blob: a1c520e1c9cdc7eacbe94cffecc231b9f77d90d7 [file] [log] [blame]
PHP Markdown Extra
Version 1.2.3 - Wed 31 Dec 2008
by Michel Fortin
based on Markdown by John Gruber
This is a special version of PHP Markdown with extra features. See
<> for details.
Markdown is a text-to-HTML conversion tool for web writers. Markdown
allows you to write using an easy-to-read, easy-to-write plain text
format, then convert it to structurally valid XHTML (or HTML).
"Markdown" is two things: a plain text markup syntax, and a software
tool, written in Perl, that converts the plain text markup to HTML.
PHP Markdown is a port to PHP of the original Markdown program by
John Gruber.
PHP Markdown can work as a plug-in for WordPress and bBlog, as a
modifier for the Smarty templating engine, or as a remplacement for
textile formatting in any software that support textile.
Full documentation of Markdown's syntax is available on John's
Markdown page: <>
Installation and Requirement
PHP Markdown requires PHP version 4.0.5 or later.
### WordPress ###
PHP Markdown works with [WordPress][wp], version 1.2 or later.
1. To use PHP Markdown with WordPress, place the "makrdown.php" file
in the "plugins" folder. This folder is located inside
"wp-content" at the root of your site:
(site home)/wp-content/plugins/
2. Activate the plugin with the administrative interface of
WordPress. In the "Plugins" section you will now find Markdown.
To activate the plugin, click on the "Activate" button on the
same line than Markdown. Your entries will now be formatted by
PHP Markdown.
3. To post Markdown content, you'll first have to disable the
"visual" editor in the User section of WordPress.
You can configure PHP Markdown to not apply to the comments on your
WordPress weblog. See the "Configuration" section below.
It is not possible at this time to apply a different set of
filters to different entries. All your entries will be formated by
PHP Markdown. This is a limitation of WordPress. If your old entries
are written in HTML (as opposed to another formatting syntax, like
Textile), they'll probably stay fine after installing Markdown.
### bBlog ###
PHP Markdown also works with [bBlog][bb].
To use PHP Markdown with bBlog, rename "markdown.php" to
"modifier.markdown.php" and place the file in the "bBlog_plugins"
folder. This folder is located inside the "bblog" directory of
your site, like this:
(site home)/bblog/bBlog_plugins/modifier.markdown.php
Select "Markdown" as the "Entry Modifier" when you post a new
entry. This setting will only apply to the entry you are editing.
### Replacing Textile in TextPattern ###
[TextPattern][tp] use [Textile][tx] to format your text. You can
replace Textile by Markdown in TextPattern without having to change
any code by using the *Texitle Compatibility Mode*. This may work
with other software that expect Textile too.
1. Rename the "markdown.php" file to "classTextile.php". This will
make PHP Markdown behave as if it was the actual Textile parser.
2. Replace the "classTextile.php" file TextPattern installed in your
web directory. It can be found in the "lib" directory:
(site home)/textpattern/lib/
Contrary to Textile, Markdown does not convert quotes to curly ones
and does not convert multiple hyphens (`--` and `---`) into en- and
em-dashes. If you use PHP Markdown in Textile Compatibility Mode, you
can solve this problem by installing the "smartypants.php" file from
[PHP SmartyPants][psp] beside the "classTextile.php" file. The Textile
Compatibility Mode function will use SmartyPants automatically without
further modification.
### In Your Own Programs ###
You can use PHP Markdown easily in your current PHP program. Simply
include the file and then call the Markdown function on the text you
want to convert:
include_once "markdown.php";
$my_html = Markdown($my_text);
If you wish to use PHP Markdown with another text filter function
built to parse HTML, you should filter the text *after* the Markdown
function call. This is an example with [PHP SmartyPants][psp]:
$my_html = SmartyPants(Markdown($my_text));
### With Smarty ###
If your program use the [Smarty][sm] template engine, PHP Markdown
can now be used as a modifier for your templates. Rename "markdown.php"
to "modifier.markdown.php" and put it in your smarty plugins folder.
