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 #### 8.1 Tree Coding Implementation {#h-08-01} We give a suggested implementation of a tree data structure followed by a couple of actual examples of its usage by VP8. It is most convenient to represent the values using small positive integers, typically an enum counting up from zero. The largest alphabet (used to code DCT coefficients, described in Chapter 13 that is tree-coded by VP8 has only 12 values. The tree for this alphabet adds 11 interior nodes and so has a total of 23 positions. Thus, an 8-bit number easily accommodates both a tree position and a return value. A tree may then be compactly represented as an array of (pairs of) 8-bit integers. Each (even) array index corresponds to an interior node of the tree;, the 0th index of course corresponds to the root of the tree. The array entries come in pairs corresponding to the left (0) and right (1) branches of the subtree below the interior node. We use the convention that a positive (even) branch entry is the index of a deeper interior node, while a nonpositive entry [[ v ]] corresponds to a leaf whose value is [[ -v ]]. The node probabilities associated to a tree-coded value are stored in an array whose indices are half the indices of the corresponding tree positions. The length of the probability array is one less than the size of the alphabet. Here is C code implementing the foregoing. The advantages of our data structure should be noted. Aside from the smallness of the structure itself, the tree-directed reading algorithm is essentially a single line of code. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ /* A tree specification is simply an array of 8-bit integers. */ typedef int8 tree_index; typedef const tree_index Tree[]; /* Read and return a tree-coded value at the current decoder position. */ int treed_read( bool_decoder * const d, /* bool_decoder always returns a 0 or 1 */ Tree t, /* tree specification */ const Prob p[] /* corresponding interior node probabilities */ ) { register tree_index i = 0; /* begin at root */ /* Descend tree until leaf is reached */ while( ( i = t[ i + read_bool( d, p[i>>1]) ] ) > 0) {} return -i; /* return value is negation of nonpositive index */ } ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ {:lang="c"} Tree-based decoding is implemented in the reference decoder file `bool_decoder.h`.