blob: 50b42d6a97294ef8359682e7f2ec948157dd0f50 [file] [log] [blame]
#!/usr/bin/env python
# Copyright 2016 The LUCI Authors. All rights reserved.
# Use of this source code is governed under the Apache License, Version 2.0
# that can be found in the LICENSE file.
"""A low-level blob storage/retrieval interface to the Isolate server"""
import base64
import collections
import hashlib
import logging
import os
import re
import sys
import threading
import time
import types
import uuid
from utils import file_path
from utils import net
import isolated_format
import grpc # for error codes
from utils import grpc_proxy
from proto import bytestream_pb2
# If not present, grpc crashes later.
import pyasn1_modules
except ImportError as err:
grpc = None
grpc_proxy = None
bytestream_pb2 = None
# Chunk size to use when reading from network stream.
NET_IO_FILE_CHUNK = 16 * 1024
# Read timeout in seconds for downloads from isolate storage. If there's no
# response from the server within this timeout whole download will be aborted.
# Stores the gRPC proxy address. Must be set if the storage API class is
# IsolateServerGrpc (call 'set_grpc_proxy').
_grpc_proxy = None
class ServerRef(object):
"""ServerRef is a reference to the remote cache.
This is expected to be an isolate server.
def __init__(self, url, namespace):
url: URL of isolate service to use shared cloud based storage.
namespace: isolate namespace to operate in, also defines hashing and
compression scheme used, e.g. namespace names that end with '-gzip'
store compressed data.
assert file_path.is_url(url) or not url, url
self._url = url.rstrip('/')
self._namespace = namespace
self._hash_algo = hashlib.sha1
self._hash_algo_name = 'sha-1'
if self.namespace.startswith('sha256-'):
self._hash_algo = hashlib.sha256
self._hash_algo_name = 'sha-256'
if self.namespace.startswith('sha512-'):
self._hash_algo = hashlib.sha512
self._hash_algo_name = 'sha-512'
self._is_with_compression = self.namespace.endswith(('-gzip', '-deflate'))
def url(self):
return self._url
def namespace(self):
return self._namespace
def hash_algo(self):
"""Hashing algorithm class to use when uploading to given |namespace|."""
return self._hash_algo
def hash_algo_name(self):
return self._hash_algo_name
def is_with_compression(self):
"""True if given |namespace| stores compressed objects.
This means that this is the responsibility of the client to compress the
data *before* uploading and decompress *after* downloading.
return self._is_with_compression
class Item(object):
"""An item to push to Storage.
Its digest and size may be provided in advance, if known. Otherwise they will
be derived from content(). If digest is provided, it MUST correspond to
hash algorithm used by Storage.
When used with Storage, Item starts its life in a main thread, travels
to 'contains' thread, then to 'push' thread and then finally back to
the main thread. It is never used concurrently from multiple threads.
def __init__(
self, digest=None, size=None, high_priority=False,
self._digest = digest
self._size = size
self._high_priority = high_priority
self._compression_level = compression_level
def digest(self):
assert self._digest
return self._digest
def size(self):
return self._size
def high_priority(self):
return self._high_priority
def compression_level(self):
return self._compression_level
def content(self):
"""Iterable with content of this item as byte string (str) chunks."""
raise NotImplementedError()
class StorageApi(object):
"""Interface for classes that implement low-level storage operations.
StorageApi is oblivious of compression and hashing scheme used. This details
are handled in higher level Storage class.
Clients should generally not use StorageApi directly. Storage class is
preferred since it implements compression and upload optimizations.
def server_ref(self):
"""ServerRef instance."""
raise NotImplementedError()
def internal_compression(self):
"""True if this class doesn't require external compression.
If true, callers should not compress items, even if the namespace indicates
otherwise. Compression will be performed by the StorageApi class.
return False
def fetch(self, digest, size, offset):
"""Fetches an object and yields its content.
digest: hash digest of item to download.
size: size of the item to download if known, or None otherwise.
offset: offset (in bytes) from the start of the file to resume fetch from.
