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#!/usr/bin/env python
# - Check Python source code formatting, according to PEP 8
# Copyright (C) 2006 Johann C. Rocholl <>
# Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person
# obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files
# (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction,
# including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge,
# publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software,
# and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so,
# subject to the following conditions:
# The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
# included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
Check Python source code formatting, according to PEP 8:
For usage and a list of options, try this:
$ python -h
This program and its regression test suite live here:
Groups of errors and warnings:
E errors
W warnings
100 indentation
200 whitespace
300 blank lines
400 imports
500 line length
600 deprecation
700 statements
900 syntax error
You can add checks to this program by writing plugins. Each plugin is
a simple function that is called for each line of source code, either
physical or logical.
Physical line:
- Raw line of text from the input file.
Logical line:
- Multi-line statements converted to a single line.
- Stripped left and right.
- Contents of strings replaced with 'xxx' of same length.
- Comments removed.
The check function requests physical or logical lines by the name of
the first argument:
def maximum_line_length(physical_line)
def extraneous_whitespace(logical_line)
def blank_lines(logical_line, blank_lines, indent_level, line_number)
The last example above demonstrates how check plugins can request
additional information with extra arguments. All attributes of the
Checker object are available. Some examples:
lines: a list of the raw lines from the input file
tokens: the tokens that contribute to this logical line
line_number: line number in the input file
blank_lines: blank lines before this one
indent_char: first indentation character in this file (' ' or '\t')
indent_level: indentation (with tabs expanded to multiples of 8)
previous_indent_level: indentation on previous line
previous_logical: previous logical line
The docstring of each check function shall be the relevant part of
text from PEP 8. It is printed if the user enables --show-pep8.
Several docstrings contain examples directly from the PEP 8 document.
Okay: spam(ham[1], {eggs: 2})
E201: spam( ham[1], {eggs: 2})
These examples are verified automatically when is run with the
--doctest option. You can add examples for your own check functions.
The format is simple: "Okay" or error/warning code followed by colon
and space, the rest of the line is example source code. If you put 'r'
before the docstring, you can use \n for newline, \t for tab and \s
for space.
__version__ = '1.3.2'
import os
import sys
import re
import time
import inspect
import keyword
import tokenize
from optparse import OptionParser
from fnmatch import fnmatch
from configparser import RawConfigParser
from io import TextIOWrapper
except ImportError:
from ConfigParser import RawConfigParser
DEFAULT_EXCLUDE = '.svn,CVS,.bzr,.hg,.git'
if sys.platform == 'win32':
DEFAULT_CONFIG = os.path.expanduser(r'~\.pep8')
DEFAULT_CONFIG = os.path.join(os.getenv('XDG_CONFIG_HOME') or
os.path.expanduser('~/.config'), 'pep8')
'default': '%(path)s:%(row)d:%(col)d: %(code)s %(text)s',
'pylint': '%(path)s:%(row)d: [%(code)s] %(text)s',
SINGLETONS = frozenset(['False', 'None', 'True'])
KEYWORDS = frozenset(keyword.kwlist + ['print']) - SINGLETONS
BINARY_OPERATORS = frozenset([
'**=', '*=', '+=', '-=', '!=', '<>',
'%=', '^=', '&=', '|=', '==', '/=', '//=', '<=', '>=', '<<=', '>>=',
'%', '^', '&', '|', '=', '/', '//', '<', '>', '<<'])
UNARY_OPERATORS = frozenset(['>>', '**', '*', '+', '-'])
WHITESPACE = frozenset(' \t')
SKIP_TOKENS = frozenset([tokenize.COMMENT, tokenize.NL, tokenize.NEWLINE,
tokenize.INDENT, tokenize.DEDENT])
BENCHMARK_KEYS = ['directories', 'files', 'logical lines', 'physical lines']
INDENT_REGEX = re.compile(r'([ \t]*)')
RAISE_COMMA_REGEX = re.compile(r'raise\s+\w+\s*(,)')
RERAISE_COMMA_REGEX = re.compile(r'raise\s+\w+\s*,\s*\w+\s*,\s*\w+')
SELFTEST_REGEX = re.compile(r'(Okay|[EW]\d{3}):\s(.*)')
ERRORCODE_REGEX = re.compile(r'[EW]\d{3}')
DOCSTRING_REGEX = re.compile(r'u?r?["\']')
EXTRANEOUS_WHITESPACE_REGEX = re.compile(r'[[({] | []}),;:]')
WHITESPACE_AFTER_COMMA_REGEX = re.compile(r'[,;:]\s*(?: |\t)')
COMPARE_SINGLETON_REGEX = re.compile(r'([=!]=)\s*(None|False|True)')
COMPARE_TYPE_REGEX = re.compile(r'([=!]=|is|is\s+not)\s*type(?:s\.(\w+)Type'
r'|\(\s*(\(\s*\)|[^)]*[^ )])\s*\))')
KEYWORD_REGEX = re.compile(r'(?:[^\s])(\s*)\b(?:%s)\b(\s*)' %
OPERATOR_REGEX = re.compile(r'(?:[^\s])(\s*)(?:[-+*/|!<=>%&^]+)(\s*)')
LAMBDA_REGEX = re.compile(r'\blambda\b')
HUNK_REGEX = re.compile(r'^@@ -\d+,\d+ \+(\d+),(\d+) @@.*$')
# Work around Python < 2.6 behaviour, which does not generate NL after
# a comment which is on a line by itself.
COMMENT_WITH_NL = tokenize.generate_tokens(['#\n'].pop).send(None)[1] == '#\n'
# Plugins (check functions) for physical lines
def tabs_or_spaces(physical_line, indent_char):
Never mix tabs and spaces.
The most popular way of indenting Python is with spaces only. The
second-most popular way is with tabs only. Code indented with a mixture
of tabs and spaces should be converted to using spaces exclusively. When
invoking the Python command line interpreter with the -t option, it issues
warnings about code that illegally mixes tabs and spaces. When using -tt
these warnings become errors. These options are highly recommended!
Okay: if a == 0:\n a = 1\n b = 1
E101: if a == 0:\n a = 1\n\tb = 1
indent = INDENT_REGEX.match(physical_line).group(1)
for offset, char in enumerate(indent):
if char != indent_char:
return offset, "E101 indentation contains mixed spaces and tabs"
def tabs_obsolete(physical_line):
For new projects, spaces-only are strongly recommended over tabs. Most
editors have features that make this easy to do.
Okay: if True:\n return
W191: if True:\n\treturn
indent = INDENT_REGEX.match(physical_line).group(1)
if '\t' in indent:
return indent.index('\t'), "W191 indentation contains tabs"
def trailing_whitespace(physical_line):
JCR: Trailing whitespace is superfluous.
