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Footnotes Extension for Python-Markdown
Adds footnote handling to Python-Markdown.
See <>
for documentation.
Copyright The Python Markdown Project
License: [BSD](
from . import Extension
from ..blockprocessors import BlockProcessor
from ..inlinepatterns import InlineProcessor
from ..treeprocessors import Treeprocessor
from ..postprocessors import Postprocessor
from .. import util
from collections import OrderedDict
import re
import copy
import xml.etree.ElementTree as etree
FN_BACKLINK_TEXT = util.STX + "zz1337820767766393qq" + util.ETX
NBSP_PLACEHOLDER = util.STX + "qq3936677670287331zz" + util.ETX
RE_REF_ID = re.compile(r'(fnref)(\d+)')
class FootnoteExtension(Extension):
""" Footnote Extension. """
def __init__(self, **kwargs):
""" Setup configs. """
self.config = {
["///Footnotes Go Here///",
"The text string that marks where the footnotes go"],
"Avoid name collisions across "
"multiple calls to reset()."],
"The text string that links from the footnote "
"to the reader's place."],
"The text string that links from the reader's place "
"to the footnote."],
["Jump back to footnote %d in the text",
"The text string used for the title HTML attribute "
"of the backlink. %d will be replaced by the "
"footnote number."],
"Footnote separator."]
# In multiple invocations, emit links that don't get tangled.
self.unique_prefix = 0
self.found_refs = {}
self.used_refs = set()
def extendMarkdown(self, md):
""" Add pieces to Markdown. """
self.parser = md.parser = md
# Insert a blockprocessor before ReferencePreprocessor
md.parser.blockprocessors.register(FootnoteBlockProcessor(self), 'footnote', 17)
# Insert an inline pattern before ImageReferencePattern
FOOTNOTE_RE = r'\[\^([^\]]*)\]' # blah blah [^1] blah
md.inlinePatterns.register(FootnoteInlineProcessor(FOOTNOTE_RE, self), 'footnote', 175)
# Insert a tree-processor that would actually add the footnote div
# This must be before all other treeprocessors (i.e., inline and
# codehilite) so they can run on the the contents of the div.
md.treeprocessors.register(FootnoteTreeprocessor(self), 'footnote', 50)
# Insert a tree-processor that will run after inline is done.
# In this tree-processor we want to check our duplicate footnote tracker
# And add additional backrefs to the footnote pointing back to the
# duplicated references.
md.treeprocessors.register(FootnotePostTreeprocessor(self), 'footnote-duplicate', 15)
# Insert a postprocessor after amp_substitute processor
md.postprocessors.register(FootnotePostprocessor(self), 'footnote', 25)
def reset(self):
""" Clear footnotes on reset, and prepare for distinct document. """
self.footnotes = OrderedDict()
self.unique_prefix += 1
self.found_refs = {}
self.used_refs = set()
def unique_ref(self, reference, found=False):
""" Get a unique reference if there are duplicates. """
if not found:
return reference
original_ref = reference
while reference in self.used_refs:
ref, rest = reference.split(self.get_separator(), 1)
m = RE_REF_ID.match(ref)
if m:
reference = '%s%d%s%s' % (, int(, self.get_separator(), rest)
reference = '%s%d%s%s' % (ref, 2, self.get_separator(), rest)
if original_ref in self.found_refs:
self.found_refs[original_ref] += 1
self.found_refs[original_ref] = 1
return reference
def findFootnotesPlaceholder(self, root):
""" Return ElementTree Element that contains Footnote placeholder. """
def finder(element):
for child in element:
if child.text:
if child.text.find(self.getConfig("PLACE_MARKER")) > -1:
return child, element, True
if child.tail:
if child.tail.find(self.getConfig("PLACE_MARKER")) > -1:
return child, element, False
child_res = finder(child)
if child_res is not None:
return child_res
return None
res = finder(root)
return res
def setFootnote(self, id, text):
""" Store a footnote for later retrieval. """
self.footnotes[id] = text
