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// Copyright 2014 the V8 project authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
#include "src/compiler/instruction.h"
#include "src/zone-containers.h"
namespace v8 {
namespace internal {
namespace compiler {
class PipelineStatistics;
enum RegisterKind {
// This class represents a single point of a InstructionOperand's lifetime. For
// each instruction there are exactly two lifetime positions: the beginning and
// the end of the instruction. Lifetime positions for different instructions are
// disjoint.
class LifetimePosition FINAL {
// Return the lifetime position that corresponds to the beginning of
// the instruction with the given index.
static LifetimePosition FromInstructionIndex(int index) {
return LifetimePosition(index * kStep);
// Returns a numeric representation of this lifetime position.
int Value() const { return value_; }
// Returns the index of the instruction to which this lifetime position
// corresponds.
int InstructionIndex() const {
return value_ / kStep;
// Returns true if this lifetime position corresponds to the instruction
// start.
bool IsInstructionStart() const { return (value_ & (kStep - 1)) == 0; }
// Returns the lifetime position for the start of the instruction which
// corresponds to this lifetime position.
LifetimePosition InstructionStart() const {
return LifetimePosition(value_ & ~(kStep - 1));
// Returns the lifetime position for the end of the instruction which
// corresponds to this lifetime position.
LifetimePosition InstructionEnd() const {
return LifetimePosition(InstructionStart().Value() + kStep / 2);
// Returns the lifetime position for the beginning of the next instruction.
LifetimePosition NextInstruction() const {
return LifetimePosition(InstructionStart().Value() + kStep);
// Returns the lifetime position for the beginning of the previous
// instruction.
LifetimePosition PrevInstruction() const {
DCHECK(value_ > 1);
return LifetimePosition(InstructionStart().Value() - kStep);
// Constructs the lifetime position which does not correspond to any
// instruction.
LifetimePosition() : value_(-1) {}
// Returns true if this lifetime positions corrensponds to some
// instruction.
bool IsValid() const { return value_ != -1; }
static inline LifetimePosition Invalid() { return LifetimePosition(); }
static inline LifetimePosition MaxPosition() {
// We have to use this kind of getter instead of static member due to
// crash bug in GDB.
return LifetimePosition(kMaxInt);
static const int kStep = 2;
// Code relies on kStep being a power of two.
explicit LifetimePosition(int value) : value_(value) {}
int value_;
// Representation of the non-empty interval [start,end[.
class UseInterval FINAL : public ZoneObject {
UseInterval(LifetimePosition start, LifetimePosition end)
: start_(start), end_(end), next_(NULL) {
DCHECK(start.Value() < end.Value());
LifetimePosition start() const { return start_; }
LifetimePosition end() const { return end_; }
UseInterval* next() const { return next_; }
// Split this interval at the given position without effecting the
// live range that owns it. The interval must contain the position.
void SplitAt(LifetimePosition pos, Zone* zone);
// If this interval intersects with other return smallest position
// that belongs to both of them.
LifetimePosition Intersect(const UseInterval* other) const {
if (other->start().Value() < start_.Value()) return other->Intersect(this);
if (other->start().Value() < end_.Value()) return other->start();
return LifetimePosition::Invalid();
bool Contains(LifetimePosition point) const {
return start_.Value() <= point.Value() && point.Value() < end_.Value();
void set_start(LifetimePosition start) { start_ = start; }
void set_next(UseInterval* next) { next_ = next; }
LifetimePosition start_;
LifetimePosition end_;
UseInterval* next_;
// Representation of a use position.
class UsePosition FINAL : public ZoneObject {
UsePosition(LifetimePosition pos, InstructionOperand* operand,
InstructionOperand* hint);
InstructionOperand* operand() const { return operand_; }
bool HasOperand() const { return operand_ != NULL; }
InstructionOperand* hint() const { return hint_; }
bool HasHint() const;
bool RequiresRegister() const;
bool RegisterIsBeneficial() const;
LifetimePosition pos() const { return pos_; }
UsePosition* next() const { return next_; }
void set_next(UsePosition* next) { next_ = next; }
InstructionOperand* const operand_;
InstructionOperand* const hint_;
LifetimePosition const pos_;
UsePosition* next_;
bool requires_reg_ : 1;
bool register_beneficial_ : 1;
// Representation of SSA values' live ranges as a collection of (continuous)
// intervals over the instruction ordering.
