`nb_reserved` field should always be ``NULL``. It
was previously called :c:data:`nb_long`, and was renamed in
Python 3.0.1.
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_add
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_subtract
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_multiply
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_remainder
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_divmod
.. c:member:: ternaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_power
.. c:member:: unaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_negative
.. c:member:: unaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_positive
.. c:member:: unaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_absolute
.. c:member:: inquiry PyNumberMethods.nb_bool
.. c:member:: unaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_invert
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_lshift
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_rshift
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_and
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_xor
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_or
.. c:member:: unaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_int
.. c:member:: void *PyNumberMethods.nb_reserved
.. c:member:: unaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_float
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_add
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_subtract
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_multiply
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_remainder
.. c:member:: ternaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_power
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_lshift
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_rshift
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_and
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_xor
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_or
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_floor_divide
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_true_divide
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_floor_divide
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_true_divide
.. c:member:: unaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_index
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_matrix_multiply
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_matrix_multiply
.. _mapping-structs:
Mapping Object Structures
=========================
.. sectionauthor:: Amaury Forgeot d'Arc
.. c:type:: PyMappingMethods
This structure holds pointers to the functions which an object uses to
implement the mapping protocol. It has three members:
.. c:member:: lenfunc PyMappingMethods.mp_length
This function is used by :c:func:`PyMapping_Size` and
:c:func:`PyObject_Size`, and has the same signature. This slot may be set to
``NULL`` if the object has no defined length.
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PyMappingMethods.mp_subscript
This function is used by :c:func:`PyObject_GetItem` and
:c:func:`PySequence_GetSlice`, and has the same signature as
:c:func:`!PyObject_GetItem`. This slot must be filled for the
:c:func:`PyMapping_Check` function to return ``1``, it can be ``NULL``
otherwise.
.. c:member:: objobjargproc PyMappingMethods.mp_ass_subscript
This function is used by :c:func:`PyObject_SetItem`,
:c:func:`PyObject_DelItem`, :c:func:`PyObject_SetSlice` and
:c:func:`PyObject_DelSlice`. It has the same signature as
:c:func:`!PyObject_SetItem`, but *v* can also be set to ``NULL`` to delete
an item. If this slot is ``NULL``, the object does not support item
assignment and deletion.
.. _sequence-structs:
Sequence Object Structures
==========================
.. sectionauthor:: Amaury Forgeot d'Arc
.. c:type:: PySequenceMethods
This structure holds pointers to the functions which an object uses to
implement the sequence protocol.
.. c:member:: lenfunc PySequenceMethods.sq_length
This function is used by :c:func:`PySequence_Size` and
:c:func:`PyObject_Size`, and has the same signature. It is also used for
handling negative indices via the :c:member:`~PySequenceMethods.sq_item`
and the :c:member:`~PySequenceMethods.sq_ass_item` slots.
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PySequenceMethods.sq_concat
This function is used by :c:func:`PySequence_Concat` and has the same
signature. It is also used by the ``+`` operator, after trying the numeric
addition via the :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_add` slot.
.. c:member:: ssizeargfunc PySequenceMethods.sq_repeat
This function is used by :c:func:`PySequence_Repeat` and has the same
signature. It is also used by the ``*`` operator, after trying numeric
multiplication via the :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_multiply` slot.
.. c:member:: ssizeargfunc PySequenceMethods.sq_item
This function is used by :c:func:`PySequence_GetItem` and has the same
signature. It is also used by :c:func:`PyObject_GetItem`, after trying
the subscription via the :c:member:`~PyMappingMethods.mp_subscript` slot.
This slot must be filled for the :c:func:`PySequence_Check`
function to return ``1``, it can be ``NULL`` otherwise.
Negative indexes are handled as follows: if the :attr:`sq_length` slot is
filled, it is called and the sequence length is used to compute a positive
index which is passed to :attr:`sq_item`. If :attr:`sq_length` is ``NULL``,
the index is passed as is to the function.
.. c:member:: ssizeobjargproc PySequenceMethods.sq_ass_item
This function is used by :c:func:`PySequence_SetItem` and has the same
signature. It is also used by :c:func:`PyObject_SetItem` and
:c:func:`PyObject_DelItem`, after trying the item assignment and deletion
via the :c:member:`~PyMappingMethods.mp_ass_subscript` slot.
This slot may be left to ``NULL`` if the object does not support
item assignment and deletion.
.. c:member:: objobjproc PySequenceMethods.sq_contains
This function may be used by :c:func:`PySequence_Contains` and has the same
signature. This slot may be left to ``NULL``, in this case
:c:func:`!PySequence_Contains` simply traverses the sequence until it
finds a match.