FBM: Except when it occurs as part of a blank line (i.e. the line is
nothing but whitespace). According to Python docs[1] a line with only
whitespace is considered a blank line, and is to be ignored. However,
matching a blank line to its indentation level avoids mistakenly
terminating a multi-line statement (e.g. class declaration) when
pasting code into the standard Python interpreter.
The warning returned varies on whether the line itself is blank, for easier
filtering for those who want to indent their blank lines.
Okay: spam(1)
W291: spam(1)\s
W293: class Foo(object):\n \n bang = 12
physical_line = physical_line.rstrip('\n') # chr(10), newline
physical_line = physical_line.rstrip('\r') # chr(13), carriage return
physical_line = physical_line.rstrip('\x0c') # chr(12), form feed, ^L
stripped = physical_line.rstrip(' \t\v')
if physical_line != stripped:
if stripped:
return len(stripped), "W291 trailing whitespace"
return 0, "W293 blank line contains whitespace"
def trailing_blank_lines(physical_line, lines, line_number):
JCR: Trailing blank lines are superfluous.
Okay: spam(1)
W391: spam(1)\n
if not physical_line.rstrip() and line_number == len(lines):
return 0, "W391 blank line at end of file"
def missing_newline(physical_line):
JCR: The last line should have a newline.
Reports warning W292.
if physical_line.rstrip() == physical_line:
return len(physical_line), "W292 no newline at end of file"
def maximum_line_length(physical_line, max_line_length):
Limit all lines to a maximum of 79 characters.
There are still many devices around that are limited to 80 character
lines; plus, limiting windows to 80 characters makes it possible to have
several windows side-by-side. The default wrapping on such devices looks
ugly. Therefore, please limit all lines to a maximum of 79 characters.
For flowing long blocks of text (docstrings or comments), limiting the
length to 72 characters is recommended.
Reports error E501.
line = physical_line.rstrip()
length = len(line)
if length > max_line_length:
if hasattr(line, 'decode'): # Python 2
# The line could contain multi-byte characters
length = len(line.decode('utf-8'))
except UnicodeError:
if length > max_line_length:
return (max_line_length, "E501 line too long "
"(%d > %d characters)" % (length, max_line_length))
# Plugins (check functions) for logical lines
def blank_lines(logical_line, blank_lines, indent_level, line_number,
previous_logical, previous_indent_level):
Separate top-level function and class definitions with two blank lines.
Method definitions inside a class are separated by a single blank line.
Extra blank lines may be used (sparingly) to separate groups of related
functions. Blank lines may be omitted between a bunch of related
one-liners (e.g. a set of dummy implementations).
Use blank lines in functions, sparingly, to indicate logical sections.
Okay: def a():\n pass\n\n\ndef b():\n pass
Okay: def a():\n pass\n\n\n# Foo\n# Bar\n\ndef b():\n pass
E301: class Foo:\n b = 0\n def bar():\n pass
E302: def a():\n pass\n\ndef b(n):\n pass
E303: def a():\n pass\n\n\n\ndef b(n):\n pass
E303: def a():\n\n\n\n pass
E304: @decorator\n\ndef a():\n pass
if line_number == 1:
return # Don't expect blank lines before the first line
if previous_logical.startswith('@'):
if blank_lines:
yield 0, "E304 blank lines found after function decorator"
elif blank_lines > 2 or (indent_level and blank_lines == 2):
yield 0, "E303 too many blank lines (%d)" % blank_lines
elif logical_line.startswith(('def ', 'class ', '@')):
if indent_level:
if not (blank_lines or previous_indent_level < indent_level or
yield 0, "E301 expected 1 blank line, found 0"
elif blank_lines != 2:
yield 0, "E302 expected 2 blank lines, found %d" % blank_lines
def extraneous_whitespace(logical_line):
Avoid extraneous whitespace in the following situations:
- Immediately inside parentheses, brackets or braces.
- Immediately before a comma, semicolon, or colon.
Okay: spam(ham[1], {eggs: 2})
E201: spam( ham[1], {eggs: 2})
E201: spam(ham[ 1], {eggs: 2})
E201: spam(ham[1], { eggs: 2})
E202: spam(ham[1], {eggs: 2} )
E202: spam(ham[1 ], {eggs: 2})
E202: spam(ham[1], {eggs: 2 })
E203: if x == 4: print x, y; x, y = y , x
E203: if x == 4: print x, y ; x, y = y, x
E203: if x == 4 : print x, y; x, y = y, x
line = logical_line
for match in EXTRANEOUS_WHITESPACE_REGEX.finditer(line):
text =
char = text.strip()
found = match.start()
if text == char + ' ':
# assert char in '([{'
yield found + 1, "E201 whitespace after '%s'" % char
elif line[found - 1] != ',':
code = ('E202' if char in '}])' else 'E203') # if char in ',;:'
yield found, "%s whitespace before '%s'" % (code, char)
def whitespace_around_keywords(logical_line):
Avoid extraneous whitespace around keywords.
Okay: True and False
E271: True and False
E272: True and False
E273: True and\tFalse
E274: True\tand False
for match in KEYWORD_REGEX.finditer(logical_line):
before, after = match.groups()
if '\t' in before:
yield match.start(1), "E274 tab before keyword"
elif len(before) > 1:
yield match.start(1), "E272 multiple spaces before keyword"
if '\t' in after:
yield match.start(2), "E273 tab after keyword"
elif len(after) > 1:
yield match.start(2), "E271 multiple spaces after keyword"
def missing_whitespace(logical_line):
JCR: Each comma, semicolon or colon should be followed by whitespace.
Okay: [a, b]
Okay: (3,)
Okay: a[1:4]
Okay: a[:4]
Okay: a[1:]
Okay: a[1:4:2]
E231: ['a','b']
E231: foo(bar,baz)
line = logical_line
for index in range(len(line) - 1):
char = line[index]
if char in ',;:' and line[index + 1] not in WHITESPACE:
before = line[:index]
if char == ':' and before.count('[') > before.count(']'):
continue # Slice syntax, no space required
if char == ',' and line[index + 1] == ')':
continue # Allow tuple with only one element: (3,)
yield index, "E231 missing whitespace after '%s'" % char
def indentation(logical_line, previous_logical, indent_char,
indent_level, previous_indent_level):
Use 4 spaces per indentation level.
For really old code that you don't want to mess up, you can continue to
use 8-space tabs.
Okay: a = 1
Okay: if a == 0:\n a = 1
E111: a = 1
Okay: for item in items:\n pass
E112: for item in items:\npass
Okay: a = 1\nb = 2
E113: a = 1\n b = 2
if indent_char == ' ' and indent_level % 4:
yield 0, "E111 indentation is not a multiple of four"
indent_expect = previous_logical.endswith(':')
if indent_expect and indent_level <= previous_indent_level:
yield 0, "E112 expected an indented block"
if indent_level > previous_indent_level and not indent_expect:
yield 0, "E113 unexpected indentation"
def continuation_line_indentation(logical_line, tokens, indent_level, verbose):
Continuation lines should align wrapped elements either vertically using
Python's implicit line joining inside parentheses, brackets and braces, or
using a hanging indent.