def get_separator(self):
""" Get the footnote separator. """
return self.getConfig("SEPARATOR")
def makeFootnoteId(self, id):
""" Return footnote link id. """
if self.getConfig("UNIQUE_IDS"):
return 'fn%s%d-%s' % (self.get_separator(), self.unique_prefix, id)
return 'fn{}{}'.format(self.get_separator(), id)
def makeFootnoteRefId(self, id, found=False):
""" Return footnote back-link id. """
if self.getConfig("UNIQUE_IDS"):
return self.unique_ref('fnref%s%d-%s' % (self.get_separator(), self.unique_prefix, id), found)
return self.unique_ref('fnref{}{}'.format(self.get_separator(), id), found)
def makeFootnotesDiv(self, root):
""" Return div of footnotes as et Element. """
if not list(self.footnotes.keys()):
return None
div = etree.Element("div")
div.set('class', 'footnote')
etree.SubElement(div, "hr")
ol = etree.SubElement(div, "ol")
surrogate_parent = etree.Element("div")
# Backward compatibility with old '%d' placeholder
backlink_title = self.getConfig("BACKLINK_TITLE").replace("%d", "{}")
for index, id in enumerate(self.footnotes.keys(), start=1):
li = etree.SubElement(ol, "li")
li.set("id", self.makeFootnoteId(id))
# Parse footnote with surrogate parent as li cannot be used.
# List block handlers have special logic to deal with li.
# When we are done parsing, we will copy everything over to li.
self.parser.parseChunk(surrogate_parent, self.footnotes[id])
for el in list(surrogate_parent):
backlink = etree.Element("a")
backlink.set("href", "#" + self.makeFootnoteRefId(id))
backlink.set("class", "footnote-backref")
backlink.text = FN_BACKLINK_TEXT
if len(li):
node = li[-1]
if node.tag == "p":
node.text = node.text + NBSP_PLACEHOLDER
p = etree.SubElement(li, "p")
return div
class FootnoteBlockProcessor(BlockProcessor):
""" Find all footnote references and store for later use. """
RE = re.compile(r'^[ ]{0,3}\[\^([^\]]*)\]:[ ]*(.*)$', re.MULTILINE)
def __init__(self, footnotes):
self.footnotes = footnotes
def test(self, parent, block):
return True
def run(self, parent, blocks):
""" Find, set, and remove footnote definitions. """
block = blocks.pop(0)
m =
if m:
id =
fn_blocks = []
# Handle rest of block
therest = block[m.end():].lstrip('\n')
m2 =
if m2:
# Another footnote exists in the rest of this block.
# Any content before match is continuation of this footnote, which may be lazily indented.
before = therest[:m2.start()].rstrip('\n')
fn_blocks[0] = '\n'.join([fn_blocks[0], self.detab(before)]).lstrip('\n')
# Add back to blocks everything from beginning of match forward for next iteration.
blocks.insert(0, therest[m2.start():])
# All remaining lines of block are continuation of this footnote, which may be lazily indented.
fn_blocks[0] = '\n'.join([fn_blocks[0], self.detab(therest)]).strip('\n')
# Check for child elements in remaining blocks.
footnote = "\n\n".join(fn_blocks)
self.footnotes.setFootnote(id, footnote.rstrip())
if block[:m.start()].strip():
# Add any content before match back to blocks as separate block
blocks.insert(0, block[:m.start()].rstrip('\n'))
return True
# No match. Restore block.
blocks.insert(0, block)
return False
def detectTabbed(self, blocks):
""" Find indented text and remove indent before further proccesing.
Returns: a list of blocks with indentation removed.
fn_blocks = []
while blocks:
if blocks[0].startswith(' '*4):
block = blocks.pop(0)
# Check for new footnotes within this block and split at new footnote.
m =
if m:
# Another footnote exists in this block.
# Any content before match is continuation of this footnote, which may be lazily indented.
before = block[:m.start()].rstrip('\n')
# Add back to blocks everything from beginning of match forward for next iteration.
blocks.insert(0, block[m.start():])
# End of this footnote.
# Entire block is part of this footnote.
# End of this footnote.
return fn_blocks
def detab(self, block):
""" Remove one level of indent from a block.
