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#!/usr/bin/env python
#
# Copyright 2007 Google Inc.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
#
"""Simple, schema-based database abstraction layer for the datastore.
Modeled after Django's abstraction layer on top of SQL databases,
http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/mode_api/. Ours is a little simpler
and a lot less code because the datastore is so much simpler than SQL
databases.
The programming model is to declare Python subclasses of the Model class,
declaring datastore properties as class members of that class. So if you want to
publish a story with title, body, and created date, you would do it like this:
class Story(db.Model):
title = db.StringProperty()
body = db.TextProperty()
created = db.DateTimeProperty(auto_now_add=True)
You can create a new Story in the datastore with this usage pattern:
story = Story(title='My title')
story.body = 'My body'
story.put()
You query for Story entities using built in query interfaces that map directly
to the syntax and semantics of the datastore:
stories = Story.all().filter('date >=', yesterday).order('-date')
for story in stories:
print story.title
The Property declarations enforce types by performing validation on assignment.
For example, the DateTimeProperty enforces that you assign valid datetime
objects, and if you supply the "required" option for a property, you will not
be able to assign None to that property.
We also support references between models, so if a story has comments, you
would represent it like this:
class Comment(db.Model):
story = db.ReferenceProperty(Story)
body = db.TextProperty()
When you get a story out of the datastore, the story reference is resolved
automatically the first time it is referenced, which makes it easy to use
model instances without performing additional queries by hand:
comment = Comment.get(key)
print comment.story.title
Likewise, you can access the set of comments that refer to each story through
this property through a reverse reference called comment_set, which is a Query
preconfigured to return all matching comments:
story = Story.get(key)
for comment in story.comment_set:
print comment.body
"""
import copy
import datetime
import logging
import re
import time
import urlparse
import warnings
from google.appengine.api import datastore
from google.appengine.api import datastore_errors
from google.appengine.api import datastore_types
from google.appengine.api import namespace_manager
from google.appengine.api import users
from google.appengine.datastore import datastore_rpc
from google.appengine.datastore import datastore_query
Error = datastore_errors.Error
BadValueError = datastore_errors.BadValueError
BadPropertyError = datastore_errors.BadPropertyError
BadRequestError = datastore_errors.BadRequestError
EntityNotFoundError = datastore_errors.EntityNotFoundError
BadArgumentError = datastore_errors.BadArgumentError
QueryNotFoundError = datastore_errors.QueryNotFoundError
TransactionNotFoundError = datastore_errors.TransactionNotFoundError
Rollback = datastore_errors.Rollback
TransactionFailedError = datastore_errors.TransactionFailedError
BadFilterError = datastore_errors.BadFilterError
BadQueryError = datastore_errors.BadQueryError
BadKeyError = datastore_errors.BadKeyError
InternalError = datastore_errors.InternalError
NeedIndexError = datastore_errors.NeedIndexError
ReferencePropertyResolveError = datastore_errors.ReferencePropertyResolveError
Timeout = datastore_errors.Timeout
CommittedButStillApplying = datastore_errors.CommittedButStillApplying
ValidationError = BadValueError
Key = datastore_types.Key
Category = datastore_types.Category
Link = datastore_types.Link
Email = datastore_types.Email
GeoPt = datastore_types.GeoPt
IM = datastore_types.IM
PhoneNumber = datastore_types.PhoneNumber
PostalAddress = datastore_types.PostalAddress
Rating = datastore_types.Rating
Text = datastore_types.Text
Blob = datastore_types.Blob
ByteString = datastore_types.ByteString
BlobKey = datastore_types.BlobKey
READ_CAPABILITY = datastore.READ_CAPABILITY
WRITE_CAPABILITY = datastore.WRITE_CAPABILITY
STRONG_CONSISTENCY = datastore.STRONG_CONSISTENCY
EVENTUAL_CONSISTENCY = datastore.EVENTUAL_CONSISTENCY
NESTED = datastore_rpc.TransactionOptions.NESTED
MANDATORY = datastore_rpc.TransactionOptions.MANDATORY
ALLOWED = datastore_rpc.TransactionOptions.ALLOWED
INDEPENDENT = datastore_rpc.TransactionOptions.INDEPENDENT
KEY_RANGE_EMPTY = "Empty"
"""Indicates the given key range is empty and the datastore's
automatic ID allocator will not assign keys in this range to new
entities.
"""
KEY_RANGE_CONTENTION = "Contention"
"""Indicates the given key range is empty but the datastore's
automatic ID allocator may assign new entities keys in this range.
However it is safe to manually assign keys in this range
if either of the following is true:
- No other request will insert entities with the same kind and parent
as the given key range until all entities with manually assigned
keys from this range have been written.
- Overwriting entities written by other requests with the same kind
and parent as the given key range is acceptable.
The datastore's automatic ID allocator will not assign a key to a new
entity that will overwrite an existing entity, so once the range is
populated there will no longer be any contention.
"""
KEY_RANGE_COLLISION = "Collision"
"""Indicates that entities with keys inside the given key range
already exist and writing to this range will overwrite those entities.
Additionally the implications of KEY_RANGE_COLLISION apply. If
overwriting entities that exist in this range is acceptable it is safe
to use the given range.
The datastore's automatic ID allocator will never assign a key to
a new entity that will overwrite an existing entity so entities
written by the user to this range will never be overwritten by
an entity with an automatically assigned key.
"""
_kind_map = {}
_SELF_REFERENCE = object()
_RESERVED_WORDS = set(['key_name'])
class NotSavedError(Error):
"""Raised when a saved-object action is performed on a non-saved object."""
class KindError(BadValueError):
"""Raised when an entity is used with incorrect Model."""
class PropertyError(Error):
"""Raised when non-existent property is referenced."""
class DuplicatePropertyError(Error):
"""Raised when a property is duplicated in a model definition."""
class ConfigurationError(Error):
"""Raised when a property or model is improperly configured."""
class ReservedWordError(Error):
"""Raised when a property is defined for a reserved word."""
class DerivedPropertyError(Error):
"""Raised when attempting to assign a value to a derived property."""
_ALLOWED_PROPERTY_TYPES = set([
basestring,
str,
unicode,
bool,
int,
long,
float,
Key,
datetime.datetime,
datetime.date,
datetime.time,
Blob,
datastore_types.EmbeddedEntity,
ByteString,
Text,
users.User,
Category,
Link,
Email,
GeoPt,
IM,
PhoneNumber,
PostalAddress,
Rating,
BlobKey,
])
_ALLOWED_EXPANDO_PROPERTY_TYPES = set(_ALLOWED_PROPERTY_TYPES)
_ALLOWED_EXPANDO_PROPERTY_TYPES.update((list, tuple, type(None)))
_OPERATORS = ['<', '<=', '>', '>=', '=', '==', '!=', 'in']
_FILTER_REGEX = re.compile(
'^\s*([^\s]+)(\s+(%s)\s*)?$' % '|'.join(_OPERATORS),
re.IGNORECASE | re.UNICODE)
def class_for_kind(kind):
"""Return base-class responsible for implementing kind.
Necessary to recover the class responsible for implementing provided
kind.
Args:
kind: Entity kind string.
Returns:
Class implementation for kind.
Raises:
KindError when there is no implementation for kind.
"""
try:
return _kind_map[kind]
except KeyError:
raise KindError('No implementation for kind \'%s\'' % kind)
def check_reserved_word(attr_name):
"""Raise an exception if attribute name is a reserved word.
Args:
attr_name: Name to check to see if it is a reserved word.
Raises:
ReservedWordError when attr_name is determined to be a reserved word.
"""
if datastore_types.RESERVED_PROPERTY_NAME.match(attr_name):
raise ReservedWordError(
"Cannot define property. All names both beginning and "
"ending with '__' are reserved.")
if attr_name in _RESERVED_WORDS or attr_name in dir(Model):
raise ReservedWordError(
"Cannot define property using reserved word '%(attr_name)s'. "
"If you would like to use this name in the datastore consider "
"using a different name like %(attr_name)s_ and adding "
"name='%(attr_name)s' to the parameter list of the property "
"definition." % locals())
def query_descendants(model_instance):
"""Returns a query for all the descendants of a model instance.
Args:
model_instance: Model instance to find the descendants of.
Returns:
Query that will retrieve all entities that have the given model instance
as an ancestor. Unlike normal ancestor queries, this does not include the
ancestor itself.
"""
result = Query().ancestor(model_instance)
result.filter(datastore_types.KEY_SPECIAL_PROPERTY + ' >',
model_instance.key())
return result
def model_to_protobuf(model_instance, _entity_class=datastore.Entity):
"""Encodes a model instance as a protocol buffer.
Args:
model_instance: Model instance to encode.
Returns:
entity_pb.EntityProto representation of the model instance
"""
return model_instance._populate_entity(_entity_class).ToPb()
def model_from_protobuf(pb, _entity_class=datastore.Entity):
"""Decodes a model instance from a protocol buffer.
Args:
pb: The protocol buffer representation of the model instance. Can be an
entity_pb.EntityProto or str encoding of an entity_bp.EntityProto
Returns:
Model instance resulting from decoding the protocol buffer
"""
entity = _entity_class.FromPb(pb, default_kind=Expando.kind())
return class_for_kind(entity.kind()).from_entity(entity)
def model_is_projection(model_instance):
"""Returns true if the given db.Model instance only contains a projection of
the full entity.
"""
return model_instance._entity and model_instance._entity.is_projection()
def _initialize_properties(model_class, name, bases, dct):
"""Initialize Property attributes for Model-class.
Args:
model_class: Model class to initialize properties for.
"""
model_class._properties = {}
property_source = {}
def get_attr_source(name, cls):
for src_cls in cls.mro():
if name in src_cls.__dict__:
return src_cls
defined = set()
for base in bases:
if hasattr(base, '_properties'):
property_keys = set(base._properties.keys())
duplicate_property_keys = defined & property_keys
for dupe_prop_name in duplicate_property_keys:
old_source = property_source[dupe_prop_name] = get_attr_source(
dupe_prop_name, property_source[dupe_prop_name])
new_source = get_attr_source(dupe_prop_name, base)
if old_source != new_source:
raise DuplicatePropertyError(
'Duplicate property, %s, is inherited from both %s and %s.' %
(dupe_prop_name, old_source.__name__, new_source.__name__))
property_keys -= duplicate_property_keys
if property_keys:
defined |= property_keys
property_source.update(dict.fromkeys(property_keys, base))
model_class._properties.update(base._properties)
for attr_name in dct.keys():
attr = dct[attr_name]
if isinstance(attr, Property):
check_reserved_word(attr_name)
if attr_name in defined:
raise DuplicatePropertyError('Duplicate property: %s' % attr_name)
defined.add(attr_name)
model_class._properties[attr_name] = attr
attr.__property_config__(model_class, attr_name)
model_class._all_properties = frozenset(
prop.name for name, prop in model_class._properties.items())
model_class._unindexed_properties = frozenset(
prop.name for name, prop in model_class._properties.items()
if not prop.indexed)
def _coerce_to_key(value):
"""Returns the value's key.
Args:
value: a Model or Key instance or string encoded key or None
Returns:
The corresponding key, or None if value is None.
"""
if value is None:
return None
value, multiple = datastore.NormalizeAndTypeCheck(
value, (Model, Key, basestring))
if len(value) > 1:
raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError('Expected only one model or key')
value = value[0]
if isinstance(value, Model):
return value.key()
elif isinstance(value, basestring):
return Key(value)
else:
return value
class PropertiedClass(type):
"""Meta-class for initializing Model classes properties.
Used for initializing Properties defined in the context of a model.