class LiveRange FINAL : public ZoneObject {
static const int kInvalidAssignment = 0x7fffffff;
LiveRange(int id, Zone* zone);
UseInterval* first_interval() const { return first_interval_; }
UsePosition* first_pos() const { return first_pos_; }
LiveRange* parent() const { return parent_; }
LiveRange* TopLevel() { return (parent_ == NULL) ? this : parent_; }
const LiveRange* TopLevel() const {
return (parent_ == NULL) ? this : parent_;
LiveRange* next() const { return next_; }
bool IsChild() const { return parent() != NULL; }
int id() const { return id_; }
bool IsFixed() const { return id_ < 0; }
bool IsEmpty() const { return first_interval() == NULL; }
InstructionOperand* CreateAssignedOperand(Zone* zone) const;
int assigned_register() const { return assigned_register_; }
int spill_start_index() const { return spill_start_index_; }
void set_assigned_register(int reg, Zone* zone);
void MakeSpilled(Zone* zone);
bool is_phi() const { return is_phi_; }
void set_is_phi(bool is_phi) { is_phi_ = is_phi; }
bool is_non_loop_phi() const { return is_non_loop_phi_; }
void set_is_non_loop_phi(bool is_non_loop_phi) {
is_non_loop_phi_ = is_non_loop_phi;
// Returns use position in this live range that follows both start
// and last processed use position.
// Modifies internal state of live range!
UsePosition* NextUsePosition(LifetimePosition start);
// Returns use position for which register is required in this live
// range and which follows both start and last processed use position
// Modifies internal state of live range!
UsePosition* NextRegisterPosition(LifetimePosition start);
// Returns use position for which register is beneficial in this live
// range and which follows both start and last processed use position
// Modifies internal state of live range!
UsePosition* NextUsePositionRegisterIsBeneficial(LifetimePosition start);
// Returns use position for which register is beneficial in this live
// range and which precedes start.
UsePosition* PreviousUsePositionRegisterIsBeneficial(LifetimePosition start);
// Can this live range be spilled at this position.
bool CanBeSpilled(LifetimePosition pos);
// Split this live range at the given position which must follow the start of
// the range.
// All uses following the given position will be moved from this
// live range to the result live range.
void SplitAt(LifetimePosition position, LiveRange* result, Zone* zone);
RegisterKind Kind() const { return kind_; }
bool HasRegisterAssigned() const {
return assigned_register_ != kInvalidAssignment;
bool IsSpilled() const { return spilled_; }
InstructionOperand* current_hint_operand() const {
DCHECK(current_hint_operand_ == FirstHint());
return current_hint_operand_;
InstructionOperand* FirstHint() const {
UsePosition* pos = first_pos_;
while (pos != NULL && !pos->HasHint()) pos = pos->next();
if (pos != NULL) return pos->hint();
return NULL;
LifetimePosition Start() const {
return first_interval()->start();
LifetimePosition End() const {
return last_interval_->end();
bool HasAllocatedSpillOperand() const;
InstructionOperand* GetSpillOperand() const { return spill_operand_; }
void SetSpillOperand(InstructionOperand* operand);
void SetSpillStartIndex(int start) {
spill_start_index_ = Min(start, spill_start_index_);
bool ShouldBeAllocatedBefore(const LiveRange* other) const;
bool CanCover(LifetimePosition position) const;
bool Covers(LifetimePosition position);
LifetimePosition FirstIntersection(LiveRange* other);
// Add a new interval or a new use position to this live range.
void EnsureInterval(LifetimePosition start, LifetimePosition end, Zone* zone);
void AddUseInterval(LifetimePosition start, LifetimePosition end, Zone* zone);
void AddUsePosition(LifetimePosition pos, InstructionOperand* operand,
InstructionOperand* hint, Zone* zone);
// Shorten the most recently added interval by setting a new start.
void ShortenTo(LifetimePosition start);
#ifdef DEBUG
// True if target overlaps an existing interval.
bool HasOverlap(UseInterval* target) const;
void Verify() const;
void ConvertOperands(Zone* zone);
UseInterval* FirstSearchIntervalForPosition(LifetimePosition position) const;
void AdvanceLastProcessedMarker(UseInterval* to_start_of,
LifetimePosition but_not_past) const;
int id_;
bool spilled_;
bool is_phi_;
bool is_non_loop_phi_;
RegisterKind kind_;
int assigned_register_;
UseInterval* last_interval_;
UseInterval* first_interval_;
UsePosition* first_pos_;
LiveRange* parent_;
LiveRange* next_;
// This is used as a cache, it doesn't affect correctness.
mutable UseInterval* current_interval_;
UsePosition* last_processed_use_;
// This is used as a cache, it's invalid outside of BuildLiveRanges.