If you are using MovableType 3.1 or later, the Smarty plugin folder is
located at `(MT CGI root)/php/extlib/smarty/plugins`. This will allow
Markdown to work on dynamic pages.
### Updating Markdown in Other Programs ###
Many web applications now ship with PHP Markdown, or have plugins to
perform the conversion to HTML. You can update PHP Markdown -- or
replace it with PHP Markdown Extra -- in many of these programs by
swapping the old "markdown.php" file for the new one.
Here is a short non-exhaustive list of some programs and where they
hide the "markdown.php" file.
| Program | Path to Markdown
| ------- | ----------------
| [Pivot][] | `(site home)/pivot/includes/markdown/`
If you're unsure if you can do this with your application, ask the
developer, or wait for the developer to update his application or
plugin with the new version of PHP Markdown.
By default, PHP Markdown produces XHTML output for tags with empty
elements. E.g.:
<br />
Markdown can be configured to produce HTML-style tags; e.g.:
To do this, you must edit the "MARKDOWN_EMPTY_ELEMENT_SUFFIX"
definition below the "Global default settings" header at the start of
the "markdown.php" file.
### WordPress-Specific Settings ###
By default, the Markdown plugin applies to both posts and comments on
your WordPress weblog. To deactivate one or the other, edit the
`MARKDOWN_WP_POSTS` or `MARKDOWN_WP_COMMENTS` definitions under the
"WordPress settings" header at the start of the "markdown.php" file.
To file bug reports please send email to:
Please include with your report: (1) the example input; (2) the output you
expected; (3) the output PHP Markdown actually produced.
Version History
Extra 1.2.3 (31 Dec 2008):
* In WordPress pages featuring more than one post, footnote id prefixes are
now automatically applied with the current post ID to avoid clashes
between footnotes belonging to different posts.
* Fix for a bug introduced in Extra 1.2 where block-level HTML tags where
not detected correctly, thus the addition of erroneous `<p>` tags and
interpretation of their content as Markdown-formatted instead of
Extra 1.2.2 (21 Jun 2008):
* Fixed a problem where abbreviation definitions, footnote
definitions and link references were stripped inside
fenced code blocks.
* Fixed a bug where characters such as `"` in abbreviation
definitions weren't properly encoded to HTML entities.
* Fixed a bug where double quotes `"` were not correctly encoded
as HTML entities when used inside a footnote reference id.
1.0.1m (21 Jun 2008):
* Lists can now have empty items.
* Rewrote the emphasis and strong emphasis parser to fix some issues
with odly placed and overlong markers.
Extra 1.2.1 (27 May 2008):
* Fixed a problem where Markdown headers and horizontal rules were
transformed into their HTML equivalent inside fenced code blocks.
Extra 1.2 (11 May 2008):
* Added fenced code block syntax which don't require indentation
and can start and end with blank lines. A fenced code block
starts with a line of consecutive tilde (~) and ends on the
next line with the same number of consecutive tilde. Here's an
Hello World!
* Rewrote parts of the HTML block parser to better accomodate
fenced code blocks.
* Footnotes may now be referenced from within another footnote.
* Added programatically-settable parser property `predef_attr` for
predefined attribute definitions.
* Fixed an issue where an indented code block preceded by a blank
line containing some other whitespace would confuse the HTML
block parser into creating an HTML block when it should have
been code.
1.0.1l (11 May 2008):
* Now removing the UTF-8 BOM at the start of a document, if present.
* Now accepting capitalized URI schemes (such as HTTP:) in automatic
links, such as `<HTTP://EXAMPLE.COM/>`.
* Fixed a problem where `<>` was seen as a horizontal
rule instead of an automatic link.
* Fixed an issue where some characters in Markdown-generated HTML
attributes weren't properly escaped with entities.
* Fix for code blocks as first element of a list item. Previously,
this didn't create any code block for item 2:
* Item 1 (regular paragraph)
* Item 2 (code block)
* A code block starting on the second line of a document wasn't seen
as a code block. This has been fixed.