By using a meta-class much of the configuration of a Property
descriptor becomes implicit. By using this meta-class, descriptors
that are of class Model are notified about which class they
belong to and what attribute they are associated with and can
do appropriate initialization via __property_config__.
Duplicate properties are not permitted.
"""
def __init__(cls, name, bases, dct, map_kind=True):
"""Initializes a class that might have property definitions.
This method is called when a class is created with the PropertiedClass
meta-class.
Loads all properties for this model and its base classes in to a dictionary
for easy reflection via the 'properties' method.
Configures each property defined in the new class.
Duplicate properties, either defined in the new class or defined separately
in two base classes are not permitted.
Properties may not assigned to names which are in the list of
_RESERVED_WORDS. It is still possible to store a property using a reserved
word in the datastore by using the 'name' keyword argument to the Property
constructor.
Args:
cls: Class being initialized.
name: Name of new class.
bases: Base classes of new class.
dct: Dictionary of new definitions for class.
Raises:
DuplicatePropertyError when a property is duplicated either in the new
class or separately in two base classes.
ReservedWordError when a property is given a name that is in the list of
reserved words, attributes of Model and names of the form '__.*__'.
"""
super(PropertiedClass, cls).__init__(name, bases, dct)
_initialize_properties(cls, name, bases, dct)
if map_kind:
_kind_map[cls.kind()] = cls
AUTO_UPDATE_UNCHANGED = object()
class Property(object):
"""A Property is an attribute of a Model.
It defines the type of the attribute, which determines how it is stored
in the datastore and how the property values are validated. Different property
types support different options, which change validation rules, default
values, etc. The simplest example of a property is a StringProperty:
class Story(db.Model):
title = db.StringProperty()
"""
creation_counter = 0
def __init__(self,
verbose_name=None,
name=None,
default=None,
required=False,
validator=None,
choices=None,
indexed=True):
"""Initializes this Property with the given options.
Args:
verbose_name: User friendly name of property.
name: Storage name for property. By default, uses attribute name
as it is assigned in the Model sub-class.
default: Default value for property if none is assigned.
required: Whether property is required.
validator: User provided method used for validation.
choices: User provided set of valid property values.
indexed: Whether property is indexed.
"""
self.verbose_name = verbose_name
self.name = name
self.default = default
self.required = required
self.validator = validator
self.choices = choices
self.indexed = indexed
self.creation_counter = Property.creation_counter
Property.creation_counter += 1
def __property_config__(self, model_class, property_name):
"""Configure property, connecting it to its model.
Configure the property so that it knows its property name and what class
it belongs to.
Args:
model_class: Model class which Property will belong to.
property_name: Name of property within Model instance to store property
values in. By default this will be the property name preceded by
an underscore, but may change for different subclasses.
"""
self.model_class = model_class
if self.name is None:
self.name = property_name
def __get__(self, model_instance, model_class):
"""Returns the value for this property on the given model instance.
See http://docs.python.org/ref/descriptors.html for a description of
the arguments to this class and what they mean."""
if model_instance is None:
return self
try:
return getattr(model_instance, self._attr_name())
except AttributeError:
return None
def __set__(self, model_instance, value):
"""Sets the value for this property on the given model instance.
See http://docs.python.org/ref/descriptors.html for a description of
the arguments to this class and what they mean.
"""
value = self.validate(value)
setattr(model_instance, self._attr_name(), value)
def default_value(self):
"""Default value for unassigned values.
Returns:
Default value as provided by __init__(default).
"""
return self.default
def validate(self, value):
"""Assert that provided value is compatible with this property.
Args:
value: Value to validate against this Property.
Returns:
A valid value, either the input unchanged or adapted to the
required type.
Raises:
BadValueError if the value is not appropriate for this
property in any way.
"""
if self.empty(value):
if self.required:
raise BadValueError('Property %s is required' % self.name)
else:
if self.choices:
if value not in self.choices:
raise BadValueError('Property %s is %r; must be one of %r' %
(self.name, value, self.choices))
if self.validator is not None:
self.validator(value)
return value
def empty(self, value):
"""Determine if value is empty in the context of this property.
For most kinds, this is equivalent to "not value", but for kinds like
bool, the test is more subtle, so subclasses can override this method
if necessary.
Args:
value: Value to validate against this Property.
Returns:
True if this value is considered empty in the context of this Property
type, otherwise False.
"""
return not value
def get_value_for_datastore(self, model_instance):
"""Datastore representation of this property.
Looks for this property in the given model instance, and returns the proper
datastore representation of the value that can be stored in a datastore
entity. Most critically, it will fetch the datastore key value for
reference properties.
Some properies (e.g. DateTimeProperty, UserProperty) optionally update their
value on every put(). This call must return the current value for such
properties (get_updated_value_for_datastore returns the new value).
Args:
model_instance: Instance to fetch datastore value from.
Returns:
Datastore representation of the model value in a form that is
appropriate for storing in the datastore.
"""
return self.__get__(model_instance, model_instance.__class__)
def get_updated_value_for_datastore(self, model_instance):
"""Determine new value for auto-updated property.
Some properies (e.g. DateTimeProperty, UserProperty) optionally update their
value on every put(). This call must return the new desired value for such
properties. For all other properties, this call must return
AUTO_UPDATE_UNCHANGED.
Args:
model_instance: Instance to get new value for.
Returns:
Datastore representation of the new model value in a form that is
appropriate for storing in the datastore, or AUTO_UPDATE_UNCHANGED.
"""
return AUTO_UPDATE_UNCHANGED
def make_value_from_datastore_index_value(self, index_value):
value = datastore_types.RestoreFromIndexValue(index_value, self.data_type)
return self.make_value_from_datastore(value)
def make_value_from_datastore(self, value):
"""Native representation of this property.
Given a value retrieved from a datastore entity, return a value,
possibly converted, to be stored on the model instance. Usually
this returns the value unchanged, but a property class may
override this when it uses a different datatype on the model
instance than on the entity.
This API is not quite symmetric with get_value_for_datastore(),
because the model instance on which to store the converted value
may not exist yet -- we may be collecting values to be passed to a
model constructor.
Args:
value: value retrieved from the datastore entity.
Returns:
The value converted for use as a model instance attribute.
"""
return value
def _require_parameter(self, kwds, parameter, value):
"""Sets kwds[parameter] to value.
If kwds[parameter] exists and is not value, raises ConfigurationError.
Args:
kwds: The parameter dict, which maps parameter names (strings) to values.
parameter: The name of the parameter to set.
value: The value to set it to.
"""
if parameter in kwds and kwds[parameter] != value:
raise ConfigurationError('%s must be %s.' % (parameter, value))
kwds[parameter] = value
def _attr_name(self):
"""Attribute name we use for this property in model instances.
DO NOT USE THIS METHOD.
"""
return '_' + self.name
data_type = str
def datastore_type(self):
"""Deprecated backwards-compatible accessor method for self.data_type."""
return self.data_type
class Index(datastore._BaseIndex):
"""A datastore index."""
id = datastore._BaseIndex._Id
kind = datastore._BaseIndex._Kind
has_ancestor = datastore._BaseIndex._HasAncestor
properties = datastore._BaseIndex._Properties
class Model(object):
"""Model is the superclass of all object entities in the datastore.
The programming model is to declare Python subclasses of the Model class,
declaring datastore properties as class members of that class. So if you want
to publish a story with title, body, and created date, you would do it like
this:
class Story(db.Model):
title = db.StringProperty()
body = db.TextProperty()
created = db.DateTimeProperty(auto_now_add=True)
A model instance can have a single parent. Model instances without any
parent are root entities. It is possible to efficiently query for
instances by their shared parent. All descendents of a single root
instance also behave as a transaction group. This means that when you
work one member of the group within a transaction all descendents of that
root join the transaction. All operations within a transaction on this
group are ACID.
"""
__metaclass__ = PropertiedClass
def __new__(*args, **unused_kwds):
"""Allow subclasses to call __new__() with arguments.
Do NOT list 'cls' as the first argument, or in the case when
the 'unused_kwds' dictionary contains the key 'cls', the function
will complain about multiple argument values for 'cls'.
Raises:
TypeError if there are no positional arguments.
"""
if args:
cls = args[0]
else:
raise TypeError('object.__new__(): not enough arguments')
return super(Model, cls).__new__(cls)
def __init__(self,
parent=None,
key_name=None,
_app=None,
_from_entity=False,
**kwds):
"""Creates a new instance of this model.
To create a new entity, you instantiate a model and then call put(),
which saves the entity to the datastore:
person = Person()
person.name = 'Bret'
person.put()
You can initialize properties in the model in the constructor with keyword
arguments:
person = Person(name='Bret')
We initialize all other properties to the default value (as defined by the
properties in the model definition) if they are not provided in the
constructor.
Args:
parent: Parent instance for this instance or None, indicating a top-
level instance.
key_name: Name for new model instance.
_from_entity: Intentionally undocumented.
kwds: Keyword arguments mapping to properties of model. Also:
key: Key instance for this instance, if provided makes parent and
key_name redundant (they do not need to be set but if they are
they must match the key).
"""
namespace = None
if isinstance(_app, tuple):
if len(_app) != 2:
raise BadArgumentError('_app must have 2 values if type is tuple.')
_app, namespace = _app
key = kwds.get('key', None)
if key is not None:
if isinstance(key, (tuple, list)):
key = Key.from_path(*key)
if isinstance(key, basestring):
key = Key(encoded=key)
if not isinstance(key, Key):
raise TypeError('Expected Key type; received %s (is %s)' %
(key, key.__class__.__name__))
if not key.has_id_or_name():
raise BadKeyError('Key must have an id or name')
if key.kind() != self.kind():
raise BadKeyError('Expected Key kind to be %s; received %s' %
(self.kind(), key.kind()))
if _app is not None and key.app() != _app:
raise BadKeyError('Expected Key app to be %s; received %s' %
(_app, key.app()))
if namespace is not None and key.namespace() != namespace:
raise BadKeyError('Expected Key namespace to be %s; received %s' %
(namespace, key.namespace()))
if key_name and key_name != key.name():
raise BadArgumentError('Cannot use key and key_name at the same time'
' with different values')
if parent and parent != key.parent():
raise BadArgumentError('Cannot use key and parent at the same time'
' with different values')
namespace = key.namespace()
self._key = key
self._key_name = None
self._parent = None
self._parent_key = None
else:
if key_name == '':
raise BadKeyError('Name cannot be empty.')
elif key_name is not None and not isinstance(key_name, basestring):
raise BadKeyError('Name must be string type, not %s' %
key_name.__class__.__name__)
if parent is not None:
if not isinstance(parent, (Model, Key)):
raise TypeError('Expected Model type; received %s (is %s)' %
(parent, parent.__class__.__name__))
if isinstance(parent, Model) and not parent.has_key():
raise BadValueError(
"%s instance must have a complete key before it can be used as a "
"parent." % parent.kind())
if isinstance(parent, Key):
self._parent_key = parent
self._parent = None
else:
self._parent_key = parent.key()
self._parent = parent
else:
self._parent_key = None
self._parent = None
self._key_name = key_name
self._key = None
if self._parent_key is not None:
if namespace is not None and self._parent_key.namespace() != namespace:
raise BadArgumentError(
'Expected parent namespace to be %r; received %r' %
(namespace, self._parent_key.namespace()))
namespace = self._parent_key.namespace()
self._entity = None
if _app is not None and isinstance(_app, Key):
raise BadArgumentError('_app should be a string; received Key(\'%s\'):\n'
' This may be the result of passing \'key\' as '
'a positional parameter in SDK 1.2.6. Please '
'only pass \'key\' as a keyword parameter.' % _app)
if namespace is None:
namespace = namespace_manager.get_namespace()
self._app = _app
self.__namespace = namespace
is_projection = False
if isinstance(_from_entity, datastore.Entity) and _from_entity.is_saved():
self._entity = _from_entity
is_projection = _from_entity.is_projection()
del self._key_name
del self._key
for prop in self.properties().values():
if prop.name in kwds:
value = kwds[prop.name]
elif is_projection:
continue
else:
value = prop.default_value()
try:
prop.__set__(self, value)
except DerivedPropertyError:
if prop.name in kwds and not _from_entity:
raise
def key(self):
"""Unique key for this entity.