.. c:member:: binaryfunc PySequenceMethods.sq_inplace_concat
This function is used by :c:func:`PySequence_InPlaceConcat` and has the same
signature. It should modify its first operand, and return it. This slot
may be left to ``NULL``, in this case :c:func:`!PySequence_InPlaceConcat`
will fall back to :c:func:`PySequence_Concat`. It is also used by the
augmented assignment ``+=``, after trying numeric in-place addition
via the :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_add` slot.
.. c:member:: ssizeargfunc PySequenceMethods.sq_inplace_repeat
This function is used by :c:func:`PySequence_InPlaceRepeat` and has the same
signature. It should modify its first operand, and return it. This slot
may be left to ``NULL``, in this case :c:func:`!PySequence_InPlaceRepeat`
will fall back to :c:func:`PySequence_Repeat`. It is also used by the
augmented assignment ``*=``, after trying numeric in-place multiplication
via the :c:member:`~PyNumberMethods.nb_inplace_multiply` slot.
.. _buffer-structs:
Buffer Object Structures
========================
.. sectionauthor:: Greg J. Stein <greg@lyra.org>
.. sectionauthor:: Benjamin Peterson
.. sectionauthor:: Stefan Krah
.. c:type:: PyBufferProcs
This structure holds pointers to the functions required by the
:ref:`Buffer protocol <bufferobjects>`. The protocol defines how
an exporter object can expose its internal data to consumer objects.
.. c:member:: getbufferproc PyBufferProcs.bf_getbuffer
The signature of this function is::
int (PyObject *exporter, Py_buffer *view, int flags);
Handle a request to *exporter* to fill in *view* as specified by *flags*.
Except for point (3), an implementation of this function MUST take these
steps:
(1) Check if the request can be met. If not, raise :c:data:`PyExc_BufferError`,
set :c:expr:`view->obj` to ``NULL`` and return ``-1``.
(2) Fill in the requested fields.
(3) Increment an internal counter for the number of exports.
(4) Set :c:expr:`view->obj` to *exporter* and increment :c:expr:`view->obj`.
(5) Return ``0``.
If *exporter* is part of a chain or tree of buffer providers, two main
schemes can be used:
* Re-export: Each member of the tree acts as the exporting object and
sets :c:expr:`view->obj` to a new reference to itself.
* Redirect: The buffer request is redirected to the root object of the
tree. Here, :c:expr:`view->obj` will be a new reference to the root
object.
The individual fields of *view* are described in section
:ref:`Buffer structure <buffer-structure>`, the rules how an exporter
must react to specific requests are in section
:ref:`Buffer request types <buffer-request-types>`.
All memory pointed to in the :c:type:`Py_buffer` structure belongs to
the exporter and must remain valid until there are no consumers left.
:c:member:`~Py_buffer.format`, :c:member:`~Py_buffer.shape`,
:c:member:`~Py_buffer.strides`, :c:member:`~Py_buffer.suboffsets`
and :c:member:`~Py_buffer.internal`
are read-only for the consumer.
:c:func:`PyBuffer_FillInfo` provides an easy way of exposing a simple
bytes buffer while dealing correctly with all request types.
:c:func:`PyObject_GetBuffer` is the interface for the consumer that
wraps this function.
.. c:member:: releasebufferproc PyBufferProcs.bf_releasebuffer
The signature of this function is::
void (PyObject *exporter, Py_buffer *view);
Handle a request to release the resources of the buffer. If no resources
need to be released, :c:member:`PyBufferProcs.bf_releasebuffer` may be
``NULL``. Otherwise, a standard implementation of this function will take
these optional steps:
(1) Decrement an internal counter for the number of exports.
(2) If the counter is ``0``, free all memory associated with *view*.
The exporter MUST use the :c:member:`~Py_buffer.internal` field to keep
track of buffer-specific resources. This field is guaranteed to remain
constant, while a consumer MAY pass a copy of the original buffer as the
*view* argument.
This function MUST NOT decrement :c:expr:`view->obj`, since that is
done automatically in :c:func:`PyBuffer_Release` (this scheme is
useful for breaking reference cycles).
:c:func:`PyBuffer_Release` is the interface for the consumer that
wraps this function.
.. _async-structs:
Async Object Structures
=======================
.. sectionauthor:: Yury Selivanov <yselivanov@sprymix.com>
.. versionadded:: 3.5
.. c:type:: PyAsyncMethods
This structure holds pointers to the functions required to implement
:term:`awaitable` and :term:`asynchronous iterator` objects.
Here is the structure definition::
typedef struct {
unaryfunc am_await;
unaryfunc am_aiter;
unaryfunc am_anext;
sendfunc am_send;
} PyAsyncMethods;
.. c:member:: unaryfunc PyAsyncMethods.am_await
The signature of this function is::
PyObject *am_await(PyObject *self);
The returned object must be an :term:`iterator`, i.e. :c:func:`PyIter_Check`
must return ``1`` for it.