When using a hanging indent the following considerations should be applied:
- there should be no arguments on the first line, and
- further indentation should be used to clearly distinguish itself as a
continuation line.
Okay: a = (\n)
E123: a = (\n )
Okay: a = (\n 42)
E121: a = (\n 42)
E122: a = (\n42)
E123: a = (\n 42\n )
E124: a = (24,\n 42\n)
E125: if (a or\n b):\n pass
E126: a = (\n 42)
E127: a = (24,\n 42)
E128: a = (24,\n 42)
first_row = tokens[0][2][0]
nrows = 1 + tokens[-1][2][0] - first_row
if nrows == 1:
# indent_next tells us whether the next block is indented; assuming
# that it is indented by 4 spaces, then we should not allow 4-space
# indents on the final continuation line; in turn, some other
# indents are allowed to have an extra 4 spaces.
indent_next = logical_line.endswith(':')
row = depth = 0
# remember how many brackets were opened on each line
parens = [0] * nrows
# relative indents of physical lines
rel_indent = [0] * nrows
# visual indents
indent = [indent_level]
indent_chances = {}
if verbose >= 3:
print(">>> " + tokens[0][4].rstrip())
for token_type, text, start, end, line in tokens:
newline = row < start[0] - first_row
if newline:
row = start[0] - first_row
newline = (not last_token_multiline and
token_type not in (tokenize.NL, tokenize.NEWLINE))
if newline:
# this is the beginning of a continuation line.
last_indent = start
if verbose >= 3:
print("... " + line.rstrip())
# record the initial indent.
rel_indent[row] = start[1] - indent_level
if depth:
# a bracket expression in a continuation line.
# find the line that it was opened on
for open_row in range(row - 1, -1, -1):
if parens[open_row]:
# an unbracketed continuation line (ie, backslash)
open_row = 0
hang = rel_indent[row] - rel_indent[open_row]
visual_indent = indent_chances.get(start[1])
if token_type == tokenize.OP and text in ']})':
# this line starts with a closing bracket
if indent[depth]:
if start[1] != indent[depth]:
yield (start, 'E124 closing bracket does not match '
'visual indentation')
elif hang:
yield (start, 'E123 closing bracket does not match '
'indentation of opening bracket\'s line')
elif visual_indent is True:
# visual indent is verified
if not indent[depth]:
indent[depth] = start[1]
elif visual_indent in (text, str):
# ignore token lined up with matching one from a previous line
elif indent[depth] and start[1] < indent[depth]:
# visual indent is broken
yield (start, 'E128 continuation line '
'under-indented for visual indent')
elif hang == 4 or (indent_next and rel_indent[row] == 8):
# hanging indent is verified
# indent is broken
if hang <= 0:
error = 'E122', 'missing indentation or outdented'
elif indent[depth]:
error = 'E127', 'over-indented for visual indent'
elif hang % 4:
error = 'E121', 'indentation is not a multiple of four'
error = 'E126', 'over-indented for hanging indent'
yield start, "%s continuation line %s" % error
# look for visual indenting
if parens[row] and token_type != tokenize.NL and not indent[depth]:
indent[depth] = start[1]
indent_chances[start[1]] = True
if verbose >= 4:
print("bracket depth %s indent to %s" % (depth, start[1]))
# deal with implicit string concatenation
elif token_type == tokenize.STRING or text in ('u', 'ur', 'b', 'br'):
indent_chances[start[1]] = str
# keep track of bracket depth
if token_type == tokenize.OP:
if text in '([{':
depth += 1
parens[row] += 1
if verbose >= 4:
print("bracket depth %s seen, col %s, visual min = %s" %
(depth, start[1], indent[depth]))
elif text in ')]}' and depth > 0:
# parent indents should not be more than this one
prev_indent = indent.pop() or last_indent[1]
for d in range(depth):
if indent[d] > prev_indent:
indent[d] = 0
for ind in list(indent_chances):
if ind >= prev_indent:
del indent_chances[ind]
depth -= 1
if depth:
indent_chances[indent[depth]] = True
for idx in range(row, -1, -1):
if parens[idx]:
parens[idx] -= 1
assert len(indent) == depth + 1
if start[1] not in indent_chances:
# allow to line up tokens
indent_chances[start[1]] = text
last_token_multiline = (start[0] != end[0])
if indent_next and rel_indent[-1] == 4:
yield (last_indent, "E125 continuation line does not distinguish "
"itself from next logical line")
def whitespace_before_parameters(logical_line, tokens):
Avoid extraneous whitespace in the following situations:
- Immediately before the open parenthesis that starts the argument
list of a function call.
- Immediately before the open parenthesis that starts an indexing or
Okay: spam(1)
E211: spam (1)
Okay: dict['key'] = list[index]
E211: dict ['key'] = list[index]
E211: dict['key'] = list [index]
prev_type = tokens[0][0]
prev_text = tokens[0][1]
prev_end = tokens[0][3]
for index in range(1, len(tokens)):
token_type, text, start, end, line = tokens[index]
if (token_type == tokenize.OP and
text in '([' and
start != prev_end and
(prev_type == tokenize.NAME or prev_text in '}])') and
# Syntax "class A (B):" is allowed, but avoid it
(index < 2 or tokens[index - 2][1] != 'class') and
# Allow "return ( for a in range(5))"
not keyword.iskeyword(prev_text)):
yield prev_end, "E211 whitespace before '%s'" % text
prev_type = token_type
prev_text = text
prev_end = end
def whitespace_around_operator(logical_line):
Avoid extraneous whitespace in the following situations:
- More than one space around an assignment (or other) operator to
align it with another.
Okay: a = 12 + 3
E221: a = 4 + 5
E222: a = 4 + 5
E223: a = 4\t+ 5
E224: a = 4 +\t5
for match in OPERATOR_REGEX.finditer(logical_line):
before, after = match.groups()
if '\t' in before:
yield match.start(1), "E223 tab before operator"
elif len(before) > 1:
yield match.start(1), "E221 multiple spaces before operator"
if '\t' in after:
yield match.start(2), "E224 tab after operator"
elif len(after) > 1:
yield match.start(2), "E222 multiple spaces after operator"
def missing_whitespace_around_operator(logical_line, tokens):
- Always surround these binary operators with a single space on
either side: assignment (=), augmented assignment (+=, -= etc.),
comparisons (==, <, >, !=, <>, <=, >=, in, not in, is, is not),
Booleans (and, or, not).
- Use spaces around arithmetic operators.