This property is only available if this entity is already stored in the
datastore or if it has a full key, so it is available if this entity was
fetched returned from a query, or after put() is called the first time
for new entities, or if a complete key was given when constructed.
Returns:
Datastore key of persisted entity.
Raises:
NotSavedError when entity is not persistent.
"""
if self.is_saved():
return self._entity.key()
elif self._key:
return self._key
elif self._key_name:
parent = self._parent_key or (self._parent and self._parent.key())
self._key = Key.from_path(self.kind(), self._key_name, parent=parent,
_app=self._app, namespace=self.__namespace)
return self._key
else:
raise NotSavedError()
def __set_property(self, entity, name, datastore_value):
if datastore_value == []:
entity.pop(name, None)
else:
entity[name] = datastore_value
def _to_entity(self, entity):
"""Copies information from this model to provided entity.
Args:
entity: Entity to save information on.
"""
for prop in self.properties().values():
self.__set_property(entity, prop.name, prop.get_value_for_datastore(self))
set_unindexed_properties = getattr(entity, 'set_unindexed_properties', None)
if set_unindexed_properties:
set_unindexed_properties(self._unindexed_properties)
def _populate_internal_entity(self, _entity_class=datastore.Entity):
"""Populates self._entity, saving its state to the datastore.
After this method is called, calling is_saved() will return True.
Returns:
Populated self._entity
"""
self._entity = self._populate_entity(_entity_class=_entity_class)
for prop in self.properties().values():
new_value = prop.get_updated_value_for_datastore(self)
if new_value is not AUTO_UPDATE_UNCHANGED:
self.__set_property(self._entity, prop.name, new_value)
for attr in ('_key_name', '_key'):
try:
delattr(self, attr)
except AttributeError:
pass
return self._entity
def put(self, **kwargs):
"""Writes this model instance to the datastore.
If this instance is new, we add an entity to the datastore.
Otherwise, we update this instance, and the key will remain the
same.
Args:
config: datastore_rpc.Configuration to use for this request.
Returns:
The key of the instance (either the existing key or a new key).
Raises:
TransactionFailedError if the data could not be committed.
"""
self._populate_internal_entity()
return datastore.Put(self._entity, **kwargs)
save = put
def _populate_entity(self, _entity_class=datastore.Entity):
"""Internal helper -- Populate self._entity or create a new one
if that one does not exist. Does not change any state of the instance
other than the internal state of the entity.
This method is separate from _populate_internal_entity so that it is
possible to call to_xml without changing the state of an unsaved entity
to saved.
Returns:
self._entity or a new Entity which is not stored on the instance.
"""
if self.is_saved():
entity = self._entity
else:
kwds = {'_app': self._app, 'namespace': self.__namespace,
'unindexed_properties': self._unindexed_properties}
if self._key is not None:
if self._key.id():
kwds['id'] = self._key.id()
else:
kwds['name'] = self._key.name()
if self._key.parent():
kwds['parent'] = self._key.parent()
else:
if self._key_name is not None:
kwds['name'] = self._key_name
if self._parent_key is not None:
kwds['parent'] = self._parent_key
elif self._parent is not None:
kwds['parent'] = self._parent._entity
entity = _entity_class(self.kind(), **kwds)
self._to_entity(entity)
return entity
def delete(self, **kwargs):
"""Deletes this entity from the datastore.
Args:
config: datastore_rpc.Configuration to use for this request.
Raises:
TransactionFailedError if the data could not be committed.
"""
datastore.Delete(self.key(), **kwargs)
self._key = self.key()
self._key_name = None
self._parent_key = None
self._entity = None
def is_saved(self):
"""Determine if entity is persisted in the datastore.
New instances of Model do not start out saved in the data. Objects which
are saved to or loaded from the Datastore will have a True saved state.
Returns:
True if object has been persisted to the datastore, otherwise False.
"""
return self._entity is not None
def has_key(self):
"""Determine if this model instance has a complete key.
When not using a fully self-assigned Key, ids are not assigned until the
data is saved to the Datastore, but instances with a key name always have
a full key.
Returns:
True if the object has been persisted to the datastore or has a key
or has a key_name, otherwise False.
"""
return self.is_saved() or self._key or self._key_name
def dynamic_properties(self):
"""Returns a list of all dynamic properties defined for instance."""
return []
def instance_properties(self):
"""Alias for dyanmic_properties."""
return self.dynamic_properties()
def parent(self):
"""Get the parent of the model instance.
Returns:
Parent of contained entity or parent provided in constructor, None if
instance has no parent.
"""
if self._parent is None:
parent_key = self.parent_key()
if parent_key is not None:
self._parent = get(parent_key)
return self._parent
def parent_key(self):
"""Get the parent's key.
This method is useful for avoiding a potential fetch from the datastore
but still get information about the instances parent.
Returns:
Parent key of entity, None if there is no parent.
"""
if self._parent_key is not None:
return self._parent_key
elif self._parent is not None:
return self._parent.key()
elif self._entity is not None:
return self._entity.parent()
elif self._key is not None:
return self._key.parent()
else:
return None
def to_xml(self, _entity_class=datastore.Entity):
"""Generate an XML representation of this model instance.
atom and gd:namespace properties are converted to XML according to their
respective schemas. For more information, see:
http://www.atomenabled.org/developers/syndication/
http://code.google.com/apis/gdata/common-elements.html
"""
entity = self._populate_entity(_entity_class)
return entity.ToXml()
@classmethod
def get(cls, keys, **kwargs):
"""Fetch instance from the datastore of a specific Model type using key.
We support Key objects and string keys (we convert them to Key objects
automatically).
Useful for ensuring that specific instance types are retrieved from the
datastore. It also helps that the source code clearly indicates what
kind of object is being retreived. Example:
story = Story.get(story_key)
Args:
keys: Key within datastore entity collection to find; or string key;
or list of Keys or string keys.
config: datastore_rpc.Configuration to use for this request.
Returns:
If a single key was given: a Model instance associated with key
for the provided class if it exists in the datastore, otherwise
None. If a list of keys was given: a list where list[i] is the
Model instance for keys[i], or None if no instance exists.
Raises:
KindError if any of the retreived objects are not instances of the
type associated with call to 'get'.
"""
results = get(keys, **kwargs)
if results is None:
return None
if isinstance(results, Model):
instances = [results]
else:
instances = results
for instance in instances:
if not(instance is None or isinstance(instance, cls)):
raise KindError('Kind %r is not a subclass of kind %r' %
(instance.kind(), cls.kind()))
return results
@classmethod
def get_by_key_name(cls, key_names, parent=None, **kwargs):
"""Get instance of Model class by its key's name.
Args:
key_names: A single key-name or a list of key-names.
parent: Parent of instances to get. Can be a model or key.
config: datastore_rpc.Configuration to use for this request.
"""
try:
parent = _coerce_to_key(parent)
except BadKeyError, e:
raise BadArgumentError(str(e))
key_names, multiple = datastore.NormalizeAndTypeCheck(key_names, basestring)
keys = [datastore.Key.from_path(cls.kind(), name, parent=parent)
for name in key_names]
if multiple:
return get(keys, **kwargs)
else:
return get(keys[0], **kwargs)
@classmethod
def get_by_id(cls, ids, parent=None, **kwargs):
"""Get instance of Model class by id.
Args:
key_names: A single id or a list of ids.
parent: Parent of instances to get. Can be a model or key.
config: datastore_rpc.Configuration to use for this request.
"""
if isinstance(parent, Model):
parent = parent.key()
ids, multiple = datastore.NormalizeAndTypeCheck(ids, (int, long))
keys = [datastore.Key.from_path(cls.kind(), id, parent=parent)
for id in ids]
if multiple:
return get(keys, **kwargs)
else:
return get(keys[0], **kwargs)
@classmethod
def get_or_insert(cls, key_name, **kwds):
"""Transactionally retrieve or create an instance of Model class.
This acts much like the Python dictionary setdefault() method, where we
first try to retrieve a Model instance with the given key name and parent.
If it's not present, then we create a new instance (using the *kwds
supplied) and insert that with the supplied key name.
Subsequent calls to this method with the same key_name and parent will
always yield the same entity (though not the same actual object instance),
regardless of the *kwds supplied. If the specified entity has somehow
been deleted separately, then the next call will create a new entity and
return it.
If the 'parent' keyword argument is supplied, it must be a Model instance.
It will be used as the parent of the new instance of this Model class if
one is created.
This method is especially useful for having just one unique entity for
a specific identifier. Insertion/retrieval is done transactionally, which
guarantees uniqueness.
Example usage:
class WikiTopic(db.Model):
creation_date = db.DatetimeProperty(auto_now_add=True)
body = db.TextProperty(required=True)
# The first time through we'll create the new topic.
wiki_word = 'CommonIdioms'
topic = WikiTopic.get_or_insert(wiki_word,
body='This topic is totally new!')
assert topic.key().name() == 'CommonIdioms'
assert topic.body == 'This topic is totally new!'
# The second time through will just retrieve the entity.
overwrite_topic = WikiTopic.get_or_insert(wiki_word,
body='A totally different message!')
assert topic.key().name() == 'CommonIdioms'
assert topic.body == 'This topic is totally new!'
Args:
key_name: Key name to retrieve or create.
**kwds: Keyword arguments to pass to the constructor of the model class
if an instance for the specified key name does not already exist. If
an instance with the supplied key_name and parent already exists, the
rest of these arguments will be discarded.
Returns:
Existing instance of Model class with the specified key_name and parent
or a new one that has just been created.
Raises:
TransactionFailedError if the specified Model instance could not be
retrieved or created transactionally (due to high contention, etc).
"""
def txn():
entity = cls.get_by_key_name(key_name, parent=kwds.get('parent'))
if entity is None:
entity = cls(key_name=key_name, **kwds)
entity.put()
return entity
return run_in_transaction(txn)
@classmethod
def all(cls, **kwds):
"""Returns a query over all instances of this model from the datastore.
Returns:
Query that will retrieve all instances from entity collection.
"""
return Query(cls, **kwds)
@classmethod
def gql(cls, query_string, *args, **kwds):
"""Returns a query using GQL query string.
See appengine/ext/gql for more information about GQL.
Args:
query_string: properly formatted GQL query string with the
'SELECT * FROM <entity>' part omitted
*args: rest of the positional arguments used to bind numeric references
in the query.
**kwds: dictionary-based arguments (for named parameters).
"""
return GqlQuery('SELECT * FROM %s %s' % (cls.kind(), query_string),
*args, **kwds)
@classmethod
def _load_entity_values(cls, entity):
"""Load dynamic properties from entity.
Loads attributes which are not defined as part of the entity in
to the model instance.
Args:
entity: Entity which contain values to search dyanmic properties for.
"""
entity_values = {}
for prop in cls.properties().values():
if prop.name in entity:
try:
value = entity[prop.name]
except KeyError:
entity_values[prop.name] = []
else:
if entity.is_projection():
value = prop.make_value_from_datastore_index_value(value)
else:
value = prop.make_value_from_datastore(value)
entity_values[prop.name] = value
return entity_values
@classmethod
def from_entity(cls, entity):
"""Converts the entity representation of this model to an instance.