Chunks of downloaded item (as str objects).
raise NotImplementedError()
def push(self, item, push_state, content=None):
"""Uploads an |item| with content generated by |content| generator.
|item| MUST go through 'contains' call to get |push_state| before it can
be pushed to the storage.
To be clear, here is one possible usage:
all_items = [... all items to push as Item subclasses ...]
for missing_item, push_state in storage_api.contains(all_items).items():
storage_api.push(missing_item, push_state)
When pushing to a namespace with compression, data that should be pushed
and data provided by the item is not the same. In that case |content| is
not None and it yields chunks of compressed data (using item.content() as
a source of original uncompressed data). This is implemented by Storage
item: Item object that holds information about an item being pushed.
push_state: push state object as returned by 'contains' call.
content: a generator that yields chunks to push, item.content() if None.
raise NotImplementedError()
def contains(self, items):
"""Checks for |items| on the server, prepares missing ones for upload.
items: list of Item objects to check for presence.
A dict missing Item -> opaque push state object to be passed to 'push'.
See doc string for 'push'.
raise NotImplementedError()
class _IsolateServerPushState(object):
"""Per-item state passed from IsolateServer.contains to IsolateServer.push.
Note this needs to be a global class to support pickling.
def __init__(self, preupload_status, size):
self.preupload_status = preupload_status
gs_upload_url = preupload_status.get('gs_upload_url') or None
if gs_upload_url:
self.upload_url = gs_upload_url
self.finalize_url = '_ah/api/isolateservice/v1/finalize_gs_upload'
self.upload_url = '_ah/api/isolateservice/v1/store_inline'
self.finalize_url = None
self.uploaded = False
self.finalized = False
self.size = size
def guard_memory_use(server, content, size):
"""Guards a server against using excessive memory while uploading.
The server needs to contain a _memory_use int and a _lock mutex
(both IsolateServer and IsolateServerGrpc qualify); this function
then uses those values to track memory usage in a thread-safe way.
If a request would cause the memory usage to exceed a safe maximum,
this function sleeps in 0.1s increments until memory usage falls
below the maximum.
if isinstance(content, (basestring, list)):
# Memory is already used, too late.
with server._lock:
server._memory_use += size
# TODO(vadimsh): Do not read from |content| generator when retrying push.
# If |content| is indeed a generator, it can not be re-winded back to the
# beginning of the stream. A retry will find it exhausted. A possible
# solution is to wrap |content| generator with some sort of caching
# restartable generator. It should be done alongside streaming support
# implementation.
# In theory, we should keep the generator, so that it is not serialized in
# memory. Sadly net.HttpService.request() requires the body to be
# serialized.
assert isinstance(content, types.GeneratorType), repr(content)
slept = False
# HACK HACK HACK. Please forgive me for my sins but OMG, it works!
# One byte less than 512mb. This is to cope with incompressible content.
max_size = int(sys.maxsize * 0.25)
while True:
with server._lock:
# This is due to 32 bits python when uploading very large files. The
# problem is that it's comparing uncompressed sizes, while we care
# about compressed sizes since it's what is serialized in memory.
# The first check assumes large files are compressible and that by
# throttling one upload at once, we can survive. Otherwise, kaboom.
memory_use = server._memory_use
if ((size >= max_size and not memory_use) or
(memory_use + size <= max_size)):
server._memory_use += size
memory_use = server._memory_use
slept = True
if slept:'Unblocked: %d %d', memory_use, size)
class IsolateServer(StorageApi):
"""StorageApi implementation that downloads and uploads to Isolate Server.
It uploads and downloads directly from Google Storage whenever appropriate.
Works only within single namespace.
def __init__(self, server_ref):
super(IsolateServer, self).__init__()
assert isinstance(server_ref, ServerRef), repr(server_ref)
self._server_ref = server_ref
algo_name = server_ref.hash_algo_name
self._namespace_dict = {
'compression': 'flate' if server_ref.is_with_compression else '',
'digest_hash': algo_name,
'namespace': server_ref.namespace,
self._lock = threading.Lock()
self._server_caps = None
self._memory_use = 0
def _server_capabilities(self):
"""Gets server details.