Okay: i = i + 1
Okay: submitted += 1
Okay: x = x * 2 - 1
Okay: hypot2 = x * x + y * y
Okay: c = (a + b) * (a - b)
Okay: foo(bar, key='word', *args, **kwargs)
Okay: baz(**kwargs)
Okay: negative = -1
Okay: spam(-1)
Okay: alpha[:-i]
Okay: if not -5 < x < +5:\n pass
Okay: lambda *args, **kw: (args, kw)
E225: i=i+1
E225: submitted +=1
E225: x = x*2 - 1
E225: hypot2 = x*x + y*y
E225: c = (a+b) * (a-b)
E225: c = alpha -4
E225: z = x **y
parens = 0
need_space = False
prev_type = tokenize.OP
prev_text = prev_end = None
for token_type, text, start, end, line in tokens:
if token_type in (tokenize.NL, tokenize.NEWLINE, tokenize.ERRORTOKEN):
# ERRORTOKEN is triggered by backticks in Python 3000
if text in ('(', 'lambda'):
parens += 1
elif text == ')':
parens -= 1
if need_space:
if start != prev_end:
need_space = False
elif text == '>' and prev_text in ('<', '-'):
# Tolerate the "<>" operator, even if running Python 3
# Deal with Python 3's annotated return value "->"
yield prev_end, "E225 missing whitespace around operator"
need_space = False
elif token_type == tokenize.OP and prev_end is not None:
if text == '=' and parens:
# Allow keyword args or defaults: foo(bar=None).
elif text in BINARY_OPERATORS:
need_space = True
elif text in UNARY_OPERATORS:
# Allow unary operators: -123, -x, +1.
# Allow argument unpacking: foo(*args, **kwargs).
if prev_type == tokenize.OP:
if prev_text in '}])':
need_space = True
elif prev_type == tokenize.NAME:
if prev_text not in KEYWORDS:
need_space = True
elif prev_type not in SKIP_TOKENS:
need_space = True
if need_space and start == prev_end:
yield prev_end, "E225 missing whitespace around operator"
need_space = False
prev_type = token_type
prev_text = text
prev_end = end
def whitespace_around_comma(logical_line):
Avoid extraneous whitespace in the following situations:
- More than one space around an assignment (or other) operator to
align it with another.
Note: these checks are disabled by default
Okay: a = (1, 2)
E241: a = (1, 2)
E242: a = (1,\t2)
line = logical_line
for m in WHITESPACE_AFTER_COMMA_REGEX.finditer(line):
found = m.start() + 1
if '\t' in
yield found, "E242 tab after '%s'" %[0]
yield found, "E241 multiple spaces after '%s'" %[0]
def whitespace_around_named_parameter_equals(logical_line, tokens):
Don't use spaces around the '=' sign when used to indicate a
keyword argument or a default parameter value.
Okay: def complex(real, imag=0.0):
Okay: return magic(r=real, i=imag)
Okay: boolean(a == b)
Okay: boolean(a != b)
Okay: boolean(a <= b)
Okay: boolean(a >= b)
E251: def complex(real, imag = 0.0):
E251: return magic(r = real, i = imag)
parens = 0
no_space = False
prev_end = None
for token_type, text, start, end, line in tokens:
if no_space:
no_space = False
if start != prev_end:
yield (prev_end,
"E251 no spaces around keyword / parameter equals")
elif token_type == tokenize.OP:
if text == '(':
parens += 1
elif text == ')':
parens -= 1
elif parens and text == '=':
no_space = True
if start != prev_end:
yield (prev_end,
"E251 no spaces around keyword / parameter equals")
prev_end = end
def whitespace_before_inline_comment(logical_line, tokens):
Separate inline comments by at least two spaces.
An inline comment is a comment on the same line as a statement. Inline
comments should be separated by at least two spaces from the statement.
They should start with a # and a single space.
Okay: x = x + 1 # Increment x
Okay: x = x + 1 # Increment x
E261: x = x + 1 # Increment x
E262: x = x + 1 #Increment x
E262: x = x + 1 # Increment x
prev_end = (0, 0)
for token_type, text, start, end, line in tokens:
if token_type == tokenize.COMMENT:
if not line[:start[1]].strip():
if prev_end[0] == start[0] and start[1] < prev_end[1] + 2:
yield (prev_end,
"E261 at least two spaces before inline comment")
if text.startswith('# ') or not text.startswith('# '):
yield start, "E262 inline comment should start with '# '"
elif token_type != tokenize.NL:
prev_end = end
def imports_on_separate_lines(logical_line):
Imports should usually be on separate lines.
Okay: import os\nimport sys
E401: import sys, os
Okay: from subprocess import Popen, PIPE
Okay: from myclas import MyClass
Okay: from import YourClass
Okay: import myclass
Okay: import
line = logical_line
if line.startswith('import '):
found = line.find(',')
if -1 < found:
yield found, "E401 multiple imports on one line"
def compound_statements(logical_line):
Compound statements (multiple statements on the same line) are
generally discouraged.
While sometimes it's okay to put an if/for/while with a small body
on the same line, never do this for multi-clause statements. Also
avoid folding such long lines!
Okay: if foo == 'blah':\n do_blah_thing()
Okay: do_one()
Okay: do_two()
Okay: do_three()
E701: if foo == 'blah': do_blah_thing()
E701: for x in lst: total += x
E701: while t < 10: t = delay()
E701: if foo == 'blah': do_blah_thing()
E701: else: do_non_blah_thing()
E701: try: something()
E701: finally: cleanup()
E701: if foo == 'blah': one(); two(); three()
E702: do_one(); do_two(); do_three()
line = logical_line
found = line.find(':')
if -1 < found < len(line) - 1:
before = line[:found]
if (before.count('{') <= before.count('}') and # {'a': 1} (dict)
before.count('[') <= before.count(']') and # [1:2] (slice)
before.count('(') <= before.count(')') and # (Python 3 annotation)
not # lambda x: x
yield found, "E701 multiple statements on one line (colon)"
found = line.find(';')
if -1 < found:
yield found, "E702 multiple statements on one line (semicolon)"
def explicit_line_join(logical_line, tokens):
Avoid explicit line join between brackets.
The preferred way of wrapping long lines is by using Python's implied line
continuation inside parentheses, brackets and braces. Long lines can be
broken over multiple lines by wrapping expressions in parentheses. These
should be used in preference to using a backslash for line continuation.
E502: aaa = [123, \\n 123]
E502: aaa = ("bbb " \\n "ccc")
Okay: aaa = [123,\n 123]
Okay: aaa = ("bbb "\n "ccc")
Okay: aaa = "bbb " \\n "ccc"
prev_start = prev_end = parens = 0
for token_type, text, start, end, line in tokens:
if start[0] != prev_start and parens and backslash:
yield backslash, "E502 the backslash is redundant between brackets"
if end[0] != prev_end:
if line.rstrip('\r\n').endswith('\\'):
backslash = (end[0], len(line.splitlines()[-1]) - 1)
backslash = None
prev_start = prev_end = end[0]
prev_start = start[0]
if token_type == tokenize.OP:
if text in '([{':
parens += 1
elif text in ')]}':
parens -= 1
def comparison_to_singleton(logical_line):
Comparisons to singletons like None should always be done
with "is" or "is not", never the equality operators.