Converts datastore.Entity instance to an instance of cls.
Args:
entity: Entity loaded directly from datastore.
Raises:
KindError when cls is incorrect model for entity.
"""
if cls.kind() != entity.kind():
raise KindError('Class %s cannot handle kind \'%s\'' %
(repr(cls), entity.kind()))
entity_values = cls._load_entity_values(entity)
if entity.key().has_id_or_name():
entity_values['key'] = entity.key()
return cls(None, _from_entity=entity, **entity_values)
@classmethod
def kind(cls):
"""Returns the datastore kind we use for this model.
We just use the name of the model for now, ignoring potential collisions.
"""
return cls.__name__
@classmethod
def entity_type(cls):
"""Soon to be removed alias for kind."""
return cls.kind()
@classmethod
def properties(cls):
"""Returns a dictionary of all the properties defined for this model."""
return dict(cls._properties)
@classmethod
def fields(cls):
"""Soon to be removed alias for properties."""
return cls.properties()
def create_rpc(deadline=None, callback=None, read_policy=STRONG_CONSISTENCY):
"""Create an rpc for use in configuring datastore calls.
NOTE: This functions exists for backwards compatibility. Please use
create_config() instead. NOTE: the latter uses 'on_completion',
which is a function taking an argument, wherease create_rpc uses
'callback' which is a function without arguments.
Args:
deadline: float, deadline for calls in seconds.
callback: callable, a callback triggered when this rpc completes,
accepts one argument: the returned rpc.
read_policy: flag, set to EVENTUAL_CONSISTENCY to enable eventually
consistent reads
Returns:
A datastore.DatastoreRPC instance.
"""
return datastore.CreateRPC(
deadline=deadline, callback=callback, read_policy=read_policy)
def get_async(keys, **kwargs):
"""Asynchronously fetch the specified Model instance(s) from the datastore.
Identical to db.get() except returns an asynchronous object. Call
get_result() on the return value to block on the call and get the results.
"""
keys, multiple = datastore.NormalizeAndTypeCheckKeys(keys)
def extra_hook(entities):
if not multiple and not entities:
return None
models = []
for entity in entities:
if entity is None:
model = None
else:
cls1 = class_for_kind(entity.kind())
model = cls1.from_entity(entity)
models.append(model)
if multiple:
return models
assert len(models) == 1
return models[0]
return datastore.GetAsync(keys, extra_hook=extra_hook, **kwargs)
def get(keys, **kwargs):
"""Fetch the specific Model instance with the given key from the datastore.
We support Key objects and string keys (we convert them to Key objects
automatically).
Args:
keys: Key within datastore entity collection to find; or string key;
or list of Keys or string keys.
config: datastore_rpc.Configuration to use for this request, must be
specified as a keyword argument.
Returns:
If a single key was given: a Model instance associated with key
if it exists in the datastore, otherwise None. If a list of keys was
given: a list where list[i] is the Model instance for keys[i], or
None if no instance exists.
"""
return get_async(keys, **kwargs).get_result()
def put_async(models, **kwargs):
"""Asynchronously store one or more Model instances.
Identical to db.put() except returns an asynchronous object. Call
get_result() on the return value to block on the call and get the results.
"""
models, multiple = datastore.NormalizeAndTypeCheck(models, Model)
entities = [model._populate_internal_entity() for model in models]
def extra_hook(keys):
if multiple:
return keys
assert len(keys) == 1
return keys[0]
return datastore.PutAsync(entities, extra_hook=extra_hook, **kwargs)
def put(models, **kwargs):
"""Store one or more Model instances.
Args:
models: Model instance or list of Model instances.
config: datastore_rpc.Configuration to use for this request, must be
specified as a keyword argument.
Returns:
A Key if models is an instance, a list of Keys in the same order
as models if models is a list.
Raises:
TransactionFailedError if the data could not be committed.
"""
return put_async(models, **kwargs).get_result()
save = put
def delete_async(models, **kwargs):
"""Asynchronous version of delete one or more Model instances.
Identical to db.delete() except returns an asynchronous object. Call
get_result() on the return value to block on the call.
"""
if isinstance(models, (basestring, Model, Key)):
models = [models]
else:
try:
models = iter(models)
except TypeError:
models = [models]
keys = [_coerce_to_key(v) for v in models]
return datastore.DeleteAsync(keys, **kwargs)
def delete(models, **kwargs):
"""Delete one or more Model instances.
Args:
models: Model instance, key, key string or iterable thereof.
config: datastore_rpc.Configuration to use for this request, must be
specified as a keyword argument.
Raises:
TransactionFailedError if the data could not be committed.
"""
delete_async(models, **kwargs).get_result()
def allocate_ids_async(model, size, **kwargs):
"""Asynchronously allocates a range of IDs.
Identical to allocate_ids() except returns an asynchronous object. Call
get_result() on the return value to block on the call and return the result.
"""
return datastore.AllocateIdsAsync(_coerce_to_key(model), size=size, **kwargs)
def allocate_ids(model, size, **kwargs):
"""Allocates a range of IDs of size for the model_key defined by model.
Allocates a range of IDs in the datastore such that those IDs will not
be automatically assigned to new entities. You can only allocate IDs
for model keys from your app. If there is an error, raises a subclass of
datastore_errors.Error.
Args:
model: Model instance, Key or string to serve as a template specifying the
ID sequence in which to allocate IDs. Returned ids should only be used
in entities with the same parent (if any) and kind as this key.
size: Number of IDs to allocate.
config: datastore_rpc.Configuration to use for this request.
Returns:
(start, end) of the allocated range, inclusive.
"""
return allocate_ids_async(model, size, **kwargs).get_result()
def allocate_id_range(model, start, end, **kwargs):
"""Allocates a range of IDs with specific endpoints.
Once these IDs have been allocated they may be provided manually to
newly created entities.
Since the datastore's automatic ID allocator will never assign
a key to a new entity that will cause an existing entity to be
overwritten, entities written to the given key range will never be
overwritten. However, writing entities with manually assigned keys in this
range may overwrite existing entities (or new entities written by a
separate request) depending on the key range state returned.
This method should only be used if you have an existing numeric id
range that you want to reserve, e.g. bulk loading entities that already
have IDs. If you don't care about which IDs you receive, use allocate_ids
instead.
Args:
model: Model instance, Key or string to serve as a template specifying the
ID sequence in which to allocate IDs. Allocated ids should only be used
in entities with the same parent (if any) and kind as this key.
start: first id of the range to allocate, inclusive.
end: last id of the range to allocate, inclusive.
config: datastore_rpc.Configuration to use for this request.
Returns:
One of (KEY_RANGE_EMPTY, KEY_RANGE_CONTENTION, KEY_RANGE_COLLISION). If not
KEY_RANGE_EMPTY, this represents a potential issue with using the allocated
key range.
"""
key = _coerce_to_key(model)
datastore.NormalizeAndTypeCheck((start, end), (int, long))
if start < 1 or end < 1:
raise BadArgumentError('Start %d and end %d must both be > 0.' %
(start, end))
if start > end:
raise BadArgumentError('Range end %d cannot be less than start %d.' %
(end, start))
safe_start, _ = datastore.AllocateIds(key, max=end, **kwargs)
race_condition = safe_start > start
start_key = Key.from_path(key.kind(), start, parent=key.parent(),
_app=key.app(), namespace=key.namespace())
end_key = Key.from_path(key.kind(), end, parent=key.parent(),
_app=key.app(), namespace=key.namespace())
collision = (Query(keys_only=True, namespace=key.namespace(), _app=key.app())
.filter('__key__ >=', start_key)
.filter('__key__ <=', end_key).fetch(1))
if collision:
return KEY_RANGE_COLLISION
elif race_condition:
return KEY_RANGE_CONTENTION
else:
return KEY_RANGE_EMPTY
def _index_converter(index):
return Index(index.Id(),
index.Kind(),
index.HasAncestor(),
index.Properties())
def get_indexes_async(**kwargs):
"""Asynchronously retrieves the application indexes and their states.
Identical to get_indexes() except returns an asynchronous object. Call
get_result() on the return value to block on the call and get the results.
"""
def extra_hook(indexes):
return [(_index_converter(index), state) for index, state in indexes]
return datastore.GetIndexesAsync(extra_hook=extra_hook, **kwargs)
def get_indexes(**kwargs):
"""Retrieves the application indexes and their states.
Args:
config: datastore_rpc.Configuration to use for this request, must be
specified as a keyword argument.
Returns:
A list of (Index, Index.[BUILDING|SERVING|DELETING|ERROR]) tuples.
An index can be in the following states:
Index.BUILDING: Index is being built and therefore can not serve queries
Index.SERVING: Index is ready to service queries
Index.DELETING: Index is being deleted
Index.ERROR: Index encounted an error in the BUILDING state
"""
return get_indexes_async(**kwargs).get_result()
class Expando(Model):
"""Dynamically expandable model.
An Expando does not require (but can still benefit from) the definition
of any properties before it can be used to store information in the
datastore. Properties can be added to an expando object by simply
performing an assignment. The assignment of properties is done on
an instance by instance basis, so it is possible for one object of an
expando type to have different properties from another or even the same
properties with different types. It is still possible to define
properties on an expando, allowing those properties to behave the same
as on any other model.
Example:
import datetime
class Song(db.Expando):
title = db.StringProperty()
crazy = Song(title='Crazy like a diamond',
author='Lucy Sky',
publish_date='yesterday',
rating=5.0)
hoboken = Song(title='The man from Hoboken',
author=['Anthony', 'Lou'],
publish_date=datetime.datetime(1977, 5, 3))
crazy.last_minute_note=db.Text('Get a train to the station.')
Possible Uses:
One use of an expando is to create an object without any specific
structure and later, when your application mature and it in the right
state, change it to a normal model object and define explicit properties.
Additional exceptions for expando:
Protected attributes (ones whose names begin with '_') cannot be used
as dynamic properties. These are names that are reserved for protected
transient (non-persisted) attributes.
Order of lookup:
When trying to set or access an attribute value, any other defined
properties, such as methods and other values in __dict__ take precedence
over values in the datastore.
1 - Because it is not possible for the datastore to know what kind of
property to store on an undefined expando value, setting a property to
None is the same as deleting it from the expando.
2 - Persistent variables on Expando must not begin with '_'. These
variables considered to be 'protected' in Python, and are used
internally.
3 - Expando's dynamic properties are not able to store empty lists.
Attempting to assign an empty list to a dynamic property will raise
ValueError. Static properties on Expando can still support empty
lists but like normal Model properties is restricted from using
None.
"""
_dynamic_properties = None
def __init__(self, parent=None, key_name=None, _app=None, **kwds):
"""Creates a new instance of this expando model.
Args:
parent: Parent instance for this instance or None, indicating a top-
level instance.
key_name: Name for new model instance.
_app: Intentionally undocumented.
args: Keyword arguments mapping to properties of model.
"""
super(Expando, self).__init__(parent, key_name, _app, **kwds)
self._dynamic_properties = {}
for prop, value in kwds.iteritems():
if prop not in self._all_properties and prop != 'key':
if not (hasattr(getattr(type(self), prop, None), '__set__')):
setattr(self, prop, value)
else:
check_reserved_word(prop)
def __setattr__(self, key, value):
"""Dynamically set field values that are not defined.
Tries to set the value on the object normally, but failing that
sets the value on the contained entity.