Preserve lazily indented blocks by only removing indent from indented lines.
lines = block.split('\n')
for i, line in enumerate(lines):
if line.startswith(' '*4):
lines[i] = line[4:]
return '\n'.join(lines)
class FootnoteInlineProcessor(InlineProcessor):
""" InlinePattern for footnote markers in a document's body text. """
def __init__(self, pattern, footnotes):
self.footnotes = footnotes
def handleMatch(self, m, data):
id =
if id in self.footnotes.footnotes.keys():
sup = etree.Element("sup")
a = etree.SubElement(sup, "a")
sup.set('id', self.footnotes.makeFootnoteRefId(id, found=True))
a.set('href', '#' + self.footnotes.makeFootnoteId(id))
a.set('class', 'footnote-ref')
a.text = self.footnotes.getConfig("SUPERSCRIPT_TEXT").format(
list(self.footnotes.footnotes.keys()).index(id) + 1
return sup, m.start(0), m.end(0)
return None, None, None
class FootnotePostTreeprocessor(Treeprocessor):
""" Amend footnote div with duplicates. """
def __init__(self, footnotes):
self.footnotes = footnotes
def add_duplicates(self, li, duplicates):
""" Adjust current li and add the duplicates: fnref2, fnref3, etc. """
for link in li.iter('a'):
# Find the link that needs to be duplicated.
if link.attrib.get('class', '') == 'footnote-backref':
ref, rest = link.attrib['href'].split(self.footnotes.get_separator(), 1)
# Duplicate link the number of times we need to
# and point the to the appropriate references.
links = []
for index in range(2, duplicates + 1):
sib_link = copy.deepcopy(link)
sib_link.attrib['href'] = '%s%d%s%s' % (ref, index, self.footnotes.get_separator(), rest)
self.offset += 1
# Add all the new duplicate links.
el = list(li)[-1]
for link in links:
def get_num_duplicates(self, li):
""" Get the number of duplicate refs of the footnote. """
fn, rest = li.attrib.get('id', '').split(self.footnotes.get_separator(), 1)
link_id = '{}ref{}{}'.format(fn, self.footnotes.get_separator(), rest)
return self.footnotes.found_refs.get(link_id, 0)
def handle_duplicates(self, parent):
""" Find duplicate footnotes and format and add the duplicates. """
for li in list(parent):
# Check number of duplicates footnotes and insert
# additional links if needed.
count = self.get_num_duplicates(li)
if count > 1:
self.add_duplicates(li, count)
def run(self, root):
""" Crawl the footnote div and add missing duplicate footnotes. """
self.offset = 0
for div in root.iter('div'):
if div.attrib.get('class', '') == 'footnote':
# Footnotes should be under the first ordered list under
# the footnote div. So once we find it, quit.
for ol in div.iter('ol'):
class FootnoteTreeprocessor(Treeprocessor):
""" Build and append footnote div to end of document. """
def __init__(self, footnotes):
self.footnotes = footnotes
def run(self, root):
footnotesDiv = self.footnotes.makeFootnotesDiv(root)
if footnotesDiv is not None:
result = self.footnotes.findFootnotesPlaceholder(root)
if result:
child, parent, isText = result
ind = list(parent).index(child)
if isText:
parent.insert(ind, footnotesDiv)
parent.insert(ind + 1, footnotesDiv)
child.tail = None
class FootnotePostprocessor(Postprocessor):
""" Replace placeholders with html entities. """
def __init__(self, footnotes):
self.footnotes = footnotes
def run(self, text):
text = text.replace(
FN_BACKLINK_TEXT, self.footnotes.getConfig("BACKLINK_TEXT")
return text.replace(NBSP_PLACEHOLDER, "&#160;")
def makeExtension(**kwargs): # pragma: no cover
""" Return an instance of the FootnoteExtension """
return FootnoteExtension(**kwargs)