Okay: if arg is not None:
E711: if arg != None:
E712: if arg == True:
Also, beware of writing if x when you really mean if x is not None --
e.g. when testing whether a variable or argument that defaults to None was
set to some other value. The other value might have a type (such as a
container) that could be false in a boolean context!
match =
if match:
same = ( == '==')
singleton =
msg = "'if cond is %s:'" % (('' if same else 'not ') + singleton)
if singleton in ('None',):
code = 'E711'
code = 'E712'
nonzero = ((singleton == 'True' and same) or
(singleton == 'False' and not same))
msg += " or 'if %scond:'" % ('' if nonzero else 'not ')
yield match.start(1), ("%s comparison to %s should be %s" %
(code, singleton, msg))
def comparison_type(logical_line):
Object type comparisons should always use isinstance() instead of
comparing types directly.
Okay: if isinstance(obj, int):
E721: if type(obj) is type(1):
When checking if an object is a string, keep in mind that it might be a
unicode string too! In Python 2.3, str and unicode have a common base
class, basestring, so you can do:
Okay: if isinstance(obj, basestring):
Okay: if type(a1) is type(b1):
match =
if match:
inst =
if inst and isidentifier(inst) and inst not in SINGLETONS:
return # Allow comparison for types which are not obvious
yield match.start(1), "E721 do not compare types, use 'isinstance()'"
def python_3000_has_key(logical_line):
The {}.has_key() method will be removed in the future version of
Python. Use the 'in' operation instead.
Okay: if "alph" in d:\n print d["alph"]
W601: assert d.has_key('alph')
pos = logical_line.find('.has_key(')
if pos > -1:
yield pos, "W601 .has_key() is deprecated, use 'in'"
def python_3000_raise_comma(logical_line):
When raising an exception, use "raise ValueError('message')"
instead of the older form "raise ValueError, 'message'".
The paren-using form is preferred because when the exception arguments
are long or include string formatting, you don't need to use line
continuation characters thanks to the containing parentheses. The older
form will be removed in Python 3000.
Okay: raise DummyError("Message")
W602: raise DummyError, "Message"
match = RAISE_COMMA_REGEX.match(logical_line)
if match and not RERAISE_COMMA_REGEX.match(logical_line):
yield match.start(1), "W602 deprecated form of raising exception"
def python_3000_not_equal(logical_line):
!= can also be written <>, but this is an obsolete usage kept for
backwards compatibility only. New code should always use !=.
The older syntax is removed in Python 3000.
Okay: if a != 'no':
W603: if a <> 'no':
pos = logical_line.find('<>')
if pos > -1:
yield pos, "W603 '<>' is deprecated, use '!='"
def python_3000_backticks(logical_line):
Backticks are removed in Python 3000.
Use repr() instead.
Okay: val = repr(1 + 2)
W604: val = `1 + 2`
pos = logical_line.find('`')
if pos > -1:
yield pos, "W604 backticks are deprecated, use 'repr()'"
# Helper functions
if '' == ''.encode():
# Python 2: implicit encoding.
def readlines(filename):
f = open(filename)
return f.readlines()
isidentifier = re.compile(r'[a-zA-Z_]\w*').match
stdin_get_value =
# Python 3
def readlines(filename):
f = open(filename, 'rb')
coding, lines = tokenize.detect_encoding(f.readline)
f = TextIOWrapper(f, coding, line_buffering=True)
return [l.decode(coding) for l in lines] + f.readlines()
except (LookupError, SyntaxError, UnicodeError):
# Fall back if files are improperly declared
f = open(filename, encoding='latin-1')
return f.readlines()
isidentifier = str.isidentifier
stdin_get_value = TextIOWrapper(sys.stdin.buffer, errors='ignore').read
readlines.__doc__ = " Read the source code."
def expand_indent(line):
Return the amount of indentation.
Tabs are expanded to the next multiple of 8.
>>> expand_indent(' ')
>>> expand_indent('\t')
>>> expand_indent(' \t')
>>> expand_indent(' \t')
>>> expand_indent(' \t')
if '\t' not in line:
return len(line) - len(line.lstrip())
result = 0
for char in line:
if char == '\t':
result = result // 8 * 8 + 8
elif char == ' ':
result += 1
return result
def mute_string(text):
Replace contents with 'xxx' to prevent syntax matching.
>>> mute_string('"abc"')
>>> mute_string("'''abc'''")
>>> mute_string("r'abc'")
# String modifiers (e.g. u or r)
start = text.index(text[-1]) + 1
end = len(text) - 1
# Triple quotes
if text[-3:] in ('"""', "'''"):
start += 2
end -= 2
return text[:start] + 'x' * (end - start) + text[end:]
def parse_udiff(diff, patterns=None, parent='.'):
rv = {}
path = nrows = None
for line in diff.splitlines():
if nrows:
if line[:1] != '-':
nrows -= 1
if line[:3] == '@@ ':
row, nrows = [int(g) for g in HUNK_REGEX.match(line).groups()]
rv[path].update(range(row, row + nrows))
elif line[:3] == '+++':
path = line[4:].split('\t', 1)[0]
if path[:2] == 'b/':
path = path[2:]
rv[path] = set()
return dict([(os.path.join(parent, path), rows)
for (path, rows) in rv.items()
if rows and filename_match(path, patterns)])
def filename_match(filename, patterns, default=True):
Check if patterns contains a pattern that matches filename.
If patterns is unspecified, this always returns True.
if not patterns:
return default
return any(fnmatch(filename, pattern) for pattern in patterns)
# Framework to run all checks
def find_checks(argument_name):
Find all globally visible functions where the first argument name
starts with argument_name.
for name, function in globals().items():
if not inspect.isfunction(function):
args = inspect.getargspec(function)[0]
if args and args[0].startswith(argument_name):
codes = ERRORCODE_REGEX.findall(function.__doc__ or '')
yield name, codes, function, args
class Checker(object):
Load a Python source file, tokenize it, check coding style.
def __init__(self, filename, lines=None,
options=None, report=None, **kwargs):
if options is None:
options = StyleGuide(kwargs).options
assert not kwargs
self._io_error = None
self._physical_checks = options.physical_checks
self._logical_checks = options.logical_checks
self.max_line_length = options.max_line_length
self.verbose = options.verbose
self.filename = filename
if filename is None:
self.filename = 'stdin'
self.lines = lines or []
elif lines is None:
self.lines = readlines(filename)
except IOError:
exc_type, exc = sys.exc_info()[:2]
self._io_error = '%s: %s' % (exc_type.__name__, exc)
self.lines = []
self.lines = lines = report or
self.report_error =
def readline(self):
Get the next line from the input buffer.