Args:
key: Name of attribute.
value: Value to set for attribute. Must be compatible with
datastore.
Raises:
ValueError on attempt to assign empty list.
"""
check_reserved_word(key)
if (key[:1] != '_' and
not hasattr(getattr(type(self), key, None), '__set__')):
if value == []:
raise ValueError('Cannot store empty list to dynamic property %s' %
key)
if type(value) not in _ALLOWED_EXPANDO_PROPERTY_TYPES:
raise TypeError("Expando cannot accept values of type '%s'." %
type(value).__name__)
if self._dynamic_properties is None:
self._dynamic_properties = {}
self._dynamic_properties[key] = value
else:
super(Expando, self).__setattr__(key, value)
def __getattribute__(self, key):
"""Get attribute from expando.
Must be overridden to allow dynamic properties to obscure class attributes.
Since all attributes are stored in self._dynamic_properties, the normal
__getattribute__ does not attempt to access it until __setattr__ is called.
By then, the static attribute being overwritten has already been located
and returned from the call.
This method short circuits the usual __getattribute__ call when finding a
dynamic property and returns it to the user via __getattr__. __getattr__
is called to preserve backward compatibility with older Expando models
that may have overridden the original __getattr__.
NOTE: Access to properties defined by Python descriptors are not obscured
because setting those attributes are done through the descriptor and does
not place those attributes in self._dynamic_properties.
"""
if not key.startswith('_'):
dynamic_properties = self._dynamic_properties
if dynamic_properties is not None and key in dynamic_properties:
return self.__getattr__(key)
return super(Expando, self).__getattribute__(key)
def __getattr__(self, key):
"""If no explicit attribute defined, retrieve value from entity.
Tries to get the value on the object normally, but failing that
retrieves value from contained entity.
Args:
key: Name of attribute.
Raises:
AttributeError when there is no attribute for key on object or
contained entity.
"""
_dynamic_properties = self._dynamic_properties
if _dynamic_properties is not None and key in _dynamic_properties:
return _dynamic_properties[key]
else:
return getattr(super(Expando, self), key)
def __delattr__(self, key):
"""Remove attribute from expando.
Expando is not like normal entities in that undefined fields
can be removed.
Args:
key: Dynamic property to be deleted.
"""
if self._dynamic_properties and key in self._dynamic_properties:
del self._dynamic_properties[key]
else:
object.__delattr__(self, key)
def dynamic_properties(self):
"""Determine which properties are particular to instance of entity.
Returns:
Set of names which correspond only to the dynamic properties.
"""
if self._dynamic_properties is None:
return []
return self._dynamic_properties.keys()
def _to_entity(self, entity):
"""Store to entity, deleting dynamic properties that no longer exist.
When the expando is saved, it is possible that a given property no longer
exists. In this case, the property will be removed from the saved instance.
Args:
entity: Entity which will receive dynamic properties.
"""
super(Expando, self)._to_entity(entity)
if self._dynamic_properties is None:
self._dynamic_properties = {}
for key, value in self._dynamic_properties.iteritems():
entity[key] = value
all_properties = set(self._dynamic_properties.iterkeys())
all_properties.update(self._all_properties)
for key in entity.keys():
if key not in all_properties:
del entity[key]
@classmethod
def _load_entity_values(cls, entity):
"""Load dynamic properties from entity.
Expando needs to do a second pass to add the entity values which were
ignored by Model because they didn't have an corresponding predefined
property on the model.
Args:
entity: Entity which contain values to search dyanmic properties for.
"""
entity_values = super(Expando, cls)._load_entity_values(entity)
for key, value in entity.iteritems():
if key not in entity_values:
entity_values[str(key)] = value
return entity_values
class _BaseQuery(object):
"""Base class for both Query and GqlQuery."""
_last_raw_query = None
_last_index_list = None
_cursor = None
_end_cursor = None
def __init__(self, model_class=None):
"""Constructor.
Args:
model_class: Model class from which entities are constructed.
keys_only: Whether the query should return full entities or only keys.
compile: Whether the query should also return a compiled query.
cursor: A compiled query from which to resume.
namespace: The namespace to query.
"""
self._model_class = model_class
def is_keys_only(self):
"""Returns whether this query is keys only.
Returns:
True if this query returns keys, False if it returns entities.
"""
raise NotImplementedError
def projection(self):
"""Returns the tuple of properties in the projection or None.
Projected results differ from normal results in multiple ways:
- they only contain a portion of the original entity and cannot be put;
- properties defined on the model, but not included in the projections will
have a value of None, even if the property is required or has a default
value;
- multi-valued properties (such as a ListProperty) will only contain a single
value.
- dynamic properties not included in the projection will not appear
on the model instance.
- dynamic properties included in the projection are deserialized into
their indexed type. Specifically one of str, bool, long, float, GeoPt, Key
or User. If the original type is known, it can be restored using
datastore_types.RestoreFromIndexValue.
However, projection queries are significantly faster than normal queries.
Projection queries on entities with multi-valued properties will return the
same entity multiple times, once for each unique combination of values for
properties included in the order, an inequaly property, or the projected
properties.
Returns:
The list of properties in the projection, or None if no projection is
set on this query.
"""
raise NotImplementedError
def is_distinct(self):
"""Returns true if the projection query should be distinct.
This is equivalent to the SQL syntax: SELECT DISTINCT. It is only available
for projection queries, it is not valid to specify distinct without also
specifying projection properties.
Distinct projection queries on entities with multi-valued properties will
return the same entity multiple times, once for each unique combination of
properties included in the projection.
Returns:
True if this projection query is distinct.
"""
raise NotImplementedError
def _get_query(self):
"""Subclass must override (and not call their super method).
Returns:
A datastore.Query instance representing the query.
"""
raise NotImplementedError
def run(self, **kwargs):
"""Iterator for this query.
If you know the number of results you need, use run(limit=...) instead,
or use a GQL query with a LIMIT clause. It's more efficient. If you want
all results use run(batch_size=<large number>).
Args:
kwargs: Any keyword arguments accepted by datastore_query.QueryOptions().
Returns:
Iterator for this query.
"""
raw_query = self._get_query()
iterator = raw_query.Run(**kwargs)
self._last_raw_query = raw_query
keys_only = kwargs.get('keys_only')
if keys_only is None:
keys_only = self.is_keys_only()
if keys_only:
return iterator
else:
return _QueryIterator(self._model_class, iter(iterator))
def __iter__(self):
"""Iterator for this query.
If you know the number of results you need, consider fetch() instead,
or use a GQL query with a LIMIT clause. It's more efficient.
"""
return self.run()
def __getstate__(self):
state = self.__dict__.copy()
state['_last_raw_query'] = None
return state
def get(self, **kwargs):
"""Get first result from this.
Beware: get() ignores the LIMIT clause on GQL queries.
Args:
kwargs: Any keyword arguments accepted by datastore_query.QueryOptions().
Returns:
First result from running the query if there are any, else None.
"""
results = self.run(limit=1, **kwargs)
try:
return results.next()
except StopIteration:
return None
def count(self, limit=1000, **kwargs):
"""Number of entities this query fetches.
Beware: count() ignores the LIMIT clause on GQL queries.
Args:
limit: A number. If there are more results than this, stop short and
just return this number. Providing this argument makes the count
operation more efficient.
kwargs: Any keyword arguments accepted by datastore_query.QueryOptions().
Returns:
Number of entities this query fetches.
"""
raw_query = self._get_query()
result = raw_query.Count(limit=limit, **kwargs)
self._last_raw_query = raw_query
return result
def fetch(self, limit, offset=0, **kwargs):
"""Return a list of items selected using SQL-like limit and offset.
Always use run(limit=...) instead of fetch() when iterating over a query.
Beware: offset must read and discard all skipped entities. Use
cursor()/with_cursor() instead.
Args:
limit: Maximum number of results to return.
offset: Optional number of results to skip first; default zero.
kwargs: Any keyword arguments accepted by datastore_query.QueryOptions().
Returns:
A list of db.Model instances. There may be fewer than 'limit'
results if there aren't enough results to satisfy the request.
"""
if limit is None:
kwargs.setdefault('batch_size', datastore._MAX_INT_32)
return list(self.run(limit=limit, offset=offset, **kwargs))
def index_list(self):
"""Get the index list for an already executed query.
Returns:
A list of indexes used by the query.
Raises:
AssertionError: If the query has not been executed.
"""
if self._last_raw_query is None:
raise AssertionError('No index list because query has not been run.')
if self._last_index_list is None:
raw_index_list = self._last_raw_query.GetIndexList()
self._last_index_list = [_index_converter(raw_index)
for raw_index in raw_index_list]
return self._last_index_list
def cursor(self):
"""Get a serialized cursor for an already executed query.
The returned cursor effectively lets a future invocation of a similar
query to begin fetching results immediately after the last returned
result from this query invocation.
Returns:
A base64-encoded serialized cursor.
Raises:
AssertionError: If the query has not been executed.
"""
if self._last_raw_query is None:
raise AssertionError('No cursor available.')
cursor = self._last_raw_query.GetCursor()
return websafe_encode_cursor(cursor)
def with_cursor(self, start_cursor=None, end_cursor=None):
"""Set the start and end of this query using serialized cursors.
Conceptually cursors point to the position between the last result returned
and the next result so running a query with each of the following cursors
combinations will return all results in four chunks with no duplicate
results:
query.with_cursor(end_cursor=cursor1)
query.with_cursors(cursor1, cursor2)
query.with_cursors(cursor2, cursor3)
query.with_cursors(start_cursor=cursor3)
For example if the cursors pointed to:
cursor: 1 2 3
result: a b c d e f g h
The results returned by these queries would be [a, b], [c, d], [e, f],
[g, h] respectively.
Cursors are pinned to the position just after the previous result (last
result, exclusive), so if results are inserted or deleted between the time
the cursor was made and these queries are executed, the cursors stay pinned
to these positions. For example:
delete(b, f, g, h)
put(a1, b1, c1, d1)
cursor: 1(b) 2(d) 3(f)
result: a a1 b1 c c1 d d1 e
The results returned by these queries would now be: [a, a1], [b1, c, c1, d],
[d1, e], [] respectively.
Args:
start_cursor: The cursor position at which to start or None
end_cursor: The cursor position at which to end or None
Returns:
This Query instance, for chaining.
Raises:
BadValueError when cursor is not valid.
"""
if start_cursor is None:
self._cursor = None
else:
self._cursor = websafe_decode_cursor(start_cursor)
if end_cursor is None:
self._end_cursor = None
else:
self._end_cursor = websafe_decode_cursor(end_cursor)
return self
def __getitem__(self, arg):
"""Support for query[index] and query[start:stop].
Beware: this ignores the LIMIT clause on GQL queries.
Args:
arg: Either a single integer, corresponding to the query[index]
syntax, or a Python slice object, corresponding to the
query[start:stop] or query[start:stop:step] syntax.
Returns:
A single Model instance when the argument is a single integer.
A list of Model instances when the argument is a slice.
"""
if isinstance(arg, slice):
start, stop, step = arg.start, arg.stop, arg.step
if start is None:
start = 0
if stop is None:
raise ValueError('Open-ended slices are not supported')
if step is None:
step = 1
if start < 0 or stop < 0 or step != 1:
raise ValueError(
'Only slices with start>=0, stop>=0, step==1 are supported')
limit = stop - start
if limit < 0:
return []
return self.fetch(limit, start)
elif isinstance(arg, (int, long)):
if arg < 0:
raise ValueError('Only indices >= 0 are supported')
results = self.fetch(1, arg)
if results:
return results[0]
else:
raise IndexError('The query returned fewer than %d results' % (arg+1))
else:
raise TypeError('Only integer indices and slices are supported')
class _QueryIterator(object):
"""Wraps the datastore iterator to return Model instances.