Server capabilities dictionary as returned by /server_details endpoint.
# TODO(maruel): Make this request much earlier asynchronously while the
# files are being enumerated.
# TODO(vadimsh): Put |namespace| in the URL so that server can apply
# namespace-level ACLs to this call.
with self._lock:
if self._server_caps is None:
url = '%s/_ah/api/isolateservice/v1/server_details' % (
self._server_caps = net.url_read_json(url=url, data={})
return self._server_caps
def server_ref(self):
"""Returns the ServerRef instance that represents the remote server."""
return self._server_ref
def fetch(self, digest, _size, offset):
assert offset >= 0
source_url = '%s/_ah/api/isolateservice/v1/retrieve' % (
logging.debug('download_file(%s, %d)', source_url, offset)
response = self._do_fetch(source_url, digest, offset)
if not response:
raise IOError(
'Attempted to fetch from %s; no data exist: %s / %s.' % (
source_url, self.server_ref.namespace, digest))
# for DB uploads
content = response.get('content')
if content is not None:
yield base64.b64decode(content)
if not response.get('url'):
raise IOError(
'Invalid response while fetching %s: %s' % (digest, response))
# for GS entities
connection = net.url_open(response['url'])
if not connection:
raise IOError(
'Failed to download %s / %s' % (self.server_ref.namespace, digest))
# If |offset|, verify server respects it by checking Content-Range.
if offset:
content_range = connection.get_header('Content-Range')
if not content_range:
raise IOError('Missing Content-Range header')
# 'Content-Range' format is 'bytes <offset>-<last_byte_index>/<size>'.
# According to a spec, <size> can be '*' meaning "Total size of the file
# is not known in advance".
match = re.match(r'bytes (\d+)-(\d+)/(\d+|\*)', content_range)
if not match:
raise ValueError()
content_offset = int(
last_byte_index = int(
size = None if == '*' else int(
except ValueError:
raise IOError('Invalid Content-Range header: %s' % content_range)
# Ensure returned offset equals requested one.
if offset != content_offset:
raise IOError('Expecting offset %d, got %d (Content-Range is %s)' % (
offset, content_offset, content_range))
# Ensure entire tail of the file is returned.
if size is not None and last_byte_index + 1 != size:
raise IOError('Incomplete response. Content-Range: %s' % content_range)
for data in connection.iter_content(NET_IO_FILE_CHUNK):
yield data
def push(self, item, push_state, content=None):
assert isinstance(item, Item)
assert item.digest is not None
assert item.size is not None
assert isinstance(push_state, _IsolateServerPushState)
assert not push_state.finalized
# Default to item.content().
content = item.content() if content is None else content
guard_memory_use(self, content, push_state.size)
# This push operation may be a retry after failed finalization call below,
# no need to reupload contents in that case.
if not push_state.uploaded:
# PUT file to |upload_url|.
success = self._do_push(push_state, content)
if not success:
raise IOError('Failed to upload file with hash %s to URL %s' % (
item.digest, push_state.upload_url))
push_state.uploaded = True
'A file %s already uploaded, retrying finalization only',
# Optionally notify the server that it's done.
if push_state.finalize_url:
# TODO(vadimsh): Calculate MD5 or CRC32C sum while uploading a file and
# send it to isolated server. That way isolate server can verify that
# the data safely reached Google Storage (GS provides MD5 and CRC32C of
# stored files).
# TODO(maruel): Fix the server to accept properly data={} so
# url_read_json() can be used.
response = net.url_read_json(
url='%s/%s' % (self.server_ref.url, push_state.finalize_url),
'upload_ticket': push_state.preupload_status['upload_ticket'],
if not response or not response.get('ok'):
raise IOError(
'Failed to finalize file with hash %s\n%r' %
(item.digest, response))
push_state.finalized = True
with self._lock:
self._memory_use -= push_state.size
def contains(self, items):
# Ensure all items were initialized with 'prepare' call. Storage does that.
assert all(i.digest is not None and i.size is not None for i in items)
# Request body is a json encoded list of dicts.
body = {
'items': [
'digest': item.digest,
'is_isolated': bool(item.high_priority),
'size': item.size,
} for item in items
'namespace': self._namespace_dict,
query_url = '%s/_ah/api/isolateservice/v1/preupload' % self.server_ref.url
# Response body is a list of push_urls (or null if file is already present).
response = None
response = net.url_read_json(url=query_url, data=body)
if response is None:
raise isolated_format.MappingError(
'Failed to execute preupload query')
except ValueError as err:
raise isolated_format.MappingError(
'Invalid response from server: %s, body is %s' % (err, response))
# Pick Items that are missing, attach _PushState to them.
missing_items = {}
for preupload_status in response.get('items', []):
assert 'upload_ticket' in preupload_status, (
preupload_status, '/preupload did not generate an upload ticket')
index = int(preupload_status['index'])
missing_items[items[index]] = _IsolateServerPushState(
preupload_status, items[index].size)'Queried %d files, %d cache hit',
len(items), len(items) - len(missing_items))
return missing_items
def _do_fetch(self, url, digest, offset):
"""Fetches isolated data from the URL.
Used only for fetching files, not for API calls. Can be overridden in
url: URL to fetch the data from, can possibly return http redirect.
offset: byte offset inside the file to start fetching from.
net.HttpResponse compatible object, with 'read' and 'get_header' calls.
assert isinstance(offset, int)
data = {
'digest': digest.encode('utf-8'),
'namespace': self._namespace_dict,
'offset': offset,
# TODO(maruel): url + '?' + urllib.urlencode(data) once a HTTP GET endpoint
# is added.
return net.url_read_json(
def _do_push(self, push_state, content):
"""Uploads isolated file to the URL.
Used only for storing files, not for API calls. Can be overridden in
url: URL to upload the data to.
push_state: an _IsolateServicePushState instance
item: the original Item to be uploaded
content: an iterable that yields 'str' chunks.
# A cheezy way to avoid memcpy of (possibly huge) file, until streaming
# upload support is implemented.
if isinstance(content, list) and len(content) == 1:
content = content[0]
content = ''.join(content)
# DB upload
if not push_state.finalize_url:
url = '%s/%s' % (self.server_ref.url, push_state.upload_url)
content = base64.b64encode(content)
data = {
'upload_ticket': push_state.preupload_status['upload_ticket'],
'content': content,
response = net.url_read_json(url=url, data=data)
return response is not None and response['ok']
# upload to GS
url = push_state.upload_url
response = net.url_read(
headers={'Cache-Control': 'public, max-age=31536000'},
return response is not None
class _IsolateServerGrpcPushState(object):
"""Empty class, just to present same interface as IsolateServer """
def __init__(self):
class IsolateServerGrpc(StorageApi):
"""StorageApi implementation that downloads and uploads to a gRPC service.
Limitations: does not pass on namespace to the server (uses it only for hash
algo and compression), and only allows zero offsets while fetching.
def __init__(self, server_ref, proxy):
super(IsolateServerGrpc, self).__init__()
'Using gRPC for Isolate with server %s, proxy %s',
server_ref.url, proxy)
self._server_ref = server_ref
self._lock = threading.Lock()
self._memory_use = 0
self._num_pushes = 0
self._already_exists = 0
self._proxy = grpc_proxy.Proxy(proxy, bytestream_pb2.ByteStreamStub)
def internal_compression(self):
# gRPC natively compresses all messages before transmission.
return True
def server_ref(self):
"""Returns the ServerRef instance that represents the remote server."""