InstructionOperand* current_hint_operand_;
InstructionOperand* spill_operand_;
int spill_start_index_;
friend class RegisterAllocator; // Assigns to kind_.
class RegisterAllocator FINAL {
enum VerificationType { kNoVerify, kVerifyAssignment };
explicit RegisterAllocator(const RegisterConfiguration* config,
Zone* local_zone, Frame* frame,
InstructionSequence* code,
const char* debug_name = nullptr);
bool Allocate(PipelineStatistics* stats = NULL,
VerificationType verification_type = kNoVerify);
bool AllocationOk() { return allocation_ok_; }
BitVector* assigned_registers() { return assigned_registers_; }
BitVector* assigned_double_registers() { return assigned_double_registers_; }
const ZoneList<LiveRange*>& live_ranges() const { return live_ranges_; }
const ZoneVector<LiveRange*>& fixed_live_ranges() const {
return fixed_live_ranges_;
const ZoneVector<LiveRange*>& fixed_double_live_ranges() const {
return fixed_double_live_ranges_;
InstructionSequence* code() const { return code_; }
// This zone is for datastructures only needed during register allocation.
Zone* local_zone() const { return local_zone_; }
int GetVirtualRegister() {
int vreg = code()->NextVirtualRegister();
if (vreg >= UnallocatedOperand::kMaxVirtualRegisters) {
allocation_ok_ = false;
// Maintain the invariant that we return something below the maximum.
return 0;
return vreg;
// Checks whether the value of a given virtual register is a reference.
// TODO(titzer): rename this to IsReference.
bool HasTaggedValue(int virtual_register) const;
// Returns the register kind required by the given virtual register.
RegisterKind RequiredRegisterKind(int virtual_register) const;
// This zone is for InstructionOperands and moves that live beyond register
// allocation.
Zone* code_zone() const { return code()->zone(); }
#ifdef DEBUG
void Verify() const;
void MeetRegisterConstraints();
void ResolvePhis();
void BuildLiveRanges();
void AllocateGeneralRegisters();
void AllocateDoubleRegisters();
void ConnectRanges();
void ResolveControlFlow();
void PopulatePointerMaps(); // TODO(titzer): rename to PopulateReferenceMaps.
void AllocateRegisters();
bool CanEagerlyResolveControlFlow(const InstructionBlock* block) const;
bool SafePointsAreInOrder() const;
// Liveness analysis support.
void InitializeLivenessAnalysis();
BitVector* ComputeLiveOut(const InstructionBlock* block);
void AddInitialIntervals(const InstructionBlock* block, BitVector* live_out);
bool IsOutputRegisterOf(Instruction* instr, int index);
bool IsOutputDoubleRegisterOf(Instruction* instr, int index);
void ProcessInstructions(const InstructionBlock* block, BitVector* live);
void MeetRegisterConstraints(const InstructionBlock* block);
void MeetConstraintsBetween(Instruction* first, Instruction* second,
int gap_index);
void MeetRegisterConstraintsForLastInstructionInBlock(
const InstructionBlock* block);
void ResolvePhis(const InstructionBlock* block);
// Helper methods for building intervals.
InstructionOperand* AllocateFixed(UnallocatedOperand* operand, int pos,
bool is_tagged);
LiveRange* LiveRangeFor(InstructionOperand* operand);
void Define(LifetimePosition position, InstructionOperand* operand,
InstructionOperand* hint);
void Use(LifetimePosition block_start, LifetimePosition position,
InstructionOperand* operand, InstructionOperand* hint);
void AddConstraintsGapMove(int index, InstructionOperand* from,
InstructionOperand* to);
// Helper methods for updating the life range lists.
void AddToActive(LiveRange* range);
void AddToInactive(LiveRange* range);
void AddToUnhandledSorted(LiveRange* range);
void AddToUnhandledUnsorted(LiveRange* range);
void SortUnhandled();
bool UnhandledIsSorted();
void ActiveToHandled(LiveRange* range);
void ActiveToInactive(LiveRange* range);
void InactiveToHandled(LiveRange* range);
void InactiveToActive(LiveRange* range);
void FreeSpillSlot(LiveRange* range);
InstructionOperand* TryReuseSpillSlot(LiveRange* range);
// Helper methods for allocating registers.
bool TryAllocateFreeReg(LiveRange* range);
void AllocateBlockedReg(LiveRange* range);
// Live range splitting helpers.