The datastore returns entities. We wrap the datastore iterator to
return Model instances instead.
"""
def __init__(self, model_class, datastore_iterator):
"""Iterator constructor
Args:
model_class: Model class from which entities are constructed.
datastore_iterator: Underlying datastore iterator.
"""
self.__model_class = model_class
self.__iterator = datastore_iterator
def __iter__(self):
"""Iterator on self.
Returns:
Self.
"""
return self
def next(self):
"""Get next Model instance in query results.
Returns:
Next model instance.
Raises:
StopIteration when there are no more results in query.
"""
if self.__model_class is not None:
return self.__model_class.from_entity(self.__iterator.next())
else:
while True:
entity = self.__iterator.next()
try:
model_class = class_for_kind(entity.kind())
except KindError:
if datastore_types.RESERVED_PROPERTY_NAME.match(entity.kind()):
continue
raise
else:
return model_class.from_entity(entity)
def _normalize_query_parameter(value):
"""Make any necessary type conversions to a query parameter.
The following conversions are made:
- Model instances are converted to Key instances. This is necessary so
that querying reference properties will work.
- datetime.date objects are converted to datetime.datetime objects (see
_date_to_datetime for details on this conversion). This is necessary so
that querying date properties with date objects will work.
- datetime.time objects are converted to datetime.datetime objects (see
_time_to_datetime for details on this conversion). This is necessary so
that querying time properties with time objects will work.
Args:
value: The query parameter value.
Returns:
The input value, or a converted value if value matches one of the
conversions specified above.
"""
if isinstance(value, Model):
value = value.key()
if (isinstance(value, datetime.date) and
not isinstance(value, datetime.datetime)):
value = _date_to_datetime(value)
elif isinstance(value, datetime.time):
value = _time_to_datetime(value)
return value
class Query(_BaseQuery):
"""A Query instance queries over instances of Models.
You construct a query with a model class, like this:
class Story(db.Model):
title = db.StringProperty()
date = db.DateTimeProperty()
query = Query(Story)
You modify a query with filters and orders like this:
query.filter('title =', 'Foo')
query.order('-date')
query.ancestor(key_or_model_instance)
Every query can return an iterator, so you access the results of a query
by iterating over it:
for story in query:
print story.title
For convenience, all of the filtering and ordering methods return "self",
so the easiest way to use the query interface is to cascade all filters and
orders in the iterator line like this:
for story in Query(story).filter('title =', 'Foo').order('-date'):
print story.title
"""
_keys_only = False
_distinct = False
_projection = None
_namespace = None
_app = None
__ancestor = None
def __init__(self, model_class=None, keys_only=False, cursor=None,
namespace=None, _app=None, distinct=False, projection=None):
"""Constructs a query over instances of the given Model.
Args:
model_class: Model class to build query for.
keys_only: Whether the query should return full entities or only keys.
projection: A tuple of strings representing the property names to include
in the projection this query should produce or None. Setting a
projection is similar to specifying 'SELECT prop1, prop2, ...' in SQL.
See _BaseQuery.projection for details on projection queries.
distinct: A boolean, true if the projection should be distinct.
See _BaseQuery.is_distinct for details on distinct queries.
cursor: A compiled query from which to resume.
namespace: The namespace to use for this query.
"""
super(Query, self).__init__(model_class)
if keys_only:
self._keys_only = True
if projection:
self._projection = projection
if namespace is not None:
self._namespace = namespace
if _app is not None:
self._app = _app
if distinct:
self._distinct = True
self.__query_sets = [{}]
self.__orderings = []
self.with_cursor(cursor)
def is_keys_only(self):
return self._keys_only
def projection(self):
return self._projection
def is_distinct(self):
return self._distinct
def _get_query(self,
_query_class=datastore.Query,
_multi_query_class=datastore.MultiQuery):
queries = []
for query_set in self.__query_sets:
if self._model_class is not None:
kind = self._model_class.kind()
else:
kind = None
query = _query_class(kind,
query_set,
keys_only=self._keys_only,
projection=self._projection,
distinct=self._distinct,
compile=True,
cursor=self._cursor,
end_cursor=self._end_cursor,
namespace=self._namespace,
_app=self._app)
query.Order(*self.__orderings)
if self.__ancestor is not None:
query.Ancestor(self.__ancestor)
queries.append(query)
if (_query_class != datastore.Query and
_multi_query_class == datastore.MultiQuery):
warnings.warn(
'Custom _query_class specified without corresponding custom'
' _query_multi_class. Things will break if you use queries with'
' the "IN" or "!=" operators.', RuntimeWarning)
if len(queries) > 1:
raise datastore_errors.BadArgumentError(
'Query requires multiple subqueries to satisfy. If _query_class'
' is overridden, _multi_query_class must also be overridden.')
elif (_query_class == datastore.Query and
_multi_query_class != datastore.MultiQuery):
raise BadArgumentError('_query_class must also be overridden if'
' _multi_query_class is overridden.')
if len(queries) == 1:
return queries[0]
else:
return _multi_query_class(queries, self.__orderings)
def __filter_disjunction(self, operations, values):
"""Add a disjunction of several filters and several values to the query.
This is implemented by duplicating queries and combining the
results later.
Args:
operations: a string or list of strings. Each string contains a
property name and an operator to filter by. The operators
themselves must not require multiple queries to evaluate
(currently, this means that 'in' and '!=' are invalid).
values: a value or list of filter values, normalized by
_normalize_query_parameter.
"""
if not isinstance(operations, (list, tuple)):
operations = [operations]
if not isinstance(values, (list, tuple)):
values = [values]
new_query_sets = []
for operation in operations:
if operation.lower().endswith('in') or operation.endswith('!='):
raise BadQueryError('Cannot use "in" or "!=" in a disjunction.')
for query_set in self.__query_sets:
for value in values:
new_query_set = copy.deepcopy(query_set)
datastore._AddOrAppend(new_query_set, operation, value)
new_query_sets.append(new_query_set)
self.__query_sets = new_query_sets
def filter(self, property_operator, value):
"""Add filter to query.
Args:
property_operator: string with the property and operator to filter by.
value: the filter value.
Returns:
Self to support method chaining.
Raises:
PropertyError if invalid property is provided.
"""
match = _FILTER_REGEX.match(property_operator)
prop = match.group(1)
if match.group(3) is not None:
operator = match.group(3)
else:
operator = '=='
if self._model_class is None:
if prop != datastore_types.KEY_SPECIAL_PROPERTY:
raise BadQueryError(
'Only %s filters are allowed on kindless queries.' %
datastore_types.KEY_SPECIAL_PROPERTY)
elif prop in self._model_class._unindexed_properties:
raise PropertyError('Property \'%s\' is not indexed' % prop)
if operator.lower() == 'in':
if self._keys_only:
raise BadQueryError('Keys only queries do not support IN filters.')
elif not isinstance(value, (list, tuple)):
raise BadValueError('Argument to the "in" operator must be a list')
values = [_normalize_query_parameter(v) for v in value]
self.__filter_disjunction(prop + ' =', values)
else:
if isinstance(value, (list, tuple)):
raise BadValueError('Filtering on lists is not supported')
if operator == '!=':
if self._keys_only:
raise BadQueryError('Keys only queries do not support != filters.')
self.__filter_disjunction([prop + ' <', prop + ' >'],
_normalize_query_parameter(value))
else:
value = _normalize_query_parameter(value)
for query_set in self.__query_sets:
datastore._AddOrAppend(query_set, property_operator, value)
return self
def order(self, property):
"""Set order of query result.
To use descending order, prepend '-' (minus) to the property
name, e.g., '-date' rather than 'date'.
Args:
property: Property to sort on.
Returns:
Self to support method chaining.
Raises:
PropertyError if invalid property is provided.
"""
if property.startswith('-'):
property = property[1:]
order = datastore.Query.DESCENDING
else:
order = datastore.Query.ASCENDING
if self._model_class is None:
if (property != datastore_types.KEY_SPECIAL_PROPERTY or
order != datastore.Query.ASCENDING):
raise BadQueryError(
'Only %s ascending orders are supported on kindless queries' %
datastore_types.KEY_SPECIAL_PROPERTY)
else:
if not issubclass(self._model_class, Expando):
if (property not in self._model_class._all_properties and
property not in datastore_types._SPECIAL_PROPERTIES):
raise PropertyError('Invalid property name \'%s\'' % property)
if property in self._model_class._unindexed_properties:
raise PropertyError('Property \'%s\' is not indexed' % property)
self.__orderings.append((property, order))
return self
def ancestor(self, ancestor):
"""Sets an ancestor for this query.
This restricts the query to only return results that descend from
a given model instance. In other words, all of the results will
have the ancestor as their parent, or parent's parent, etc. The
ancestor itself is also a possible result!
Args:
ancestor: Model or Key (that has already been saved)
Returns:
Self to support method chaining.
Raises:
TypeError if the argument isn't a Key or Model; NotSavedError
if it is, but isn't saved yet.
"""
if isinstance(ancestor, datastore.Key):
if ancestor.has_id_or_name():
self.__ancestor = ancestor
else:
raise NotSavedError()
elif isinstance(ancestor, Model):
if ancestor.has_key():
self.__ancestor = ancestor.key()
else:
raise NotSavedError()
else:
raise TypeError('ancestor should be Key or Model')
return self
class GqlQuery(_BaseQuery):
"""A Query class that uses GQL query syntax instead of .filter() etc."""
def __init__(self, query_string, *args, **kwds):
"""Constructor.
Args:
query_string: Properly formatted GQL query string.
*args: Positional arguments used to bind numeric references in the query.
**kwds: Dictionary-based arguments for named references.
Raises:
PropertyError if the query filters or sorts on a property that's not
indexed.
"""
from google.appengine.ext import gql
app = kwds.pop('_app', None)
namespace = None
if isinstance(app, tuple):
if len(app) != 2:
raise BadArgumentError('_app must have 2 values if type is tuple.')
app, namespace = app
self._proto_query = gql.GQL(query_string, _app=app, namespace=namespace)
if self._proto_query._kind is not None:
model_class = class_for_kind(self._proto_query._kind)
else:
model_class = None
super(GqlQuery, self).__init__(model_class)
if model_class is not None:
for property, unused in (self._proto_query.filters().keys() +
self._proto_query.orderings()):
if property in model_class._unindexed_properties:
raise PropertyError('Property \'%s\' is not indexed' % property)
self.bind(*args, **kwds)
def is_keys_only(self):
return self._proto_query._keys_only
def projection(self):
return self._proto_query.projection()
def is_distinct(self):
return self._proto_query.is_distinct()
def bind(self, *args, **kwds):
"""Bind arguments (positional or keyword) to the query.
Note that you can also pass arguments directly to the query
constructor. Each time you call bind() the previous set of
arguments is replaced with the new set. This is useful because
the hard work in in parsing the query; so if you expect to be
using the same query with different sets of arguments, you should
hold on to the GqlQuery() object and call bind() on it each time.
Args:
*args: Positional arguments used to bind numeric references in the query.
**kwds: Dictionary-based arguments for named references.
"""
self._args = []
for arg in args:
self._args.append(_normalize_query_parameter(arg))
self._kwds = {}
for name, arg in kwds.iteritems():
self._kwds[name] = _normalize_query_parameter(arg)
def run(self, **kwargs):
"""Iterator for this query that handles the LIMIT clause property.
If the GQL query string contains a LIMIT clause, this function fetches
all results before returning an iterator. Otherwise results are retrieved
in batches by the iterator.