This slot may be set to ``NULL`` if an object is not an :term:`awaitable`.
.. c:member:: unaryfunc PyAsyncMethods.am_aiter
The signature of this function is::
PyObject *am_aiter(PyObject *self);
Must return an :term:`asynchronous iterator` object.
See :meth:`__anext__` for details.
This slot may be set to ``NULL`` if an object does not implement
asynchronous iteration protocol.
.. c:member:: unaryfunc PyAsyncMethods.am_anext
The signature of this function is::
PyObject *am_anext(PyObject *self);
Must return an :term:`awaitable` object. See :meth:`__anext__` for details.
This slot may be set to ``NULL``.
.. c:member:: sendfunc PyAsyncMethods.am_send
The signature of this function is::
PySendResult am_send(PyObject *self, PyObject *arg, PyObject **result);
See :c:func:`PyIter_Send` for details.
This slot may be set to ``NULL``.
.. versionadded:: 3.10
.. _slot-typedefs:
Slot Type typedefs
==================
.. c:type:: PyObject *(*allocfunc)(PyTypeObject *cls, Py_ssize_t nitems)
The purpose of this function is to separate memory allocation from memory
initialization. It should return a pointer to a block of memory of adequate
length for the instance, suitably aligned, and initialized to zeros, but with
:attr:`ob_refcnt` set to ``1`` and :attr:`ob_type` set to the type argument. If
the type's :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_itemsize` is non-zero, the object's :attr:`ob_size` field
should be initialized to *nitems* and the length of the allocated memory block
should be ``tp_basicsize + nitems*tp_itemsize``, rounded up to a multiple of
``sizeof(void*)``; otherwise, *nitems* is not used and the length of the block
should be :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_basicsize`.
This function should not do any other instance initialization, not even to
allocate additional memory; that should be done by :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_new`.
.. c:type:: void (*destructor)(PyObject *)
.. c:type:: void (*freefunc)(void *)
See :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_free`.
.. c:type:: PyObject *(*newfunc)(PyObject *, PyObject *, PyObject *)
See :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_new`.
.. c:type:: int (*initproc)(PyObject *, PyObject *, PyObject *)
See :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_init`.
.. c:type:: PyObject *(*reprfunc)(PyObject *)
See :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_repr`.
.. c:type:: PyObject *(*getattrfunc)(PyObject *self, char *attr)
Return the value of the named attribute for the object.
.. c:type:: int (*setattrfunc)(PyObject *self, char *attr, PyObject *value)
Set the value of the named attribute for the object.
The value argument is set to ``NULL`` to delete the attribute.
.. c:type:: PyObject *(*getattrofunc)(PyObject *self, PyObject *attr)
Return the value of the named attribute for the object.
See :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_getattro`.
.. c:type:: int (*setattrofunc)(PyObject *self, PyObject *attr, PyObject *value)
Set the value of the named attribute for the object.
The value argument is set to ``NULL`` to delete the attribute.
See :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_setattro`.
.. c:type:: PyObject *(*descrgetfunc)(PyObject *, PyObject *, PyObject *)
See :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_descr_get`.
.. c:type:: int (*descrsetfunc)(PyObject *, PyObject *, PyObject *)
See :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_descr_set`.
.. c:type:: Py_hash_t (*hashfunc)(PyObject *)
See :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_hash`.
.. c:type:: PyObject *(*richcmpfunc)(PyObject *, PyObject *, int)
See :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_richcompare`.
.. c:type:: PyObject *(*getiterfunc)(PyObject *)
See :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_iter`.
.. c:type:: PyObject *(*iternextfunc)(PyObject *)
See :c:member:`~PyTypeObject.tp_iternext`.
.. c:type:: Py_ssize_t (*lenfunc)(PyObject *)
.. c:type:: int (*getbufferproc)(PyObject *, Py_buffer *, int)
.. c:type:: void (*releasebufferproc)(PyObject *, Py_buffer *)
.. c:type:: PyObject *(*unaryfunc)(PyObject *)
.. c:type:: PyObject *(*binaryfunc)(PyObject *, PyObject *)
.. c:type:: PySendResult (*sendfunc)(PyObject *, PyObject *, PyObject **)
See :c:member:`~PyAsyncMethods.am_send`.
.. c:type:: PyObject *(*ternaryfunc)(PyObject *, PyObject *, PyObject *)
.. c:type:: PyObject *(*ssizeargfunc)(PyObject *, Py_ssize_t)
.. c:type:: int (*ssizeobjargproc)(PyObject *, Py_ssize_t, PyObject *)
.. c:type:: int (*objobjproc)(PyObject *, PyObject *)
.. c:type:: int (*objobjargproc)(PyObject *, PyObject *, PyObject *)
.. _typedef-examples:
Examples
========
The following are simple examples of Python type definitions. They
include common usage you may encounter. Some demonstrate tricky corner
cases. For more examples, practical info, and a tutorial, see
:ref:`defining-new-types` and :ref:`new-types-topics`.