self.line_number += 1
if self.line_number > len(self.lines):
return ''
return self.lines[self.line_number - 1]
def readline_check_physical(self):
Check and return the next physical line. This method can be
used to feed tokenize.generate_tokens.
line = self.readline()
if line:
return line
def run_check(self, check, argument_names):
Run a check plugin.
arguments = []
for name in argument_names:
arguments.append(getattr(self, name))
return check(*arguments)
def check_physical(self, line):
Run all physical checks on a raw input line.
self.physical_line = line
if self.indent_char is None and line[:1] in WHITESPACE:
self.indent_char = line[0]
for name, check, argument_names in self._physical_checks:
result = self.run_check(check, argument_names)
if result is not None:
offset, text = result
self.report_error(self.line_number, offset, text, check)
def build_tokens_line(self):
Build a logical line from tokens.
self.mapping = []
logical = []
length = 0
previous = None
for token in self.tokens:
token_type, text = token[0:2]
if token_type in SKIP_TOKENS:
if token_type == tokenize.STRING:
text = mute_string(text)
if previous:
end_row, end = previous[3]
start_row, start = token[2]
if end_row != start_row: # different row
prev_text = self.lines[end_row - 1][end - 1]
if prev_text == ',' or (prev_text not in '{[('
and text not in '}])'):
logical.append(' ')
length += 1
elif end != start: # different column
fill = self.lines[end_row - 1][end:start]
length += len(fill)
self.mapping.append((length, token))
length += len(text)
previous = token
self.logical_line = ''.join(logical)
assert self.logical_line.strip() == self.logical_line
def check_logical(self):
Build a line from tokens and run all logical checks on it.
first_line = self.lines[self.mapping[0][1][2][0] - 1]
indent = first_line[:self.mapping[0][1][2][1]]
self.previous_indent_level = self.indent_level
self.indent_level = expand_indent(indent)
if self.verbose >= 2:
for name, check, argument_names in self._logical_checks:
if self.verbose >= 4:
print(' ' + name)
for result in self.run_check(check, argument_names):
offset, text = result
if isinstance(offset, tuple):
orig_number, orig_offset = offset
for token_offset, token in self.mapping:
if offset >= token_offset:
orig_number = token[2][0]
orig_offset = (token[2][1] + offset - token_offset)
self.report_error(orig_number, orig_offset, text, check)
self.previous_logical = self.logical_line
def generate_tokens(self):
if self._io_error:
self.report_error(1, 0, 'E902 %s' % self._io_error, readlines)
tokengen = tokenize.generate_tokens(self.readline_check_physical)
for token in tokengen:
yield token
except (SyntaxError, tokenize.TokenError):
exc_type, exc = sys.exc_info()[:2]
offset = exc.args[1]
if len(offset) > 2:
offset = offset[1:3]
self.report_error(offset[0], offset[1],
'E901 %s: %s' % (exc_type.__name__, exc.args[0]),
generate_tokens.__doc__ = " Check if the syntax is valid."
def check_all(self, expected=None, line_offset=0):
Run all checks on the input file.
""", self.lines, expected, line_offset)
self.line_number = 0
self.indent_char = None
self.indent_level = 0
self.previous_logical = ''
self.tokens = []
self.blank_lines = blank_lines_before_comment = 0
parens = 0
for token in self.generate_tokens():
token_type, text = token[0:2]
if self.verbose >= 3:
if token[2][0] == token[3][0]:
pos = '[%s:%s]' % (token[2][1] or '', token[3][1])
pos = 'l.%s' % token[3][0]
print('l.%s\t%s\t%s\t%r' %
(token[2][0], pos, tokenize.tok_name[token[0]], text))
if token_type == tokenize.OP:
if text in '([{':
parens += 1
elif text in '}])':
parens -= 1
elif not parens:
if token_type == tokenize.NEWLINE:
if self.blank_lines < blank_lines_before_comment:
self.blank_lines = blank_lines_before_comment
self.tokens = []
self.blank_lines = blank_lines_before_comment = 0
elif token_type == tokenize.NL:
if len(self.tokens) == 1:
# The physical line contains only this token.
self.blank_lines += 1
self.tokens = []
elif token_type == tokenize.COMMENT and len(self.tokens) == 1:
if blank_lines_before_comment < self.blank_lines:
blank_lines_before_comment = self.blank_lines
self.blank_lines = 0
# The comment also ends a physical line
self.tokens = []
class BaseReport(object):
"""Collect the results of the checks."""
print_filename = False
def __init__(self, options):
self._benchmark_keys = options.benchmark_keys
self._ignore_code = options.ignore_code
# Results
self.elapsed = 0
self.total_errors = 0
self.counters = dict.fromkeys(self._benchmark_keys, 0)
self.messages = {}
def start(self):
"""Start the timer."""
self._start_time = time.time()
def stop(self):
"""Stop the timer."""
self.elapsed = time.time() - self._start_time
def init_file(self, filename, lines, expected, line_offset):
"""Signal a new file."""
self.filename = filename
self.lines = lines
self.expected = expected or ()
self.line_offset = line_offset
self.file_errors = 0
self.counters['files'] += 1
self.counters['physical lines'] += len(lines)
def increment_logical_line(self):
"""Signal a new logical line."""
self.counters['logical lines'] += 1
def error(self, line_number, offset, text, check):
"""Report an error, according to options."""
code = text[:4]
if self._ignore_code(code):
if code in self.counters:
self.counters[code] += 1
self.counters[code] = 1
self.messages[code] = text[5:]
# Don't care about expected errors or warnings
if code in self.expected:
if self.print_filename and not self.file_errors:
self.file_errors += 1
self.total_errors += 1
return code
def get_file_results(self):
"""Return the count of errors and warnings for this file."""
return self.file_errors
def get_count(self, prefix=''):
"""Return the total count of errors and warnings."""
return sum([self.counters[key]
for key in self.messages if key.startswith(prefix)])
def get_statistics(self, prefix=''):
Get statistics for message codes that start with the prefix.
prefix='' matches all errors and warnings
prefix='E' matches all errors
prefix='W' matches all warnings
prefix='E4' matches all errors that have to do with imports
return ['%-7s %s %s' % (self.counters[key], key, self.messages[key])
for key in sorted(self.messages) if key.startswith(prefix)]
def print_statistics(self, prefix=''):
"""Print overall statistics (number of errors and warnings)."""
for line in self.get_statistics(prefix):
def print_benchmark(self):
"""Print benchmark numbers."""
print('%-7.2f %s' % (self.elapsed, 'seconds elapsed'))
if self.elapsed:
for key in self._benchmark_keys:
print('%-7d %s per second (%d total)' %
(self.counters[key] / self.elapsed, key,
class FileReport(BaseReport):
print_filename = True
class StandardReport(BaseReport):
"""Collect and print the results of the checks."""