Args:
kwargs: Any keyword arguments accepted by datastore_query.QueryOptions().
Returns:
Iterator for this query.
"""
if self._proto_query.limit() > 0:
kwargs.setdefault('limit', self._proto_query.limit())
kwargs.setdefault('offset', self._proto_query.offset())
return _BaseQuery.run(self, **kwargs)
def _get_query(self):
return self._proto_query.Bind(self._args, self._kwds,
self._cursor, self._end_cursor)
class UnindexedProperty(Property):
"""A property that isn't indexed by either built-in or composite indices.
TextProperty and BlobProperty derive from this class.
"""
def __init__(self, *args, **kwds):
"""Construct property. See the Property class for details.
Raises:
ConfigurationError if indexed=True.
"""
self._require_parameter(kwds, 'indexed', False)
kwds['indexed'] = True
super(UnindexedProperty, self).__init__(*args, **kwds)
def validate(self, value):
"""Validate property.
Returns:
A valid value.
Raises:
BadValueError if property is not an instance of data_type.
"""
if value is not None and not isinstance(value, self.data_type):
try:
value = self.data_type(value)
except TypeError, err:
raise BadValueError('Property %s must be convertible '
'to a %s instance (%s)' %
(self.name, self.data_type.__name__, err))
value = super(UnindexedProperty, self).validate(value)
if value is not None and not isinstance(value, self.data_type):
raise BadValueError('Property %s must be a %s instance' %
(self.name, self.data_type.__name__))
return value
class TextProperty(UnindexedProperty):
"""A string that can be longer than 500 bytes."""
data_type = Text
class StringProperty(Property):
"""A textual property, which can be multi- or single-line."""
def __init__(self, verbose_name=None, multiline=False, **kwds):
"""Construct string property.
Args:
verbose_name: Verbose name is always first parameter.
multi-line: Carriage returns permitted in property.
"""
super(StringProperty, self).__init__(verbose_name, **kwds)
self.multiline = multiline
def validate(self, value):
"""Validate string property.
Returns:
A valid value.
Raises:
BadValueError if property is not multi-line but value is.
"""
value = super(StringProperty, self).validate(value)
if value is not None and not isinstance(value, basestring):
raise BadValueError(
'Property %s must be a str or unicode instance, not a %s'
% (self.name, type(value).__name__))
if not self.multiline and value and value.find('\n') != -1:
raise BadValueError('Property %s is not multi-line' % self.name)
if value is not None and len(value) > self.MAX_LENGTH:
raise BadValueError(
'Property %s is %d characters long; it must be %d or less.'
% (self.name, len(value), self.MAX_LENGTH))
return value
MAX_LENGTH = 500
data_type = basestring
class _CoercingProperty(Property):
"""A Property subclass that extends validate() to coerce to self.data_type."""
def validate(self, value):
"""Coerce values (except None) to self.data_type.
Args:
value: The value to be validated and coerced.
Returns:
The coerced and validated value. It is guaranteed that this is
either None or an instance of self.data_type; otherwise an exception
is raised.
Raises:
BadValueError if the value could not be validated or coerced.
"""
value = super(_CoercingProperty, self).validate(value)
if value is not None and not isinstance(value, self.data_type):
value = self.data_type(value)
return value
class CategoryProperty(_CoercingProperty):
"""A property whose values are Category instances."""
data_type = Category
class LinkProperty(_CoercingProperty):
"""A property whose values are Link instances."""
def validate(self, value):
value = super(LinkProperty, self).validate(value)
if value is not None:
scheme, netloc, path, query, fragment = urlparse.urlsplit(value)
if not scheme or not netloc:
raise BadValueError('Property %s must be a full URL (\'%s\')' %
(self.name, value))
return value
data_type = Link
URLProperty = LinkProperty
class EmailProperty(_CoercingProperty):
"""A property whose values are Email instances."""
data_type = Email
class GeoPtProperty(_CoercingProperty):
"""A property whose values are GeoPt instances."""
data_type = GeoPt
class IMProperty(_CoercingProperty):
"""A property whose values are IM instances."""
data_type = IM
class PhoneNumberProperty(_CoercingProperty):
"""A property whose values are PhoneNumber instances."""
data_type = PhoneNumber
class PostalAddressProperty(_CoercingProperty):
"""A property whose values are PostalAddress instances."""
data_type = PostalAddress
class BlobProperty(UnindexedProperty):
"""A byte string that can be longer than 500 bytes."""
data_type = Blob
class ByteStringProperty(Property):
"""A short (<=500 bytes) byte string.
This type should be used for short binary values that need to be indexed. If
you do not require indexing (regardless of length), use BlobProperty instead.
"""
def validate(self, value):
"""Validate ByteString property.
Returns:
A valid value.
Raises:
BadValueError if property is not instance of 'ByteString'.
"""
if value is not None and not isinstance(value, ByteString):
try:
value = ByteString(value)
except TypeError, err:
raise BadValueError('Property %s must be convertible '
'to a ByteString instance (%s)' % (self.name, err))
value = super(ByteStringProperty, self).validate(value)
if value is not None and not isinstance(value, ByteString):
raise BadValueError('Property %s must be a ByteString instance'
% self.name)
if value is not None and len(value) > self.MAX_LENGTH:
raise BadValueError(
'Property %s is %d bytes long; it must be %d or less.'
% (self.name, len(value), self.MAX_LENGTH))
return value
MAX_LENGTH = 500
data_type = ByteString
class DateTimeProperty(Property):
"""The base class of all of our date/time properties.
We handle common operations, like converting between time tuples and
datetime instances.
"""
def __init__(self, verbose_name=None, auto_now=False, auto_now_add=False,
**kwds):
"""Construct a DateTimeProperty
Args:
verbose_name: Verbose name is always first parameter.
auto_now: Date/time property is updated with the current time every time
it is saved to the datastore. Useful for properties that want to track
the modification time of an instance.
auto_now_add: Date/time is set to the when its instance is created.
Useful for properties that record the creation time of an entity.
"""
super(DateTimeProperty, self).__init__(verbose_name, **kwds)
self.auto_now = auto_now
self.auto_now_add = auto_now_add
def validate(self, value):
"""Validate datetime.
Returns:
A valid value.
Raises:
BadValueError if property is not instance of 'datetime'.
"""
value = super(DateTimeProperty, self).validate(value)
if value and not isinstance(value, self.data_type):
raise BadValueError('Property %s must be a %s, but was %r' %
(self.name, self.data_type.__name__, value))
return value
def default_value(self):
"""Default value for datetime.
Returns:
value of now() as appropriate to the date-time instance if auto_now
or auto_now_add is set, else user configured default value implementation.
"""
if self.auto_now or self.auto_now_add:
return self.now()
return Property.default_value(self)
def get_updated_value_for_datastore(self, model_instance):
"""Get new value for property to send to datastore.
Returns:
now() as appropriate to the date-time instance in the odd case where
auto_now is set to True, else AUTO_UPDATE_UNCHANGED.
"""
if self.auto_now:
return self.now()
return AUTO_UPDATE_UNCHANGED
data_type = datetime.datetime
@staticmethod
def now():
"""Get now as a full datetime value.
Returns:
'now' as a whole timestamp, including both time and date.
"""
return datetime.datetime.utcnow()
def _date_to_datetime(value):
"""Convert a date to a datetime for datastore storage.
Args:
value: A datetime.date object.
Returns:
A datetime object with time set to 0:00.
"""
assert isinstance(value, datetime.date)
return datetime.datetime(value.year, value.month, value.day)
def _time_to_datetime(value):
"""Convert a time to a datetime for datastore storage.
Args:
value: A datetime.time object.
Returns:
A datetime object with date set to 1970-01-01.
"""
assert isinstance(value, datetime.time)
return datetime.datetime(1970, 1, 1,
value.hour, value.minute, value.second,
value.microsecond)
class DateProperty(DateTimeProperty):
"""A date property, which stores a date without a time."""
@staticmethod
def now():
"""Get now as a date datetime value.
Returns:
'date' part of 'now' only.
"""
return datetime.datetime.utcnow().date()
def validate(self, value):
"""Validate date.
Returns:
A valid value.
Raises:
BadValueError if property is not instance of 'date',
or if it is an instance of 'datetime' (which is a subclass
of 'date', but for all practical purposes a different type).
"""
value = super(DateProperty, self).validate(value)
if isinstance(value, datetime.datetime):
raise BadValueError('Property %s must be a %s, not a datetime' %
(self.name, self.data_type.__name__))
return value
def get_updated_value_for_datastore(self, model_instance):
"""Get new value for property to send to datastore.
Returns:
now() as appropriate to the date instance in the odd case where
auto_now is set to True, else AUTO_UPDATE_UNCHANGED.
"""
if self.auto_now:
return _date_to_datetime(self.now())
return AUTO_UPDATE_UNCHANGED
def get_value_for_datastore(self, model_instance):
"""Get value from property to send to datastore.
We retrieve a datetime.date from the model instance and return a
datetime.datetime instance with the time set to zero.
See base class method documentation for details.
"""
value = super(DateProperty, self).get_value_for_datastore(model_instance)
if value is not None:
assert isinstance(value, datetime.date)
value = _date_to_datetime(value)
return value
def make_value_from_datastore(self, value):
"""Native representation of this property.
We receive a datetime.datetime retrieved from the entity and return
a datetime.date instance representing its date portion.
See base class method documentation for details.
"""
if value is not None:
assert isinstance(value, datetime.datetime)
value = value.date()
return value
data_type = datetime.date
class TimeProperty(DateTimeProperty):
"""A time property, which stores a time without a date."""
@staticmethod
def now():
"""Get now as a time datetime value.
Returns:
'time' part of 'now' only.
"""
return datetime.datetime.utcnow().time()
def empty(self, value):
"""Is time property empty.
"0:0" (midnight) is not an empty value.
Returns:
True if value is None, else False.
"""
return value is None
def get_updated_value_for_datastore(self, model_instance):
"""Get new value for property to send to datastore.
Returns:
now() as appropriate to the time instance in the odd case where
auto_now is set to True, else AUTO_UPDATE_UNCHANGED.
"""
if self.auto_now:
return _time_to_datetime(self.now())
return AUTO_UPDATE_UNCHANGED
def get_value_for_datastore(self, model_instance):
"""Get value from property to send to datastore.
We retrieve a datetime.time from the model instance and return a
datetime.datetime instance with the date set to 1/1/1970.
See base class method documentation for details.
"""
value = super(TimeProperty, self).get_value_for_datastore(model_instance)
if value is not None:
assert isinstance(value, datetime.time), repr(value)
value = _time_to_datetime(value)
return value
def make_value_from_datastore(self, value):
"""Native representation of this property.
We receive a datetime.datetime retrieved from the entity and return
a datetime.date instance representing its time portion.
See base class method documentation for details.
"""
if value is not None:
assert isinstance(value, datetime.datetime)
value = value.time()
return value
data_type = datetime.time
class IntegerProperty(Property):
"""An integer property."""
def validate(self, value):
"""Validate integer property.
Returns:
A valid value.
Raises:
BadValueError if value is not an integer or long instance.
"""
value = super(IntegerProperty, self).validate(value)
if value is None:
return value
if not isinstance(value, (int, long)) or isinstance(value, bool):
raise BadValueError('Property %s must be an int or long, not a %s'
% (self.name, type(value).__name__))
if value < -0x8000000000000000 or value > 0x7fffffffffffffff:
raise BadValueError('Property %s must fit in 64 bits' % self.name)
return value
data_type = int
def empty(self, value):
"""Is integer property empty.