* Added programatically-settable parser properties `predef_urls` and
`predef_titles` for predefined URLs and titles for reference-style
links. To use this, your PHP code must call the parser this way:
$parser = new Markdwon_Parser;
$parser->predef_urls = array('linkref' => '');
$html = $parser->transform($text);
You can then use the URL as a normal link reference:
[my link][linkref]
[my link][linkRef]
Reference names in the parser properties *must* be lowercase.
Reference names in the Markdown source may have any case.
* Added `setup` and `teardown` methods which can be used by subclassers
as hook points to arrange the state of some parser variables before and
after parsing.
Extra 1.1.7 (26 Sep 2007):
1.0.1k (26 Sep 2007):
* Fixed a problem introduced in 1.0.1i where three or more identical
uppercase letters, as well as a few other symbols, would trigger
a horizontal line.
Extra 1.1.6 (4 Sep 2007):
1.0.1j (4 Sep 2007):
* Fixed a problem introduced in 1.0.1i where the closing `code` and
`pre` tags at the end of a code block were appearing in the wrong
* Overriding configuration settings by defining constants from an
external before markdown.php is included is now possible without
producing a PHP warning.
Extra 1.1.5 (31 Aug 2007):
1.0.1i (31 Aug 2007):
* Fixed a problem where an escaped backslash before a code span
would prevent the code span from being created. This should now
work as expected:
Litteral backslash: \\`code span`
* Overall speed improvements, especially with long documents.
Extra 1.1.4 (3 Aug 2007):
1.0.1h (3 Aug 2007):
* Added two properties (`no_markup` and `no_entities`) to the parser
allowing HTML tags and entities to be disabled.
* Fix for a problem introduced in 1.0.1g where posting comments in
WordPress would trigger PHP warnings and cause some markup to be
incorrectly filtered by the kses filter in WordPress.
Extra 1.1.3 (3 Jul 2007):
* Fixed a performance problem when parsing some invalid HTML as an HTML
block which was resulting in too much recusion and a segmentation fault
for long documents.
* The markdown="" attribute now accepts unquoted values.
* Fixed an issue where underscore-emphasis didn't work when applied on the
first or the last word of an element having the markdown="1" or
markdown="span" attribute set unless there was some surrounding whitespace.
This didn't work:
<p markdown="1">_Hello_ _world_</p>
Now it does produce emphasis as expected.
* Fixed an issue preventing footnotes from working when the parser's
footnote id prefix variable (fn_id_prefix) is not empty.
* Fixed a performance problem where the regular expression for strong
emphasis introduced in version 1.1 could sometime be long to process,
give slightly wrong results, and in some circumstances could remove
entirely the content for a whole paragraph.
* Fixed an issue were abbreviations tags could be incorrectly added
inside URLs and title of links.
* Placing footnote markers inside a link, resulting in two nested links, is
no longer allowed.
1.0.1g (3 Jul 2007):
* Fix for PHP 5 compiled without the mbstring module. Previous fix to
calculate the length of UTF-8 strings in `detab` when `mb_strlen` is
not available was only working with PHP 4.
* Fixed a problem with WordPress 2.x where full-content posts in RSS feeds
were not processed correctly by Markdown.
* Now supports URLs containing literal parentheses for inline links
and images, such as:
Such parentheses may be arbitrarily nested, but must be
balanced. Unbalenced parentheses are allowed however when the URL
when escaped or when the URL is enclosed in angle brakets `<>`.
* Fixed a performance problem where the regular expression for strong
emphasis introduced in version 1.0.1d could sometime be long to process,
give slightly wrong results, and in some circumstances could remove
entirely the content for a whole paragraph.
* Some change in version 1.0.1d made possible the incorrect nesting of
anchors within each other. This is now fixed.
* Fixed a rare issue where certain MD5 hashes in the content could
be changed to their corresponding text. For instance, this:
The MD5 value for "+" is "26b17225b626fb9238849fd60eabdf60".
was incorrectly changed to this in previous versions of PHP Markdown:
<p>The MD5 value for "+" is "+".</p>
* Now convert escaped characters to their numeric character
references equivalent.
This fix an integration issue with SmartyPants and backslash escapes.