def __init__(self, options):
super(StandardReport, self).__init__(options)
self._fmt = REPORT_FORMAT.get(options.format.lower(),
self._repeat = options.repeat
self._show_source = options.show_source
self._show_pep8 = options.show_pep8
def error(self, line_number, offset, text, check):
Report an error, according to options.
code = super(StandardReport, self).error(line_number, offset,
text, check)
if code and (self.counters[code] == 1 or self._repeat):
print(self._fmt % {
'path': self.filename,
'row': self.line_offset + line_number, 'col': offset + 1,
'code': code, 'text': text[5:],
if self._show_source:
if line_number > len(self.lines):
line = ''
line = self.lines[line_number - 1]
print(' ' * offset + '^')
if self._show_pep8:
return code
class DiffReport(StandardReport):
"""Collect and print the results for the changed lines only."""
def __init__(self, options):
super(DiffReport, self).__init__(options)
self._selected = options.selected_lines
def error(self, line_number, offset, text, check):
if line_number not in self._selected[self.filename]:
return super(DiffReport, self).error(line_number, offset, text, check)
class TestReport(StandardReport):
"""Collect the results for the tests."""
def __init__(self, options):
options.benchmark_keys += ['test cases', 'failed tests']
super(TestReport, self).__init__(options)
self._verbose = options.verbose
def get_file_results(self):
# Check if the expected errors were found
label = '%s:%s:1' % (self.filename, self.line_offset)
codes = sorted(self.expected)
for code in codes:
if not self.counters.get(code):
self.file_errors += 1
self.total_errors += 1
print('%s: error %s not found' % (label, code))
if self._verbose and not self.file_errors:
print('%s: passed (%s)' %
(label, ' '.join(codes) or 'Okay'))
self.counters['test cases'] += 1
if self.file_errors:
self.counters['failed tests'] += 1
# Reset counters
for key in set(self.counters) - set(self._benchmark_keys):
del self.counters[key]
self.messages = {}
return self.file_errors
def print_results(self):
results = ("%(physical lines)d lines tested: %(files)d files, "
"%(test cases)d test cases%%s." % self.counters)
if self.total_errors:
print(results % ", %s failures" % self.total_errors)
print(results % "")
print("Test failed." if self.total_errors else "Test passed.")
class StyleGuide(object):
"""Initialize a PEP-8 instance with few options."""
def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
# build options from the command line
parse_argv = kwargs.pop('parse_argv', False)
config_file = kwargs.pop('config_file', None)
options, self.paths = process_options(parse_argv=parse_argv,
if args or kwargs:
# build options from dict
options_dict = dict(*args, **kwargs)
if 'paths' in options_dict:
self.paths = options_dict['paths']
self.runner = self.input_file
self.options = options
if not options.reporter:
options.reporter = BaseReport if options.quiet else StandardReport
for index, value in enumerate(options.exclude):
options.exclude[index] = value.rstrip('/')
# Ignore all checks which are not explicitly selected = tuple( or ())
options.ignore = tuple(options.ignore or and ('',))
options.benchmark_keys = BENCHMARK_KEYS[:]
options.ignore_code = self.ignore_code
options.physical_checks = self.get_checks('physical_line')
options.logical_checks = self.get_checks('logical_line')
def init_report(self, reporter=None):
"""Initialize the report instance.""" = (reporter or self.options.reporter)(self.options)
def check_files(self, paths=None):
"""Run all checks on the paths."""
if paths is None:
paths = self.paths
report =
runner = self.runner
for path in paths:
if os.path.isdir(path):
elif not self.excluded(path):
return report
def input_file(self, filename, lines=None, expected=None, line_offset=0):
"""Run all checks on a Python source file."""
if self.options.verbose:
print('checking %s' % filename)
fchecker = Checker(filename, lines=lines, options=self.options)
return fchecker.check_all(expected=expected, line_offset=line_offset)
def input_dir(self, dirname):
"""Check all files in this directory and all subdirectories."""
dirname = dirname.rstrip('/')
if self.excluded(dirname):
return 0
counters =
verbose = self.options.verbose
filepatterns = self.options.filename
runner = self.runner
for root, dirs, files in os.walk(dirname):
if verbose:
print('directory ' + root)
counters['directories'] += 1
for subdir in sorted(dirs):
if self.excluded(subdir):
for filename in sorted(files):
# contain a pattern that matches?
if ((filename_match(filename, filepatterns) and
not self.excluded(filename))):
runner(os.path.join(root, filename))
def excluded(self, filename):
Check if options.exclude contains a pattern that matches filename.
basename = os.path.basename(filename)
return filename_match(basename, self.options.exclude, default=False)
def ignore_code(self, code):
Check if the error code should be ignored.
If '' contains a prefix of the error code,
return False. Else, if 'options.ignore' contains a prefix of
the error code, return True.
return (code.startswith(self.options.ignore) and
not code.startswith(
def get_checks(self, argument_name):
Find all globally visible functions where the first argument name
starts with argument_name and which contain selected tests.
checks = []
for name, codes, function, args in find_checks(argument_name):
if any(not (code and self.ignore_code(code)) for code in codes):
checks.append((name, function, args))
return sorted(checks)
def init_tests(pep8style):
Initialize testing framework.
A test file can provide many tests. Each test starts with a
declaration. This declaration is a single line starting with '#:'.
It declares codes of expected failures, separated by spaces or 'Okay'
if no failure is expected.
If the file does not contain such declaration, it should pass all
tests. If the declaration is empty, following lines are not checked,
until next declaration.
* Only E224 and W701 are expected: #: E224 W701
* Following example is conform: #: Okay
* Don't check these lines: #:
report = pep8style.init_report(TestReport)
runner = pep8style.input_file
def run_tests(filename):
"""Run all the tests from a file."""
lines = readlines(filename) + ['#:\n']
line_offset = 0
codes = ['Okay']
testcase = []
count_files = report.counters['files']
for index, line in enumerate(lines):
if not line.startswith('#:'):
if codes:
# Collect the lines of the test case
if codes and index:
codes = [c for c in codes if c != 'Okay']
# Run the checker
runner(filename, testcase, expected=codes,
# output the real line numbers
line_offset = index + 1
# configure the expected errors
codes = line.split()[1:]
# empty the test case buffer
del testcase[:]
report.counters['files'] = count_files + 1
return report.counters['failed tests']
pep8style.runner = run_tests
def selftest(options):
Test all check functions with test cases in docstrings.