// Split the given range at the given position.
// If range starts at or after the given position then the
// original range is returned.
// Otherwise returns the live range that starts at pos and contains
// all uses from the original range that follow pos. Uses at pos will
// still be owned by the original range after splitting.
LiveRange* SplitRangeAt(LiveRange* range, LifetimePosition pos);
// Split the given range in a position from the interval [start, end].
LiveRange* SplitBetween(LiveRange* range, LifetimePosition start,
LifetimePosition end);
// Find a lifetime position in the interval [start, end] which
// is optimal for splitting: it is either header of the outermost
// loop covered by this interval or the latest possible position.
LifetimePosition FindOptimalSplitPos(LifetimePosition start,
LifetimePosition end);
// Spill the given life range after position pos.
void SpillAfter(LiveRange* range, LifetimePosition pos);
// Spill the given life range after position [start] and up to position [end].
void SpillBetween(LiveRange* range, LifetimePosition start,
LifetimePosition end);
// Spill the given life range after position [start] and up to position [end].
// Range is guaranteed to be spilled at least until position [until].
void SpillBetweenUntil(LiveRange* range, LifetimePosition start,
LifetimePosition until, LifetimePosition end);
void SplitAndSpillIntersecting(LiveRange* range);
// If we are trying to spill a range inside the loop try to
// hoist spill position out to the point just before the loop.
LifetimePosition FindOptimalSpillingPos(LiveRange* range,
LifetimePosition pos);
void Spill(LiveRange* range);
bool IsBlockBoundary(LifetimePosition pos);
// Helper methods for resolving control flow.
void ResolveControlFlow(const InstructionBlock* block,
const LiveRange* cur_cover,
const InstructionBlock* pred,
const LiveRange* pred_cover);
void SetLiveRangeAssignedRegister(LiveRange* range, int reg);
// Return parallel move that should be used to connect ranges split at the
// given position.
ParallelMove* GetConnectingParallelMove(LifetimePosition pos);
// Return the block which contains give lifetime position.
const InstructionBlock* GetInstructionBlock(LifetimePosition pos);
// Helper methods for the fixed registers.
int RegisterCount() const;
static int FixedLiveRangeID(int index) { return -index - 1; }
int FixedDoubleLiveRangeID(int index);
LiveRange* FixedLiveRangeFor(int index);
LiveRange* FixedDoubleLiveRangeFor(int index);
LiveRange* LiveRangeFor(int index);
GapInstruction* GetLastGap(const InstructionBlock* block);
const char* RegisterName(int allocation_index);
Instruction* InstructionAt(int index) { return code()->InstructionAt(index); }
Frame* frame() const { return frame_; }
const char* debug_name() const { return debug_name_; }
const RegisterConfiguration* config() const { return config_; }
Zone* const local_zone_;
Frame* const frame_;
InstructionSequence* const code_;
const char* const debug_name_;
const RegisterConfiguration* config_;
// During liveness analysis keep a mapping from block id to live_in sets
// for blocks already analyzed.
ZoneList<BitVector*> live_in_sets_;
// Liveness analysis results.
ZoneList<LiveRange*> live_ranges_;
// Lists of live ranges
ZoneVector<LiveRange*> fixed_live_ranges_;
ZoneVector<LiveRange*> fixed_double_live_ranges_;
ZoneList<LiveRange*> unhandled_live_ranges_;
ZoneList<LiveRange*> active_live_ranges_;
ZoneList<LiveRange*> inactive_live_ranges_;
ZoneList<LiveRange*> reusable_slots_;
RegisterKind mode_;
int num_registers_;
BitVector* assigned_registers_;
BitVector* assigned_double_registers_;
// Indicates success or failure during register allocation.
bool allocation_ok_;
#ifdef DEBUG
LifetimePosition allocation_finger_;
} // namespace v8::internal::compiler