A basic :ref:`static type <static-types>`::
typedef struct {
PyObject_HEAD
const char *data;
} MyObject;
static PyTypeObject MyObject_Type = {
PyVarObject_HEAD_INIT(NULL, 0)
.tp_name = "mymod.MyObject",
.tp_basicsize = sizeof(MyObject),
.tp_doc = PyDoc_STR("My objects"),
.tp_new = myobj_new,
.tp_dealloc = (destructor)myobj_dealloc,
.tp_repr = (reprfunc)myobj_repr,
};
You may also find older code (especially in the CPython code base)
with a more verbose initializer::
static PyTypeObject MyObject_Type = {
PyVarObject_HEAD_INIT(NULL, 0)
"mymod.MyObject", /* tp_name */
sizeof(MyObject), /* tp_basicsize */
0, /* tp_itemsize */
(destructor)myobj_dealloc, /* tp_dealloc */
0, /* tp_vectorcall_offset */
0, /* tp_getattr */
0, /* tp_setattr */
0, /* tp_as_async */
(reprfunc)myobj_repr, /* tp_repr */
0, /* tp_as_number */
0, /* tp_as_sequence */
0, /* tp_as_mapping */
0, /* tp_hash */
0, /* tp_call */
0, /* tp_str */
0, /* tp_getattro */
0, /* tp_setattro */
0, /* tp_as_buffer */
0, /* tp_flags */
PyDoc_STR("My objects"), /* tp_doc */
0, /* tp_traverse */
0, /* tp_clear */
0, /* tp_richcompare */
0, /* tp_weaklistoffset */
0, /* tp_iter */
0, /* tp_iternext */
0, /* tp_methods */
0, /* tp_members */
0, /* tp_getset */
0, /* tp_base */
0, /* tp_dict */
0, /* tp_descr_get */
0, /* tp_descr_set */
0, /* tp_dictoffset */
0, /* tp_init */
0, /* tp_alloc */
myobj_new, /* tp_new */
};
A type that supports weakrefs, instance dicts, and hashing::
typedef struct {
PyObject_HEAD
const char *data;
} MyObject;
static PyTypeObject MyObject_Type = {
PyVarObject_HEAD_INIT(NULL, 0)
.tp_name = "mymod.MyObject",
.tp_basicsize = sizeof(MyObject),
.tp_doc = PyDoc_STR("My objects"),
.tp_flags = Py_TPFLAGS_DEFAULT | Py_TPFLAGS_BASETYPE |
Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC | Py_TPFLAGS_MANAGED_DICT |
Py_TPFLAGS_MANAGED_WEAKREF,
.tp_new = myobj_new,
.tp_traverse = (traverseproc)myobj_traverse,
.tp_clear = (inquiry)myobj_clear,
.tp_alloc = PyType_GenericNew,
.tp_dealloc = (destructor)myobj_dealloc,
.tp_repr = (reprfunc)myobj_repr,
.tp_hash = (hashfunc)myobj_hash,
.tp_richcompare = PyBaseObject_Type.tp_richcompare,
};
A str subclass that cannot be subclassed and cannot be called
to create instances (e.g. uses a separate factory func) using
:c:data:`Py_TPFLAGS_DISALLOW_INSTANTIATION` flag::
typedef struct {
PyUnicodeObject raw;
char *extra;
} MyStr;
static PyTypeObject MyStr_Type = {
PyVarObject_HEAD_INIT(NULL, 0)
.tp_name = "mymod.MyStr",
.tp_basicsize = sizeof(MyStr),
.tp_base = NULL, // set to &PyUnicode_Type in module init
.tp_doc = PyDoc_STR("my custom str"),
.tp_flags = Py_TPFLAGS_DEFAULT | Py_TPFLAGS_DISALLOW_INSTANTIATION,
.tp_repr = (reprfunc)myobj_repr,
};
The simplest :ref:`static type <static-types>` with fixed-length instances::
typedef struct {
PyObject_HEAD
} MyObject;
static PyTypeObject MyObject_Type = {
PyVarObject_HEAD_INIT(NULL, 0)
.tp_name = "mymod.MyObject",
};
The simplest :ref:`static type <static-types>` with variable-length instances::
typedef struct {
PyObject_VAR_HEAD
const char *data[1];
} MyObject;
static PyTypeObject MyObject_Type = {
PyVarObject_HEAD_INIT(NULL, 0)
.tp_name = "mymod.MyObject",
.tp_basicsize = sizeof(MyObject) - sizeof(char *),
.tp_itemsize = sizeof(char *),
};