count_failed = count_all = 0
report = BaseReport(options)
counters = report.counters
checks = options.physical_checks + options.logical_checks
for name, check, argument_names in checks:
for line in check.__doc__.splitlines():
line = line.lstrip()
match = SELFTEST_REGEX.match(line)
if match is None:
code, source = match.groups()
checker = Checker(None, options=options, report=report)
for part in source.split(r'\n'):
part = part.replace(r'\t', '\t')
part = part.replace(r'\s', ' ')
checker.lines.append(part + '\n')
error = None
if code == 'Okay':
if len(counters) > len(options.benchmark_keys):
codes = [key for key in counters
if key not in options.benchmark_keys]
error = "incorrectly found %s" % ', '.join(codes)
elif not counters.get(code):
error = "failed to find %s" % code
# Keep showing errors for multiple tests
for key in set(counters) - set(options.benchmark_keys):
del counters[key]
report.messages = {}
count_all += 1
if not error:
if options.verbose:
print("%s: %s" % (code, source))
count_failed += 1
print("%s: %s:" % (__file__, error))
for line in checker.lines:
return count_failed, count_all
def read_config(options, args, arglist, parser):
"""Read both user configuration and local configuration."""
config = RawConfigParser()
user_conf = options.config
if user_conf and os.path.isfile(user_conf):
if options.verbose:
print('user configuration: %s' % user_conf)
parent = tail = args and os.path.abspath(os.path.commonprefix(args))
while tail:
local_conf = os.path.join(parent, '.pep8')
if os.path.isfile(local_conf):
if options.verbose:
print('local configuration: %s' % local_conf)
parent, tail = os.path.split(parent)
if config.has_section('pep8'):
option_list = dict([(o.dest, o.type or o.action)
for o in parser.option_list])
# First, read the default values
new_options, _ = parser.parse_args([])
# Second, parse the configuration
for opt in config.options('pep8'):
if options.verbose > 1:
print(' %s = %s' % (opt, config.get('pep8', opt)))
if opt.replace('_', '-') not in parser.config_options:
print('Unknown option: \'%s\'\n not in [%s]' %
(opt, ' '.join(parser.config_options)))
normalized_opt = opt.replace('-', '_')
opt_type = option_list[normalized_opt]
if opt_type in ('int', 'count'):
value = config.getint('pep8', opt)
elif opt_type == 'string':
value = config.get('pep8', opt)
assert opt_type in ('store_true', 'store_false')
value = config.getboolean('pep8', opt)
setattr(new_options, normalized_opt, value)
# Third, overwrite with the command-line options
options, _ = parser.parse_args(arglist, values=new_options)
return options
def process_options(arglist=None, parse_argv=False, config_file=None):
"""Process options passed either via arglist or via command line args."""
if not arglist and not parse_argv:
# Don't read the command line if the module is used as a library.
arglist = []
if config_file is True:
config_file = DEFAULT_CONFIG
parser = OptionParser(version=__version__,
usage="%prog [options] input ...")
parser.config_options = [
'exclude', 'filename', 'select', 'ignore', 'max-line-length', 'count',
'format', 'quiet', 'show-pep8', 'show-source', 'statistics', 'verbose']
parser.add_option('-v', '--verbose', default=0, action='count',
help="print status messages, or debug with -vv")
parser.add_option('-q', '--quiet', default=0, action='count',
help="report only file names, or nothing with -qq")
parser.add_option('-r', '--repeat', default=True, action='store_true',
help="(obsolete) show all occurrences of the same error")
parser.add_option('--first', action='store_false', dest='repeat',
help="show first occurrence of each error")
parser.add_option('--exclude', metavar='patterns', default=DEFAULT_EXCLUDE,
help="exclude files or directories which match these "
"comma separated patterns (default: %default)")
parser.add_option('--filename', metavar='patterns', default='*.py',
help="when parsing directories, only check filenames "
"matching these comma separated patterns "
"(default: %default)")
parser.add_option('--select', metavar='errors', default='',
help="select errors and warnings (e.g. E,W6)")
parser.add_option('--ignore', metavar='errors', default='',
help="skip errors and warnings (e.g. E4,W)")
parser.add_option('--show-source', action='store_true',
help="show source code for each error")
parser.add_option('--show-pep8', action='store_true',
help="show text of PEP 8 for each error "
"(implies --first)")
parser.add_option('--statistics', action='store_true',
help="count errors and warnings")
parser.add_option('--count', action='store_true',
help="print total number of errors and warnings "
"to standard error and set exit code to 1 if "
"total is not null")
parser.add_option('--max-line-length', type='int', metavar='n',
help="set maximum allowed line length "
"(default: %default)")
parser.add_option('--format', metavar='format', default='default',
help="set the error format [default|pylint|<custom>]")
parser.add_option('--diff', action='store_true',
help="report only lines changed according to the "
"unified diff received on STDIN")
group = parser.add_option_group("Testing Options")
group.add_option('--testsuite', metavar='dir',
help="run regression tests from dir")
group.add_option('--doctest', action='store_true',
help="run doctest on myself")
group.add_option('--benchmark', action='store_true',
help="measure processing speed")
group = parser.add_option_group("Configuration", description=(
"The project options are read from the [pep8] section of the .pep8 "
"file located in any parent folder of the path(s) being processed. "
"Allowed options are: %s." % ', '.join(parser.config_options)))
group.add_option('--config', metavar='path', default=config_file,
help="config file location (default: %default)")
options, args = parser.parse_args(arglist)
options.reporter = None
if options.testsuite:
elif not options.doctest:
if parse_argv and not args:
if os.path.exists('.pep8') or options.diff:
args = ['.']
parser.error('input not specified')
options = read_config(options, args, arglist, parser)
options.reporter = parse_argv and options.quiet == 1 and FileReport
if options.filename:
options.filename = options.filename.split(',')
options.exclude = options.exclude.split(',')
if =',')
if options.ignore:
options.ignore = options.ignore.split(',')
elif not ( or
options.testsuite or options.doctest) and DEFAULT_IGNORE:
# The default choice: ignore controversial checks
# (for doctest and testsuite, all checks are required)
options.ignore = DEFAULT_IGNORE.split(',')
if options.diff:
options.reporter = DiffReport
stdin = stdin_get_value()
options.selected_lines = parse_udiff(stdin, options.filename, args[0])
args = sorted(options.selected_lines)
return options, args
def _main():
"""Parse options and run checks on Python source."""
pep8style = StyleGuide(parse_argv=True, config_file=True)
options = pep8style.options
if options.doctest:
import doctest
fail_d, done_d = doctest.testmod(report=False, verbose=options.verbose)
fail_s, done_s = selftest(options)
count_failed = fail_s + fail_d
if not options.quiet:
count_passed = done_d + done_s - count_failed
print("%d passed and %d failed." % (count_passed, count_failed))
print("Test failed." if count_failed else "Test passed.")
if count_failed:
if options.testsuite:
report = pep8style.check_files()
if options.statistics:
if options.benchmark:
if options.testsuite and not options.quiet:
if report.total_errors:
if options.count:
sys.stderr.write(str(report.total_errors) + '\n')
if __name__ == '__main__':