Since Markdown and SmartyPants have some escapable characters in common,
it was sometime necessary to escape them twice. Previously, two
backslashes were sometime required to prevent Markdown from "eating" the
backslash before SmartyPants sees it:
Here are two hyphens: \\--
Now, only one backslash will do:
Here are two hyphens: \--
Extra 1.1.2 (7 Feb 2007)
* Fixed an issue where headers preceded too closely by a paragraph
(with no blank line separating them) where put inside the paragraph.
* Added the missing TextileRestricted method that was added to regular
PHP Markdown since 1.0.1d but which I forgot to add to Extra.
1.0.1f (7 Feb 2007):
* Fixed an issue with WordPress where manually-entered excerpts, but
not the auto-generated ones, would contain nested paragraphs.
* Fixed an issue introduced in 1.0.1d where headers and blockquotes
preceded too closely by a paragraph (not separated by a blank line)
where incorrectly put inside the paragraph.
* Fixed an issue introduced in 1.0.1d in the tokenizeHTML method where
two consecutive code spans would be merged into one when together they
form a valid tag in a multiline paragraph.
* Fixed an long-prevailing issue where blank lines in code blocks would
be doubled when the code block is in a list item.
This was due to the list processing functions relying on artificially
doubled blank lines to correctly determine when list items should
contain block-level content. The list item processing model was thus
changed to avoid the need for double blank lines.
* Fixed an issue with `<% asp-style %>` instructions used as inline
content where the opening `<` was encoded as `&lt;`.
* Fixed a parse error occuring when PHP is configured to accept
ASP-style delimiters as boundaries for PHP scripts.
* Fixed a bug introduced in 1.0.1d where underscores in automatic links
got swapped with emphasis tags.
Extra 1.1.1 (28 Dec 2006)
* Fixed a problem where whitespace at the end of the line of an atx-style
header would cause tailing `#` to appear as part of the header's content.
This was caused by a small error in the regex that handles the definition
for the id attribute in PHP Markdown Extra.
* Fixed a problem where empty abbreviations definitions would eat the
following line as its definition.
* Fixed an issue with calling the Markdown parser repetitivly with text
containing footnotes. The footnote hashes were not reinitialized properly.
1.0.1e (28 Dec 2006)
* Added support for internationalized domain names for email addresses in
automatic link. Improved the speed at which email addresses are converted
to entities. Thanks to Milian Wolff for his optimisations.
* Made deterministic the conversion to entities of email addresses in
automatic links. This means that a given email address will always be
encoded the same way.
* PHP Markdown will now use its own function to calculate the length of an
UTF-8 string in `detab` when `mb_strlen` is not available instead of
giving a fatal error.
Extra 1.1 (1 Dec 2006)
* Added a syntax for footnotes.
* Added an experimental syntax to define abbreviations.
1.0.1d (1 Dec 2006)
* Fixed a bug where inline images always had an empty title attribute. The
title attribute is now present only when explicitly defined.
* Link references definitions can now have an empty title, previously if the
title was defined but left empty the link definition was ignored. This can
be useful if you want an empty title attribute in images to hide the
tooltip in Internet Explorer.
* Made `detab` aware of UTF-8 characters. UTF-8 multi-byte sequences are now
correctly mapped to one character instead of the number of bytes.
* Fixed a small bug with WordPress where WordPress' default filter `wpautop`
was not properly deactivated on comment text, resulting in hard line breaks
where Markdown do not prescribes them.
* Added a `TextileRestrited` method to the textile compatibility mode. There
is no restriction however, as Markdown does not have a restricted mode at
this point. This should make PHP Markdown work again in the latest
versions of TextPattern.
* Converted PHP Markdown to a object-oriented design.
* Changed span and block gamut methods so that they loop over a
customizable list of methods. This makes subclassing the parser a more
interesting option for creating syntax extensions.
* Also added a "document" gamut loop which can be used to hook document-level
methods (like for striping link definitions).
* Changed all methods which were inserting HTML code so that they now return
a hashed representation of the code. New methods `hashSpan` and `hashBlock`
are used to hash respectivly span- and block-level generated content. This
has a couple of significant effects:
1. It prevents invalid nesting of Markdown-generated elements which
could occur occuring with constructs like `*something [link*][1]`.