0 is not an empty value.
Returns:
True if value is None, else False.
"""
return value is None
class RatingProperty(_CoercingProperty, IntegerProperty):
"""A property whose values are Rating instances."""
data_type = Rating
class FloatProperty(Property):
"""A float property."""
def validate(self, value):
"""Validate float.
Returns:
A valid value.
Raises:
BadValueError if property is not instance of 'float'.
"""
value = super(FloatProperty, self).validate(value)
if value is not None and not isinstance(value, float):
raise BadValueError('Property %s must be a float' % self.name)
return value
data_type = float
def empty(self, value):
"""Is float property empty.
0.0 is not an empty value.
Returns:
True if value is None, else False.
"""
return value is None
class BooleanProperty(Property):
"""A boolean property."""
def validate(self, value):
"""Validate boolean.
Returns:
A valid value.
Raises:
BadValueError if property is not instance of 'bool'.
"""
value = super(BooleanProperty, self).validate(value)
if value is not None and not isinstance(value, bool):
raise BadValueError('Property %s must be a bool' % self.name)
return value
data_type = bool
def empty(self, value):
"""Is boolean property empty.
False is not an empty value.
Returns:
True if value is None, else False.
"""
return value is None
class UserProperty(Property):
"""A user property."""
def __init__(self,
verbose_name=None,
name=None,
required=False,
validator=None,
choices=None,
auto_current_user=False,
auto_current_user_add=False,
indexed=True):
"""Initializes this Property with the given options.
Note: this does *not* support the 'default' keyword argument.
Use auto_current_user_add=True instead.
Args:
verbose_name: User friendly name of property.
name: Storage name for property. By default, uses attribute name
as it is assigned in the Model sub-class.
required: Whether property is required.
validator: User provided method used for validation.
choices: User provided set of valid property values.
auto_current_user: If true, the value is set to the current user
each time the entity is written to the datastore.
auto_current_user_add: If true, the value is set to the current user
the first time the entity is written to the datastore.
indexed: Whether property is indexed.
"""
super(UserProperty, self).__init__(verbose_name, name,
required=required,
validator=validator,
choices=choices,
indexed=indexed)
self.auto_current_user = auto_current_user
self.auto_current_user_add = auto_current_user_add
def validate(self, value):
"""Validate user.
Returns:
A valid value.
Raises:
BadValueError if property is not instance of 'User'.
"""
value = super(UserProperty, self).validate(value)
if value is not None and not isinstance(value, users.User):
raise BadValueError('Property %s must be a User' % self.name)
return value
def default_value(self):
"""Default value for user.
Returns:
Value of users.get_current_user() if auto_current_user or
auto_current_user_add is set; else None. (But *not* the default
implementation, since we don't support the 'default' keyword
argument.)
"""
if self.auto_current_user or self.auto_current_user_add:
return users.get_current_user()
return None
def get_updated_value_for_datastore(self, model_instance):
"""Get new value for property to send to datastore.
Returns:
Value of users.get_current_user() if auto_current_user is set;
else AUTO_UPDATE_UNCHANGED.
"""
if self.auto_current_user:
return users.get_current_user()
return AUTO_UPDATE_UNCHANGED
data_type = users.User
class ListProperty(Property):
"""A property that stores a list of things.
This is a parameterized property; the parameter must be a valid
non-list data type, and all items must conform to this type.
"""
def __init__(self, item_type, verbose_name=None, default=None, **kwds):
"""Construct ListProperty.
Args:
item_type: Type for the list items; must be one of the allowed property
types.
verbose_name: Optional verbose name.
default: Optional default value; if omitted, an empty list is used.
**kwds: Optional additional keyword arguments, passed to base class.
Note that the only permissible value for 'required' is True.
"""
if item_type is str:
item_type = basestring
if not isinstance(item_type, type):
raise TypeError('Item type should be a type object')
if item_type not in _ALLOWED_PROPERTY_TYPES:
raise ValueError('Item type %s is not acceptable' % item_type.__name__)
if issubclass(item_type, (Blob, Text)):
self._require_parameter(kwds, 'indexed', False)
kwds['indexed'] = True
self._require_parameter(kwds, 'required', True)
if default is None:
default = []
self.item_type = item_type
super(ListProperty, self).__init__(verbose_name,
default=default,
**kwds)
def validate(self, value):
"""Validate list.
Returns:
A valid value.
Raises:
BadValueError if property is not a list whose items are instances of
the item_type given to the constructor.
"""
value = super(ListProperty, self).validate(value)
if value is not None:
if not isinstance(value, list):
raise BadValueError('Property %s must be a list' % self.name)
value = self.validate_list_contents(value)
return value
def _load(self, model_instance, value):
if not isinstance(value, list):
value = [value]
return super(ListProperty, self)._load(model_instance, value)
def validate_list_contents(self, value):
"""Validates that all items in the list are of the correct type.
Returns:
The validated list.
Raises:
BadValueError if the list has items are not instances of the
item_type given to the constructor.
"""
if self.item_type in (int, long):
item_type = (int, long)
else:
item_type = self.item_type
for item in value:
if not isinstance(item, item_type):
if item_type == (int, long):
raise BadValueError('Items in the %s list must all be integers.' %
self.name)
else:
raise BadValueError(
'Items in the %s list must all be %s instances' %
(self.name, self.item_type.__name__))
return value
def empty(self, value):
"""Is list property empty.
[] is not an empty value.
Returns:
True if value is None, else false.
"""
return value is None
data_type = list
def default_value(self):
"""Default value for list.
Because the property supplied to 'default' is a static value,
that value must be shallow copied to prevent all fields with
default values from sharing the same instance.
Returns:
Copy of the default value.
"""
return list(super(ListProperty, self).default_value())
def get_value_for_datastore(self, model_instance):
"""Get value from property to send to datastore.
Returns:
validated list appropriate to save in the datastore.
"""
value = super(ListProperty, self).get_value_for_datastore(model_instance)
if not value:
return value
value = self.validate_list_contents(value)
if self.validator:
self.validator(value)
if self.item_type == datetime.date:
value = map(_date_to_datetime, value)
elif self.item_type == datetime.time:
value = map(_time_to_datetime, value)
return value
def make_value_from_datastore(self, value):
"""Native representation of this property.
If this list is a list of datetime.date or datetime.time, we convert
the list of datetime.datetime retrieved from the entity into
datetime.date or datetime.time.
See base class method documentation for details.
"""
if self.item_type == datetime.date:
for v in value:
assert isinstance(v, datetime.datetime)
value = map(lambda x: x.date(), value)
elif self.item_type == datetime.time:
for v in value:
assert isinstance(v, datetime.datetime)
value = map(lambda x: x.time(), value)
return value
def make_value_from_datastore_index_value(self, index_value):
value = [datastore_types.RestoreFromIndexValue(index_value, self.item_type)]
return self.make_value_from_datastore(value)
class StringListProperty(ListProperty):
"""A property that stores a list of strings.
A shorthand for the most common type of ListProperty.
"""
def __init__(self, verbose_name=None, default=None, **kwds):
"""Construct StringListProperty.
Args:
verbose_name: Optional verbose name.
default: Optional default value; if omitted, an empty list is used.
**kwds: Optional additional keyword arguments, passed to ListProperty().
"""
super(StringListProperty, self).__init__(basestring,
verbose_name=verbose_name,
default=default,
**kwds)
class ReferenceProperty(Property):
"""A property that represents a many-to-one reference to another model.
For example, a reference property in model A that refers to model B forms
a many-to-one relationship from A to B: every instance of A refers to a
single B instance, and every B instance can have many A instances refer
to it.
"""
def __init__(self,
reference_class=None,
verbose_name=None,
collection_name=None,
**attrs):
"""Construct ReferenceProperty.
Args:
reference_class: Which model class this property references.
verbose_name: User friendly name of property.
collection_name: If provided, alternate name of collection on
reference_class to store back references. Use this to allow
a Model to have multiple fields which refer to the same class.
"""
super(ReferenceProperty, self).__init__(verbose_name, **attrs)
self.collection_name = collection_name
if reference_class is None:
reference_class = Model
if not ((isinstance(reference_class, type) and
issubclass(reference_class, Model)) or
reference_class is _SELF_REFERENCE):
raise KindError('reference_class must be Model or _SELF_REFERENCE')
self.reference_class = self.data_type = reference_class
def make_value_from_datastore_index_value(self, index_value):
value = datastore_types.RestoreFromIndexValue(index_value, Key)
return self.make_value_from_datastore(value)
def __property_config__(self, model_class, property_name):
"""Loads all of the references that point to this model.
We need to do this to create the ReverseReferenceProperty properties for
this model and create the <reference>_set attributes on the referenced
model, e.g.:
class Story(db.Model):
title = db.StringProperty()
class Comment(db.Model):
story = db.ReferenceProperty(Story)
story = Story.get(id)
print [c for c in story.comment_set]
In this example, the comment_set property was created based on the reference
from Comment to Story (which is inherently one to many).
Args:
model_class: Model class which will have its reference properties
initialized.
property_name: Name of property being configured.
Raises:
DuplicatePropertyError if referenced class already has the provided
collection name as a property.
"""
super(ReferenceProperty, self).__property_config__(model_class,
property_name)
if self.reference_class is _SELF_REFERENCE:
self.reference_class = self.data_type = model_class
if self.collection_name is None:
self.collection_name = '%s_set' % (model_class.__name__.lower())
existing_prop = getattr(self.reference_class, self.collection_name, None)
if existing_prop is not None:
if not (isinstance(existing_prop, _ReverseReferenceProperty) and
existing_prop._prop_name == property_name and
existing_prop._model.__name__ == model_class.__name__ and
existing_prop._model.__module__ == model_class.__module__):
raise DuplicatePropertyError('Class %s already has property %s '
% (self.reference_class.__name__,
self.collection_name))
setattr(self.reference_class,
self.collection_name,
_ReverseReferenceProperty(model_class, property_name))
def __get__(self, model_instance, model_class):
"""Get reference object.
This method will fetch unresolved entities from the datastore if
they are not already loaded.
Returns:
ReferenceProperty to Model object if property is set, else None.
Raises:
ReferencePropertyResolveError: if the referenced model does not exist.
"""
if model_instance is None:
return self
if hasattr(model_instance, self.__id_attr_name()):
reference_id = getattr(model_instance, self.__id_attr_name())
else:
reference_id = None
if reference_id is not None:
resolved = getattr(model_instance, self.__resolved_attr_name())
if resolved is not None:
return resolved
else:
instance = get(reference_id)
if instance is None:
raise ReferencePropertyResolveError(
'ReferenceProperty failed to be resolved: %s' %
reference_id.to_path())
setattr(model_instance, self.__resolved_attr_name(), instance)
return instance
else:
return None
def __set__(self, model_instance, value):
"""Set reference."""
value = self.validate(value)
if value is not None:
if isinstance(value, datastore.Key):
setattr(model_instance, self.__id_attr_name(), value)
setattr(model_instance, self.__resolved_attr_name(), None)
else:
setattr(model_instance, self.__id_attr_name(), value.key())
setattr(model_instance, self.__resolved_attr_name(), value)
else:
setattr(model_instance, self.__id_attr_name(), None)
setattr(model_instance, self.__resolved_attr_name(), None)
def get_value_for_datastore(self, model_instance):
"""Get key of reference rather than reference itself."""
return getattr(model_instance, self.__id_attr_name())
def validate(self, value):
"""Validate reference.
Returns:
A valid value.
Raises:
BadValueError for the following reasons:
- Value is not saved.
- Object not of correct model type for reference.
"""
if isinstance(value, datastore.Key):
return value