return self._server_ref
def fetch(self, digest, size, offset):
# The gRPC APIs only work with an offset of 0
assert offset == 0
request = bytestream_pb2.ReadRequest()
if not size:
size = -1
request.resource_name = '%s/blobs/%s/%d' % (
self._proxy.prefix, digest, size)
for response in self._proxy.get_stream('Read', request):
except grpc.RpcError as g:
logging.error('gRPC error during fetch: re-throwing as IOError (%s)' % g)
raise IOError(g)
def push(self, item, push_state, content=None):
assert isinstance(item, Item)
assert item.digest is not None
assert item.size is not None
assert isinstance(push_state, _IsolateServerGrpcPushState)
# Default to item.content().
content = item.content() if content is None else content
guard_memory_use(self, content, item.size)
self._num_pushes += 1
def chunker():
# Returns one bit of content at a time
if (isinstance(content, str)
or not isinstance(content, collections.Iterable)):
yield content
for chunk in content:
yield chunk
def slicer():
# Ensures every bit of content is under the gRPC max size; yields
# proto messages to send via gRPC.
request = bytestream_pb2.WriteRequest()
u = uuid.uuid4()
request.resource_name = '%s/uploads/%s/blobs/%s/%d' % (
self._proxy.prefix, u, item.digest, item.size)
request.write_offset = 0
for chunk in chunker():
# Make sure we send at least one chunk for zero-length blobs
has_sent_anything = False
while chunk or not has_sent_anything:
has_sent_anything = True
slice_len = min(len(chunk), NET_IO_FILE_CHUNK) = chunk[:slice_len]
if request.write_offset + slice_len == item.size:
request.finish_write = True
yield request
request.write_offset += slice_len
chunk = chunk[slice_len:]
response = None
response = self._proxy.call_no_retries('Write', slicer())
except grpc.RpcError as r:
if r.code() == grpc.StatusCode.ALREADY_EXISTS:
# This is legit - we didn't check before we pushed so no problem if
# it's already there.
self._already_exists += 1
if self._already_exists % 100 == 0:'unnecessarily pushed %d/%d blobs (%.1f%%)' % (
self._already_exists, self._num_pushes,
100.0 * self._already_exists / self._num_pushes))
logging.error('gRPC error during push: throwing as IOError (%s)' % r)
raise IOError(r)
except Exception as e:
logging.error('error during push: throwing as IOError (%s)' % e)
raise IOError(e)
if response is not None and response.committed_size != item.size:
raise IOError('%s/%d: incorrect size written (%d)' % (
item.digest, item.size, response.committed_size))
elif response is None and item.size > 0:
# This happens when the content generator is exhausted and the gRPC call
# simply returns None. Throw gRPC error as this is not recoverable.
raise grpc.RpcError('None gRPC response on uploading %s' % item.digest)
with self._lock:
self._memory_use -= item.size
def contains(self, items):
"""Returns the set of all missing items."""
# TODO(aludwin): this isn't supported directly in Bytestream, so for now
# assume that nothing is present in the cache.
# Ensure all items were initialized with 'prepare' call. Storage does that.
assert all(i.digest is not None and i.size is not None for i in items)
# Assume all Items are missing, and attach _PushState to them. The gRPC
# implementation doesn't actually have a push state, we just attach empty
# objects to satisfy the StorageApi interface.
missing_items = {}
for item in items:
missing_items[item] = _IsolateServerGrpcPushState()
return missing_items
def set_grpc_proxy(proxy):
"""Sets the StorageApi to use the specified proxy."""
global _grpc_proxy
assert _grpc_proxy is None
_grpc_proxy = proxy
def get_storage_api(server_ref):
"""Returns an object that implements low-level StorageApi interface.
It is used by Storage to work with single isolate |namespace|. It should
rarely be used directly by clients, see 'get_storage' for
a better alternative.
server_ref: ServerRef instance.
Instance of StorageApi subclass.
assert isinstance(server_ref, ServerRef), repr(server_ref)
if _grpc_proxy is not None:
return IsolateServerGrpc(server_ref.url, _grpc_proxy)
return IsolateServer(server_ref)