2. It prevents problems occuring with deeply nested lists on which
paragraphs were ill-formed.
3. It removes the need to call `hashHTMLBlocks` twice during the the
block gamut.
Hashes are turned back to HTML prior output.
* Made the block-level HTML parser smarter using a specially-crafted regular
expression capable of handling nested tags.
* Solved backtick issues in tag attributes by rewriting the HTML tokenizer to
be aware of code spans. All these lines should work correctly now:
<span attr='`ticks`'>bar</span>
<span attr='``double ticks``'>bar</span>
`<test a="` content of attribute `">`
* Changed the parsing of HTML comments to match simply from `<!--` to `-->`
instead using of the more complicated SGML-style rule with paired `--`.
This is how most browsers parse comments and how XML defines them too.
* `<address>` has been added to the list of block-level elements and is now
treated as an HTML block instead of being wrapped within paragraph tags.
* Now only trim trailing newlines from code blocks, instead of trimming
all trailing whitespace characters.
* Fixed bug where this:
[text]( "title" )
wasn't working as expected, because the parser wasn't allowing for spaces
before the closing paren.
* Filthy hack to support markdown='1' in div tags.
* _DoAutoLinks() now supports the 'dict://' URL scheme.
* PHP- and ASP-style processor instructions are now protected as
raw HTML blocks.
<? ... ?>
<% ... %>
* Fix for escaped backticks still triggering code spans:
There are two raw backticks here: \` and here: \`, not a code span
Extra 1.0 - 5 September 2005
* Added support for setting the id attributes for headers like this:
Header 1 {#header1}
## Header 2 ## {#header2}
This only work only for headers for now.
* Tables will now work correctly as the first element of a definition
list. For example, this input:
: Header | Header
------- | -------
Cell | Cell
used to produce no definition list and a table where the first
header was named ": Header". This is now fixed.
* Fix for a problem where a paragraph following a table was not
placed between `<p>` tags.
Extra 1.0b4 - 1 August 2005
* Fixed some issues where whitespace around HTML blocks were trigging
empty paragraph tags.
* Fixed an HTML block parsing issue that would cause a block element
following a code span or block with unmatched opening bracket to be
placed inside a paragraph.
* Removed some PHP notices that could appear when parsing definition
lists and tables with PHP notice reporting flag set.
Extra 1.0b3 - 29 July 2005
* Definition lists now require a blank line before each term. Solves
an ambiguity where the last line of lazy-indented definitions could
be mistaken by PHP Markdown as a new term in the list.
* Definition lists now support multiple terms per definition.
* Some special tags were replaced in the output by their md5 hash
key. Things such as this now work as expected:
## Header <?php echo $number ?> ##
Extra 1.0b2 - 26 July 2005
* Definition lists can now take two or more definitions for one term.
This should have been the case before, but a bug prevented this
from working right.
* Fixed a problem where single column table with a pipe only at the
end where not parsed as table. Here is such a table:
| header
| ------
| cell
* Fixed problems with empty cells in the first column of a table with
no leading pipe, like this one:
header | header
------ | ------
| cell
* Code spans containing pipes did not within a table. This is now
fixed by parsing code spans before splitting rows into cells.
* Added the pipe character to the backlash escape character lists.
Extra 1.0b1 (25 Jun 2005)
* First public release of PHP Markdown Extra.
Copyright and License
Copyright (c) 2004-2005 Michel Fortin
All rights reserved.
Based on Markdown
Copyright (c) 2003-2005 John Gruber
All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
documentation and/or other materials provided with the
* Neither the name "Markdown" nor the names of its contributors may
be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
without specific prior written permission.
This software is provided by the copyright holders and contributors "as
is" and any express or implied warranties, including, but not limited
to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
particular purpose are disclaimed. In no event shall the copyright owner
or contributors be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special,
exemplary, or consequential damages (including, but not limited to,
procurement of substitute goods or services; loss of use, data, or
profits; or business interruption) however caused and on any theory of
liability, whether in contract, strict liability, or tort (including
negligence or otherwise) arising in any way out of the use of this
software, even if advised of the possibility of such damage.